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Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health science is the first public university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Middle East region specialized in health science. Its headquarters is in the main campus in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. It has two other campuses both in Jeddah and Al-Ahsa. All of the campuses are located inside the parameters of King Abdulaziz Medical cities, and are overseen by the Saudi National Guard Health Affairs. Wikipedia.

Aldosari B.,King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making | Year: 2012

Background: Compared with the increasingly widespread use of picture archiving and communication systems (PACSs), knowledge concerning users acceptance of such systems is limited. Knowledge of acceptance is needed given the large (and growing) financial investment associated with the implementation of PACSs, and because the level of user acceptance influences the degree to which the benefits of the systems for healthcare can be realized. Methods: A Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used to assess the level of acceptance of the host PACS by staff in the radiology department at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire survey of 89 PACS users was employed to obtain data regarding user characteristics, perceived usefulness (PU) (6 items), perceived ease of use (PEU) (4 items), a change construct (4 items), and a behavior (acceptance) construct (9 items). Respondents graded each item in each construct using five-point likert scales. Results: Surveyed users reported high levels of PU (4.33/5), PEU (4.15/5), change (4.26/5), and acceptance (3.86/5). The three constructs of PU, PEU, and change explained 41 % of the variation in PACS user acceptance. PU was the most important predictor, explaining 38 % of the variation on its own. The most important single item in the explanatory constructs was that users found PACS to have improved the quality of their work in providing better patient care. Technologists had lower acceptance ratings than did clinicians/radiologists, but no influence on acceptance level was found due to gender, age, or length of experience using the PACS. Although not directly measured, there appeared to be no cultural influence on either the level of acceptance or its determinants. Conclusions: User acceptance must be considered when an organization implements a PACS, in order to enhance its successful adoption. Health organizations should adopt a PACS that offers all required functions and which is likely to generate high PU on the part of its users, rather than a system that is easy to use. Training/familiarization programs should aim at establishing high levels of PU in all users, particularly technologists. Health organizations are advised to measure all the factors that influence the acceptance of a PACS by their staff, in order to optimize the productivity of the system and realize the potential benefits to the greatest extent possible. © 2012 Aldosari; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Al-Harbi K.S.,King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences
Patient Preference and Adherence | Year: 2012

Background: Patients with major depression respond to antidepressant treatment, but 10%-30% of them do not improve or show a partial response coupled with functional impairment, poor quality of life, suicide ideation and attempts, self-injurious behavior, and a high relapse rate. The aim of this paper is to review the therapeutic options for treating resistant major depressive disorder, as well as evaluating further therapeutic options. Methods: In addition to Google Scholar and Quertle searches, a PubMed search using key words was conducted, and relevant articles published in English peer-reviewed journals (1990-2011) were retrieved. Only those papers that directly addressed treatment options for treatment-resistant depression were retained for extensive review. Results: Treatment-resistant depression, a complex clinical problem caused by multiple risk factors, is targeted by integrated therapeutic strategies, which include optimization of medications, a combination of antidepressants, switching of antidepressants, and augmentation with non-antidepressants, psychosocial and cultural therapies, and somatic therapies including electroconvulsive therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetic seizure therapy, deep brain stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and vagus nerve stimulation. As a corollary, more than a third of patients with treatment-resistant depression tend to achieve remission and the rest continue to suffer from residual symptoms. The latter group of patients needs further study to identify the most effective therapeutic modalities. Newer biomarker-based antidepressants and other drugs, together with non-drug strategies, are on the horizon to address further the multiple complex issues of treatment-resistant depression. Conclusion: Treatment-resistant depression continues to challenge mental health care providers, and further relevant research involving newer drugs is warranted to improve the quality of life of patients with the disorder. © 2012 Al-Harbi, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

Alsolamy S.,King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences
Bioethics | Year: 2014

Withholding and withdrawing artificial nutrition and hydration from terminally ill patients poses many ethical challenges. The literature provides little information about the Islamic beliefs, attitudes, and laws related to these challenges. Artificial nutrition and hydration may be futile and reduce quality of life. They can also harm the terminally ill patient because of complications such as aspiration pneumonia, dyspnea, nausea, diarrhea, and hypervolemia. From the perspective of Islam, rules governing the care of terminally ill patients are derived from the principle that injury and harm should be prevented or avoided. The hastening of death by the withdrawal of food and drink is forbidden, but Islamic law permits the withdrawal of futile, death-delaying treatment, including life support. Nutritional support is considered basic care and not medical treatment, and there is an obligation to provide nutrition and hydration for the dying person unless it shortens life, causes more harm than benefit, or is contrary to an advance directive that is consistent with Islamic law. The decision about withholding or withdrawing artificial nutrition and hydration from the terminally ill Muslim patient is made with informed consent, considering the clinical context of minimizing harm to the patient, with input from the patient, family members, health care providers, and religious scholars. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Magoulas P.L.,Baylor College of Medicine | El-Hattab A.W.,King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases | Year: 2012

Systemic primary carnitine deficiency (CDSP) is an autosomal recessive disorder of carnitine transportation. The clinical manifestations of CDSP can vary widely with respect to age of onset, organ involvement, and severity of symptoms, but are typically characterized by episodes of hypoketotic hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, elevated transaminases, and hyperammonemia in infants; skeletal myopathy, elevated creatine kinase (CK), and cardiomyopathy in childhood; or cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias, or fatigability in adulthood. The diagnosis can be suspected on newborn screening, but is established by demonstration of low plasma free carnitine concentration (<5 μM, normal 25-50 μM), reduced fibroblast carnitine transport (<10% of controls), and molecular testing of the SLC22A5 gene. The incidence of CDSP varies depending on ethnicity; however the frequency in the United States is estimated to be approximately 1 in 50,000 individuals based on newborn screening data. CDSP is caused by recessive mutations in the SLC22A5 gene. This gene encodes organic cation transporter type 2 (OCTN2) which transport carnitine across cell membranes. Over 100 mutations have been reported in this gene with the c.136C>T (p.P46S) mutation being the most frequent mutation identified. CDSP should be differentiated from secondary causes of carnitine deficiency such as various organic acidemias and fatty acid oxidation defects. CDSP is an autosomal recessive condition; therefore the recurrence risk in each pregnancy is 25%. Carrier screening for at-risk individuals and family members should be obtained by performing targeted mutation analysis of the SLC22A5 gene since plasma carnitine analysis is not a sufficient methodology for determining carrier status. Antenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk of CDSP is possible by molecular genetic testing of extracted DNA from chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis if both mutations in SLC22A5 gene are known. Once the diagnosis of CDSP is established in an individual, an echocardiogram, electrocardiogram, CK concentration, liver transaminanses measurement, and pre-prandial blood sugar levels, should be performed for baseline assessment. Primary treatment involves supplementation of oral levocarnitine (L-carnitine) at a dose of 50-400 mg/kg/day divided into three doses. No formal surveillance guidelines for individuals with CDSP have been established to date, however the following screening recommendations are suggested: annual echocardiogram and electrocardiogram, frequent plasma carnitine levels, and CK and liver transaminases measurement can be considered during acute illness. Adult women with CDSP who are planning to or are pregnant should meet with a metabolic or genetic specialist ideally before conception to discuss management of carnitine levels during pregnancy since carnitine levels are typically lower during pregnancy. The prognosis for individuals with CDSP depends on the age, presentation, and severity of symptoms at the time of diagnosis; however the long-term prognosis is favorable as long as individuals remain on carnitine supplementation. © 2012 Magoulas and El-Hattab; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Alsolamy S.,Emergency Medicine and Critical Care | Alsolamy S.,King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2015

Objective: To provide a conceptual and clinical review of Middle East respiratory syndrome. Data Sources: Peer-reviewed articles were identified through searches of PubMed using the terms "Middle East respiratory syndrome," "coronavirus respiratory illness in Saudi Arabia," and "novel (beta) coronavirus and human coronavirus Erasmus Medical Center". In addition, articles were searched on the websites of the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention using the terms "Middle East respiratory syndrome" and "novel coronavirus in Middle East." The reference lists of these articles and relevant review articles were also reviewed. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Final references were selected for inclusion in the review on the basis of their relevance. Data Synthesis: The emerging Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus causes severe pulmonary disease with multiorgan involvement and a high fatality rate. Within months after its emergence, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus was reported in several countries worldwide in people who had traveled from the Middle East. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus is considered a zoonotic virus that has crossed the species barrier to humans, but the pathogenesis and the routes of transmission are not completely understood. There is currently no recommended treatment for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, although supportive treatment has played an important role. Conclusions: This syndrome has raised global public health concerns about the dissemination of an emerging infectious disease and highlights the need for a coordinated global response to contain such a disease threat. © 2015 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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