King Khalid University is a public university, distributed over several towns in the 'Asir Province in south-west Saudi Arabia, including Abha and al-Namas. On 26 July 1998, King Saud University and Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University merged to became King Khalid University. King Khalid University is a rapidly growing institution of higher education in Saudi Arabia. With around 70,000 students, it is one of the biggest centers of learning in the Middle East region with a reputation as a major provider of both further and higher education. The eLearning Center at KKU was established in 2005 as part of the university’s continuous efforts to provide the latest scientific methodologies to improve the educational process. Wikipedia.
Abu-Melha S.,King Khalid University
Archiv der Pharmazie | Year: 2013
2-Cyano-N-(4,6-dimethyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl)acetamide (2) was utilized as key intermediate for the synthesis of some new coumarin 3, pyridine 4, pyrrole 5, thiazole 8, pyrido[2′,3′:3,4]-pyrazolo-[5,1-c]triazine 7, and aminopyrazolo 10 compounds. 2-Cyano-N-(4,6-dimethyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b] pyridin-3-yl)-3-(dimethylamino)acrylamide (11) was synthesized and allowed to react with hydroxylamine, hydrazine, and guanidine to afford regioselectively the isoxazole 13, pyrazole 15, and pyrimidine 17 derivatives, respectively. The reaction of 11 with thiourea and/or with ethyl glycinate in basic medium afforded the regioisomeric pyrimidinethione 18 and 3,5-dioxo-1,4-diazepine-6- carbonitrile 23. All the synthesized products were tested and evaluated as antimicrobial agents. 2-Cyano-N-(4,6-dimethyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl) acetamide (2) was utilized as key intermediate for the synthesis of some new pyrazolopyridines. All the synthesized products were tested and evaluated as antimicrobial agents. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Suleiman M.H.A.,King Khalid University
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2015
Ethnopharmacological relevance The present study provides significant ethnopharmacological information on plant species used in North Kordofan region, western Sudan. The study was undertaken with an aim to document the medicinal uses of the species known to some Northern Kordofan communities. Material and methods The study was conducted between 2012 and 2013. The plants were identified and voucher specimens prepared. Information was collected by means of semi-structured interviews with 258 informants (195 men and 63 women). In addition, the use value (UV) of the species was determined and the informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants researched in the study. Further analysis was carried out to compare results with previous studies from the study area and other regions of Sudan. Results A total of 44 plant species representing 24 families were found to be commonly used in the treatment of 73 different human health problems. The families most represented were Leguminosae (18%), Caesalpiniaceae (9%), Malvaceae (9%), Asclepiadaceae (6.8%) and Combretaceae (6.8%). The highest number of plant species are used against digestive system disorders (23 species) followed by microbial infections (21 species) and dermatology (19 species). Among all the plant parts leaves (20%), roots (19%), fruits and bark (14% each) were the most preferred plant parts used by the informants. There was strong agreement among the informants as to the usages of the plants (informant consensus factor 0.63-0.93). The most important plants on the basis of use-value were Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal, Balanites aegyptiaca, Cassia occidentalis, Cassia senna, Guiera senegalensis and Tamarindus indica. Conclusion This study has helped to document information that may otherwise be lost to future generations. This is the first ethnobotanical study in which statistical calculations about plants are carried out by means of the ICF and UV methods in the study area. Plants with high ICF and UV values should be subjected for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation for scientific validation. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Irfan A.,King Khalid University
Materials Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2013
Density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT has been applied to shed light on the electronic properties, photophysical properties and electron injection in the photosensitizers 2-cyano-5-(4-(phenyl(4-vinylphenyl)amino) phenyl)penta-2,4-dienoic acid (TC4) and its derivatives. The ground state structures have been optimized by using DFT-B3LYP/6-31G** level of theory. The absorption spectra have been computed by using PCM-TDBHandHLYP/6-311 + G** level of theory. Generally, highest occupied molecular orbitals are delocalized on whole of the dye while lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals are localized on ligand C, conjugated chain and anchoring group. By substituting the vinyl at positions 3,3′ on A- and B-ligands leads toward red shift. The methoxy group as donor is better than the methyl which can improve the electron injection and coupling constant. The light harvesting efficiency of mono-methoxy derivative (11) would be comparable to TC4. The size effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) (nanoparticles) has been investigated on the electronic structure of the dye. By increasing the size of TiO2 intra-molecular charge transfer from dye to nanoparticles enhanced. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alkuraya F.S.,King Khalid University
Genetics in Medicine | Year: 2010
Consanguineous unions permit the "reunion" of ancestral chromosomal segments in a pattern referred to as "autozygosity," which is essentially a special form of homozygosity. This has long been exploited as a gene mapping tool because it is relatively easy to track a recessive mutation by the surrounding pattern of homozygous markers. The recent advent of single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays has rapidly replaced the historical use of microsatellites for this purpose. In this review, the author discusses other exciting opportunities offered by this unique arrangement of the human genome that range from pure clinical to functional genomic applications. The emerging field of whole genome sequencing promises to unlock much of the potential of the "autozygome.". © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Irfan A.,King Khalid University
Computational Materials Science | Year: 2014
The 4,6-di(thiophen-2-yl)pyrimidine has alternate pi-rich and pi-poor units. To reduce the HOMO-LUMO energy gap and improve the intra-molecular charge transfer pi-backbone has been elongated along with push-pull strategy. The ground state geometries have been optimized by using density functional theory. The frontier molecular orbitals, i.e., highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs) have been conferred. The absorption spectra have been computed by using time dependent density functional theory. On the basis of ionization potentials, electron affinities and reorganization energies charge transfer properties have been discussed. We tuned the electronic, photophysical and charge transfer properties of 4,6-di(thiophen-2-yl)pyrimidine derivatives. It is expected that new designed derivatives might be better/comparable to commonly used hole transfer material (pentacene). The smaller reorganization energies revealing that the electron transfer properties of new designed derivatives might be better/comparable to commonly used electron transfer materials (tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum). The structure-property relationship has been discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alfaleh K.,King Khalid University
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and nosocomial sepsis are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Through prevention of bacterial migration across the mucosa, competitive exclusion of pathogenic bacteria, and enhancing the immune responses of the host, prophylactic enteral probiotics (live microbial supplements) may play a role in reducing NEC and associated morbidity. To compare the efficacy and safety of prophylactic enteral probiotics administration versus placebo or no treatment in the prevention of severe NEC and/or sepsis in preterm infants. For this update, searches were made of MEDLINE (1966 to October 2010), EMBASE (1980 to October 2010), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2010), and abstracts of annual meetings of the Society for Pediatric Research (1995 to 2010). Only randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials that enrolled preterm infants < 37 weeks gestational age and/or < 2500 g birth weight were considered. Trials were included if they involved enteral administration of any live microbial supplement (probiotics) and measured at least one prespecified clinical outcome. Standard methods of the Cochrane Collaboration and its Neonatal Group were used to assess the methodologic quality of the trials, data collection and analysis. Sixteen eligible trials randomizing 2842 infants were included. Included trials were highly variable with regard to enrollment criteria (i.e. birth weight and gestational age), baseline risk of NEC in the control groups, timing, dose, formulation of the probiotics, and feeding regimens. Data regarding extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW) could not be extrapolated. In a meta-analysis of trial data, enteral probiotics supplementation significantly reduced the incidence of severe NEC (stage II or more) (typical RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.52) and mortality (typical RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.60). There was no evidence of significant reduction of nosocomial sepsis (typical RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.07). The included trials reported no systemic infection with the probiotics supplemental organism. The statistical test of heterogeneity for NEC, mortality and sepsis was insignificant. Enteral supplementation of probiotics prevents severe NEC and all cause mortality in preterm infants. Our updated review of available evidence supports a change in practice. More studies are needed to assess efficacy in ELBW infants and assess the most effective formulation and dose to be utilized.
Shehata M.S.,King Khalid University
Fuel | Year: 2013
Experimental studies have been carried out to investigate effects of biodiesel fuels on diesel engine performance, Carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NOX) emissions, exhaust gas temperature (TExhaust), oil temperature (TOil), wall temperature (TWall), and cylinder pressure with/without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Biodiesel fuels are prepared from cotton seed oil, palm oil and flax oil. All the measured parameters for biodiesel fuels are compared with the base diesel fuel with/without EGR for different engine speeds. Fuel inlet temperature of 120 °C gives minimum viscosity different between diesel and biodiesel fuels. Biodiesel fuels give slightly less brake power (BP), brake thermal efficiency ()/Bth) and slightly high brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and high fuel mass flow rate per cycle. Diesel fuel gives CO higher than biodiesel fuels due to less O atoms in fuel molecules. Biodiesel fuels give NOX higher than diesel fuel due to high oxygen content in biodiesel fuels molecules and cetane number (CN). As EGR increases, CO increases while NOX decreases due to decrease flame temperature and O2 in fresh air charge. For biodiesel fuels, TExhaust and TOil are higher than for diesel fuel. TWall for diesel fuel is higher than for all biodiesel fuels. Biodiesel fuels give peak cylinder pressure higher than diesel fuel. The position of peak cylinder pressure is arrangement as 11 crank angle degree (CAD) after top dead center (ATDC) for flax, 12 CAD ATDC for cotton, 14 CAD ATDC for palm and 20 CAD ATDC for diesel fuel respectively. The present work contributes in using biodiesel fuels as alternative fuel for diesel engines without major change for engines parts. For comparison between biodiesel and diesel fuels, the viscosity is not the main parameter affecting on engine performance and emissions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
AlFaleh K.,King Khalid University |
Anabrees J.,King Khalid University
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2014
SEARCH METHODS: For this update, searches were made of MEDLINE (1966 to October 2013), EMBASE (1980 to October 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (2013, Issue 10), and abstracts of annual meetings of the Society for Pediatric Research (1995 to 2013).SELECTION CRITERIA: Only randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials that enrolled preterm infants < 37 weeks gestational age or < 2500 g birth weight, or both, were considered. Trials were included if they involved enteral administration of any live microbial supplement (probiotics) and measured at least one prespecified clinical outcome.BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and nosocomial sepsis are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Through prevention of bacterial migration across the mucosa, competitive exclusion of pathogenic bacteria, and enhancing the immune responses of the host, prophylactic enteral probiotics (live microbial supplements) may play a role in reducing NEC and the associated morbidity.OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of prophylactic enteral probiotics administration versus placebo or no treatment in the prevention of severe NEC or sepsis, or both, in preterm infants.DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Standard methods of The Cochrane Collaboration and its Neonatal Group were used to assess the methodologic quality of the trials and for data collection and analysis.MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-four eligible trials were included. Included trials were highly variable with regard to enrolment criteria (that is birth weight and gestational age), baseline risk of NEC in the control groups, timing, dose, formulation of the probiotics, and feeding regimens. In a meta-analysis of trial data, enteral probiotics supplementation significantly reduced the incidence of severe NEC (stage II or more) (typical relative risk (RR) 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 0.56; 20 studies, 5529 infants) and mortality (typical RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.81; 17 studies, 5112 infants). There was no evidence of significant reduction of nosocomial sepsis (typical RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.03; 19 studies, 5338 infants). The included trials reported no systemic infection with the supplemental probiotics organism. Probiotics preparations containing either lactobacillus alone or in combination with bifidobacterium were found to be effective.AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Enteral supplementation of probiotics prevents severe NEC and all cause mortality in preterm infants. Our updated review of available evidence strongly supports a change in practice. Head to head comparative studies are required to assess the most effective preparations, timing, and length of therapy to be utilized.
Al-Amri A.M.,King Khalid University
American Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2014
Purpose To evaluate the long-term clinical outcomes of 0.1% tacrolimus dermatologic ointment (Protopic) in cases of refractory atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC). Design Prospective, nonrandomized, noncontrolled case series. Methods Twenty-two eyes from 11 patients with severe AKC who were treated with 0.1% tacrolimus ointment were followed prospectively. The mean age of the patients was 32.27 ± 12.7 years (range, 19-61 years). Each patient completed a follow-up period of at least 48 months, during which the signs and symptoms of AKC were assessed. Changes in the total scores of signs and symptoms from baseline were recorded at each visit, and the main outcome measure was the clinical response to topical tacrolimus treatment. Results Dramatic improvements in clinical signs and symptoms were achieved 1 week after starting topical tacrolimus treatment, and complete clinical resolution was observed in almost all patients 6 weeks after starting treatment. Treatment was gradually reduced, with increasing intervals between applications. Eight patients remained asymptomatic for up to 3 years, although recurrence occurred in 3 patients who attempted to discontinue treatment. All patients complained of a mild burning sensation upon application of the ointment. No additional medications were required to provide relief, and no patient discontinued treatment because of adverse drug effects. No drug-related ocular complications were encountered, and no significant changes in visual acuity or refraction were documented. Conclusions Tacrolimus dermatologic ointment is a potentially safe and effective treatment for AKC cases refractory to standard treatment and may substitute for steroid treatments aimed at controlling disease activity. © 2014 BY ELSEVIER INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Al-Qahtani A.S.,King Khalid University
American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy | Year: 2012
Background: Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is an effective surgical procedure to treat saccal and postsaccal stenosis or nasolacrimal duct obstruction. The use of silicone tube after endoscopic DCR is still controversial. A prospective randomized study was conducted to compare the success rate between the use of silicone stent and no use of silicone stent in endoscopic DCR. Methods: A prospective randomized study was conducted at Aseer Central Hospital and Abha Private Hospital, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, on all patients undergoing endoscopic DCR between July 1, 2006 and 30 June 30, 2010. Patients were allocated randomly for endoscopic DCR with or without stent. The data collection included age, sex, diagnosis, method, and duration of surgery. Patients were followed up postoperatively at 1 week, 1 month, and then every 3 months for 1 year. Results: During the period of the study a total of 173 cases of postsaccal stenosis underwent endoscopic DCR (67 male and 106 female subjects). The mean age was 51.8 years (range, 18-72 years). A stent was used in 92 patients (53.2%) and not used in 81 patients (46.8%). With silicone tubing the success rate was 96%, and without silicone tubing it was 91%, an overall success rate of 94%. The odds ratio of failure without a silicone tube was 3.25 but confidence interval was from 0.84 to 12.60 and the difference between these two groups was statistically not significant (p = 0.117). Conclusion: In this study, there was no statistically significant advantage of using endoscopic DCR with stent over the endoscopic DCR without stent. Copyright © 2012, OceanSide Publications, Inc.