Stouffville, Canada
Stouffville, Canada

Time filter

Source Type

Hare J.E.,Kingfisher International Inc | Niemuller C.A.,Kingfisher International Inc | Petrick D.M.,Velcera Inc
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

This study evaluated the safety of meloxicam administered via transmucosal oral spray (TMOS) at 1, 2, 3 and 5 times the maximum proposed dose for 6 months in dogs. After baseline assessments, 40 Beagles (20 M, 20 F) were randomized to gender-balanced groups administered either water or meloxicam TMOS at 1, 2, 3 and 5 times the maximum proposed dose once daily for 26 weeks. Dogs were subjected to daily food consumption measurements and clinical and dose site observations. Periodic evaluations were made of body weight, physical examination, clinical pathology, urinalysis, buccal mucosal bleeding time (BMBT) and gastroduodenal endoscopy. At study completion, all dogs were subjected to gross necropsy. Histopathology was performed on tissues from dogs in groups 0X and 5X and from selected tissues in other dose groups. Clinical signs of previously reported NSAID-associated gastrointestinal upset were noted with higher frequency in meloxicam-dosed animals than in controls. Despite the presence of statistically significant effects on some clinicopathological variables, no toxicologically relevant dose-associated effects were determined on these or on food consumption, dose site observations, body weight, physical examination, urinalysis, BMBT, endoscopic examination or gross and histopathological examination of necropsy tissues. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Russell S.,Novartis | Tubbs L.,Novartis | McLelland D.J.,Zoos South Australia | LePage V.,University of Guelph | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2015

Amyloid associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma was discovered in two captive adult tricolour sharkminnows Balantiocheilus melanopterus Bleeker found dead in a freshwater display. Enlarged abdomens expanded by bloody ascitic fluid and grossly visible masses of abnormal tissue were present surrounding sections of the stomach and intestine. Histologically, the masses were composed of areas of well-organized exocrine pancreatic acini interspersed with cords of poorly differentiated, spindle-shaped cells that compressed and effaced normal parenchyma. These cells possessed small numbers of cytoplasmic zymogen granules; the exocrine nature of these cells was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fibrovascular connective tissue of the hepatopancreas and mesenteries was expanded by lightly eosinophilic, hyaline, homogeneous acellular material. Similar material greatly expanded the tunica media of large blood vessels in the hepatopancreas. After staining with Congo red or thioflavin T, this material exhibited red-green dichroism under polarized light or bright green fluorescence under ultraviolet light (255 nm), respectively. The non-branching fibrils, of indeterminate length, had an approximate diameter of 10-20 nm using TEM. Although exocrine pancreatic neoplasia is relatively common in fish, the presence of amyloid is not. To our current knowledge, the latter has not yet been described in association with a neoplastic lesion in fish. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Lueders I.,Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research | Taya K.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Taya K.,Gifu University | Watanabe G.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | And 11 more authors.
Biology of Reproduction | Year: 2011

Elephants express two luteinizing hormone (LH) peaks timed 3 wk apart during the follicular phase. This is in marked contrast with the classic mammalian estrous cycle model with its single, ovulation-inducing LH peak. It is not clear why ovulation and a rise in progesterone only occur after the second LH peak in elephants. However, by combining ovarian ultrasound and hormone measurements in five Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), we have found a novel strategy for dominant follicle selection and luteal tissue accumulation. Two distinct waves of follicles develop during the follicular phase, each of which is terminated by an LH peak. At the first (anovulatory) LH surge, the largest follicles measure between 10 and 19.0 mm. At 7 ± 2.4 days before the second (ovulatory) LH surge, luteinization of these large follicles occurs. Simultaneously with luteinized follicle (LUF) formation, immunoreactive (ir) inhibin concentrations rise and stay elevated for 41.8 ± 5.8 days after ovulation and the subsequent rise in progesterone. We have found a significant relationship between LUF diameter and serum ir-inhibin level (r 2 = 0.82, P < 0.001). The results indicate that circulating ir-inhibin concentrations are derived from the luteinized granulosa cells of LUFs. Therefore, it appears that the development of LUFs is a precondition for inhibin secretion, which in turn impacts the selection of the ovulatory follicle. Only now, a single dominant follicle may deviate from the second follicular wave and ovulate after the second LH peak. Thus, elephants have evolved a different strategy for corpus luteum formation and selection of the ovulatory follicle as compared with other mammals. © 2011 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.


Lueders I.,Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research | Drews B.,Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research | Niemuller C.,Kingfisher International Inc. | Gray C.,African Lion Safari | And 5 more authors.
Reproduction, Fertility and Development | Year: 2010

Early embryonic resorption or fetal loss is known to occur occasionally in captive elephants; however, this has mostly been reported anecdotally. The present study documents the case of a 24-year-old, multiparous Asian elephant cow that suffered embryonic death and resorption at around 18 weeks of gestation. From ovulation onwards, this female was sonographically examined 58 times. Blood was collected twice weekly for progestagen determination via enzyme immunoassay. On Day 42 after ovulation, a small quantity of fluid was detected in the uterine horn, which typically indicates the presence of a developing conceptus. Repeated inspections followed what appeared to be a normal pregnancy until Day 116. However, on Day 124, signs of embryonic life were absent. Progestagen concentrations started declining two weeks later, reaching baseline levels one month after embryonic death. Retrospectively, ultrasound examination revealed several abnormalities in the uterine horn. Besides an existing leiomyoma, multiple small cystic structures had formed in the endometrium at the implantation site and later in the placenta. These pathological findings were considered as possible contributors to the early pregnancy failure. PCR for endotheliotropic elephant herpes virus (EEHV) (which had occurred previously in the herd) as well as serology for other infectious organisms known to cause abortion in domestic animals did not yield any positive results. Although no definitive reason was found for this pregnancy to abort, this ultrasonographically and endocrinologically documented study of an early pregnancy loss provides important insights into the resorption process in Asian elephants. © 2010 CSIRO.


PubMed | Kingfisher International Inc
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics | Year: 2013

This study evaluated the safety of meloxicam administered via transmucosal oral spray (TMOS) at 1, 2, 3 and 5 times the maximum proposed dose for 6months in dogs. After baseline assessments, 40 Beagles (20M, 20F) were randomized to gender-balanced groups administered either water or meloxicam TMOS at 1, 2, 3 and 5 times the maximum proposed dose once daily for 26weeks. Dogs were subjected to daily food consumption measurements and clinical and dose site observations. Periodic evaluations were made of body weight, physical examination, clinical pathology, urinalysis, buccal mucosal bleeding time (BMBT) and gastroduodenal endoscopy. At study completion, all dogs were subjected to gross necropsy. Histopathology was performed on tissues from dogs in groups 0X and 5X and from selected tissues in other dose groups. Clinical signs of previously reported NSAID-associated gastrointestinal upset were noted with higher frequency in meloxicam-dosed animals than in controls. Despite the presence of statistically significant effects on some clinicopathological variables, no toxicologically relevant dose-associated effects were determined on these or on food consumption, dose site observations, body weight, physical examination, urinalysis, BMBT, endoscopic examination or gross and histopathological examination of necropsy tissues.

Loading Kingfisher International Inc collaborators
Loading Kingfisher International Inc collaborators