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Yang C.,Zhejiang University | Hu H.,Zhejiang University | Hu H.,Kingenta Ecological Engineering Group Co. | Ren H.,Shaanxi Normal University | And 15 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2016

LIR1 (LIGHT-INDUCED RICE1) encodes a 13-kD, chloroplast-targeted protein containing two nearly identical motifs of unknown function. LIR1 is present in the genomes of vascular plants, mosses, liverworts, and algae, but not in cyanobacteria. Using coimmunoprecipitation assays, pull-down assays, and yeast two-hybrid analyses, we showed that LIR1 interacts with LEAF-TYPE FERREDOXIN-NADP+ OXIDOREDUCTASE (LFNR), an essential chloroplast enzyme functioning in the last step of photosynthetic linear electron transfer. LIR1 and LFNR formed high molecular weight thylakoid protein complexes with the TIC62 and TROL proteins, previously shown to anchor LFNR to the membrane. We further showed that LIR1 increases the affinity of LFNRs for TIC62 and that the rapid light-triggered degradation of the LIR1 coincides with the release of the LFNR from the thylakoid membrane. Loss of LIR1 resulted in a marked decrease in the accumulation of LFNR-containing thylakoid protein complexes without a concomitant decrease in total LFNR content. In rice (Oryza sativa), photosynthetic capacity of lir1 plants was slightly impaired, whereas no such effect was observed in Arabidopsis thaliana knockout mutants. The consequences of LIR1 deficiency in different species are discussed. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Liu Z.-X.,Shandong Agricultural University | Liu Z.-X.,Kingenta Ecological Engineering Group Co. | Liu P.,Shandong Agricultural University | Jia X.-C.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2015

In order to investigate the effects of different irrigation and fertilization on soil microbial properties of summer maize field, we used ZN99 with high nitrogen use efficiency as the test material. The experiment adopted the split plot design which included two irrigation levels (526 mm and 263 mm) as the main plots, three fertilizer types (U, M, UM) and two fertilizer levels (N 100 kg·hm-2 and 200 kg·hm-2) as the subplots. The results showed that the irrigation level affected the regulating effects of fertilizer on soil microbial biomass (carbon and nitrogen) and microbial diversity. The organic fertilizer application must be under the sufficient irrigation level to increase the soil MBC (14.3%-33.6%), MBN(1.8-2.3 times) and abundance significantly. A moderate rate of irrigation, higher rates of organic fertilizer application or organic manure combined with inorganic fertilizer could increase the nitrogen-fixation species and quantity of Firmicutes, γ-Proteobacteria and α-Proteobacteria in the soil. Under the same N level, there was no significant difference of grain yield between organic manure and inorganic fertilizer treatments. Considering sustainable production, proper organic manure application with moderate irrigation could increase the quantity of the soil microbial biomass and microbial diversity, and improve the capacity of soil to supply water and nutrients. ©, 2015, Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology. All right reserved.

Wang H.-L.,Kingenta Ecological Engineering Group Co. | Wang H.-L.,National Engineering and Technology Research Center for Slow and Controlled Release Fertilizers | Gao L.-Y.,Kingenta Ecological Engineering Group Co. | Gao L.-Y.,National Engineering and Technology Research Center for Slow and Controlled Release Fertilizers | And 4 more authors.
Xiandai Huagong/Modern Chemical Industry | Year: 2015

Several traditional production processes of potassium sulfate are introduced. The clean production technology by low-temperature conversion of potassium sulfate and potassium chloride is highlighted. The market competitiveness of the products is also analyzed. © 2015, China National Chemical Information Center. All right reserved.

According to a recent market research report published by Transparency Market Research, the global controlled release fertilizers market is anticipated to expand at a CAGR of 5.6% during the period between 2016 and 2024. The report, titled “Controlled Release Fertilizers Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2016 - 2024,” projects the global controlled release fertilizers market to be worth US$3.92 bn by 2024. The overall market stood at a valuation of US$2.41 bn in 2015. Controlled release fertilizers are a type of enhanced efficiency fertilizers. These granulated fertilizers release nutrients gradually into the soil. Controlled release fertilizers are usually encapsulated or coated with inorganic or organic materials such as polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polysulfone (PSF), and cellulose acetate (CA). These materials regulate the pattern, rate, and duration of plant nutrient release from the fertilizers. Usually, controlled release fertilizers are used in horticulture and agriculture applications. The report states that the rapid growth in population worldwide has led to a gradual shift towards sustainable agriculture to ensure food security. As a result, the demand for fertilizers such as controlled release fertilizers has surged. However, the lack of awareness among farmers and the high cost of controlled release fertilizers compared to conventional chemical fertilizers are expected to hamper the growth of the global controlled release fertilizers market during the forecast period. The overall market has a huge potential to grow with prospective applications of controlled release fertilizers across lawns and gardens. On the basis of product type, the report has segmented the global controlled release fertilizers market into polymer coated urea, polymer sulfur coated urea/sulfur coated urea, polymer coated NPK fertilizer, and others including coated micronutrients. During the forecast period, polymer sulfur coated urea/sulfur coated urea is anticipated to dominate the overall market. This product segment held over 45% of the market in 2015. The report studies the global controlled release fertilizers market across five key regions: Latin America, Asia Pacific, the Middle East and Africa, North America, and Europe. In 2015, Asia Pacific emerged as the largest market for controlled release fertilizers, in terms of volume, closely followed by North America and Europe. The rapid growth of the Asia Pacific controlled release fertilizers market can be attributed to the growing demand from the horticultural and agricultural fields. During the forecast horizon, the market is anticipated to witness modest growth across Europe and North America. Describing the competitive landscape, the report profiles some of the key players in the global controlled release fertilizers market such as Greenfeed Agro Sdn. Bhd., ATS Group, The Scotts Miracle-Gro Company, Compo GMBH & Co. KG, HIF TECH SDN. BHD, Agrium Inc, Shikefeng Chemical Industry, Ekompany Agro B.V., AgroBridge (Malaysia), Agrium Inc, Haifa Chemicals ltd, ICL Specialty Fertilizers, Central Glass Co Ltd, Kingenta Ecological Engineering Group Co. Ltd., and The Chisso Corporation. Profiles of the market players include parameters such as financial overview, company overview, business strategies, and recent developments. Global controlled release fertilizers market has been segmented as: Transparency Market Research (TMR) is a global market intelligence company providing business information reports and services. The company’s exclusive blend of quantitative forecasting and trend analysis provides forward-looking insight for thousands of decision makers. TMR’s experienced team of analysts, researchers, and consultants use proprietary data sources and various tools and techniques to gather and analyze information. TMR’s data repository is continuously updated and revised by a team of research experts so that it always reflects the latest trends and information. With extensive research and analysis capabilities, Transparency Market Research employs rigorous primary and secondary research techniques to develop distinctive data sets and research material for business reports.

Gao X.,Shandong Agricultural University | Li C.,Shandong Agricultural University | Zhang M.,Shandong Agricultural University | Zhang M.,National Center for Quality Supervision and Testing of Fertilizers Shandong | And 3 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2015

Numerous studies on the traits of controlled release urea in agronomic production and the environmental protection were conducted in various crops system. However, understanding the effect of controlled release urea on potato production and nitrogen use efficiency was currently limited. In the present study, the effect of newly developed controlled release urea (CRU) including polymer coated urea (PCU) and polymer coating of sulfur-coated urea (PSCU) on the N use efficiency, tuber yield and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) that was grown on silt loamy soil were investigated in a field experiment over 2 yr at different sites. The application rate of polymer-coated urea (PCU) and urea was 150kgNha-1, and polymer sulfur-coated urea (PSCU) was applied at 150kgNha-1 and 225kgNha-1. The N release rates from CRU synchronized the N requirement of potatoes at different stages. The CRU treatments significantly increased total tuber yields by 8.77-19.88% in 2012 and 14.36-26.46% in 2013 in comparison with the urea treatment during the same year. The marketable tuber yield percentage was pronouncedly promoted by the application of PCU and PSCU in both years. N fertilization significantly enhanced the vitamin C, soluble protein and starch content. The significant difference of vitamin C concentration in tuber was only observed in 2013 between PCU and PSCU treatments. The application of PCU and PSCU markedly improved the N agronomic efficiency and apparent N use efficiency, but obviously decreased the N physiological efficiency relative to urea treatment in 2012 and 2013. Furthermore, enhancing dose of PSCU did augment total tuber yield and did not increase the marketable yield percentage, but decreased the apparent N use efficiency compared with PSCU treatment. Consequently, moderate amounts (150kgNha-1) of PSCU and PCU are recommended to replace urea for gaining greater yields of potato and nutrient use efficiency. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Geng J.,Shandong Agricultural University | Geng J.,Kingenta Ecological Engineering Group Co Ltd | Ma Q.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chen J.,Kingenta Ecological Engineering Group Co Ltd | And 7 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2016

Nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) fertilization play important roles for improving cotton yield, but no studies have been implemented to explain their interaction on yield, nitrogen use efficiency and physiological characteristics of cotton. In order to investigate the interaction effects of polymer coated urea (PCU) and S fertilization on the contents of inorganic N and available S, enzymes activities of leaves and yield of cotton, the field experiment with different types of N fertilizers and S rates was carried out in 2014 and 2015. The experiment consisted of two N fertilizer types including PCU and common urea fertilizer (Urea) in combination with three S rates (0, 60 and 120kgha-1) in the split-plot design, where the types of N fertilizer were the main plot and S rates were the subplots. The results indicated that the N release characteristic of PCU in field condition was closely matched to the N requirements of cotton, the contents of soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3 --N) and ammonium nitrogen (NH4 +-N) were significantly increased from the first bloom stage to the initial boll-opening stage by using PCU compared with urea. And the content of available S was significantly increased in full boll setting stage. Meanwhile, the number of bolls and lint yields of PCU were 7.03-8.91% and 5.54-11.17% higher than urea treatments. Lint yields were also increased 3.77-9.26% by S fertilization, evidencing a clear interaction between N and S, but no significant difference was observed between S60 and S120 treatments. In addition, the N apparent recovery use efficiency (RUE) and agronomic use efficiency (AUE) were increased, fiber length and strength were improved, the nitrate reductase and peroxidase activities and photosynthetic rates (Pn) were enhanced by PCU and S fertilization. However, the lint percentage, micronaire and fiber elongation were neither affected by the type of N fertilizers and S rates, nor by their interaction. Consequently, the application of PCU combined with 60kgha-1 sulfur fertilizer on cotton could not only increase the yield and nitrogen use efficiency but also improve the fiber quality and physiological properties of leaves. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Chen H.,Kingenta Ecological Engineering Group Co. | Hu Z.,Kingenta Ecological Engineering Group Co. | Li X.,Kingenta Ecological Engineering Group Co. | Zhang F.,Kingenta Ecological Engineering Group Co. | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2016

A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted with peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L., Fabceae) to evaluate iron compound fertilizers for improving within-plant iron content and correcting chlorosis caused by iron deficiency. Peanuts were planted in containers with calcareous soil fertilized with three different granular iron nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizers (ferrous sulphate (FeSO4)–NPK, Fe–ethylendiamine di (o-hydroxyphenylacetic) (EDDHA)–NPK and Fe–citrate–NPK). Iron nutrition, plant biomass, seed yield and quality of peanuts were significantly affected by the application of Fe–citrate–NPK and Fe–EDDHA–NPK to the soil. Iron concentrations in tissues were significantly greater for plants grown with Fe–citrate–NPK and Fe–EDDHA–NPK. The active iron concentration in the youngest leaves of peanuts was linearly related to the leaf chlorophyll (via soil and plant analyzer development measurements) recorded 50 and 80 days after planting. However, no significant differences between Fe–citrate–NPK and Fe–EDDHA–NPK were observed. Despite the large amount of total iron bound and dry matter, FeSO4–NPK was less effective than Fe–citrate–NPK and Fe–EDDHA–NPK to improve iron uptake. The results showed that application of Fe–citrate–NPK was as effective as application of Fe–EDDHA–NPK in remediating leaf iron chlorosis in peanut pot-grown in calcareous soil. The study suggested that Fe–citrate–NPK should be considered as a potential tool for correcting peanut iron deficiency in calcareous soil. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

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