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Borai A.,University of Surrey | Livingstone C.,University of Surrey | Shafi S.,University of Surrey | Zarif H.,King Khalid National Guard Hospital | Ferns G.,University of Surrey
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation | Year: 2010

Background: The standard frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) is an alternative procedure to the clamp technique for estimating the insulin sensitivity (Si) parameter. The goal of this study was to compare Si in lean and overweight individuals in addition to assessing intra-individual reproducibility using two different protocols and updated software. methods: FSIVGTT was carried out in 14 lean (BMI ≤ 25 kg/m2) and 14 overweight (BMI>25 kg/m2) subjects using two different protocols; full (29 samples) and short (12 samples). For reproducibility assessment four normal subjects (triplicate on three and twice on one) were recruited to undergo the same procedure at 1-week intervals. Data analysis was performed using COMAL and Minmod Millennium software. Results: Mean Si (10-4min -1[pmol/l]-1) values were significantly different between lean and overweight subjects (p < 0.001) but not between the two protocols using both software packages. For the full and short protocols, Si values were more closely related in lean versus overweight subjects using either COMAL (r 0.98, p < 0.001), (r 0.89, p < 0.001) or Minmod Millennium (r 0.99, p < 0.001), (r 0.85, p < 0.001) software respectively. The intra-individual reproducibility (%CV) of Si (COMAL) in full versus short protocol was 18.3 ± 11.1% and 13.7 ± 1.9% respectively. Reproducibility values for Si (Minmod Millenium) in full versus short protocols were 14.3 ± 3.8 and 14.9 ± 1.9% respectively. Conclusions: Si can be assessed accurately by a short protocol FSIVGTT in normal individuals. The short protocol may give less acceptable results for insulin sensitivity in individuals who have normal glucose tolerance but high BMI. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.

AlFaleh H.F.,King Saud University | Al Shamiri M.Q.,King Saud University | Ullah A.,King Saud University | AlHabib K.F.,King Saud University | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: Saudi Arabia has a non-Saudi workers population. We investigated the differences and similarities of expatriate non-Saudi patients (NS) and Saudi nationals (SN) presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with respect to therapies and clinical outcomes. Methods: The study evaluated 2031 of the 5055 ACS patients enrolled in the Saudi Project for Assessment of Acute Coronary Syndrome (SPACE) from 2005 to 2007. Propensity score matching and logistic regression analysis were performed to account for major imbalances in age and sex in the two groups. Results: The mean patient age was 56.2±9.8, and 83.5% of the study cohort were male. SN were more likely to have risk factors of atherosclerosis. ST-elevation MI (STEMI) was the most common ACS presentation in NS, while non-ST ACS was more common in SN. The median symptom-to-door time was significantly greater in NS patients (Median 175 min (197) vs. 130 min (167), p=0.027). The only difference in pharmacological therapies between the two groups was that NS were more likely to receive fibrinolytic therapy. NS were less likely than SN to undergo percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI; 32.6% vs. 42.8%, p=0.0001) or primary PCI (7.8% vs. 22.8%, p<0.001). Hospital mortality, cardiogenic shock, and heart failure were significantly higher in NS compared to SN. After adjusting for baseline variables and therapies, the odds ratios for hospital mortality and cardiogenic shock in NS were 2.9 (95% CI 1.5-6.2, p=0.004) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.5-4.9, p<0.001), respectively. Conclusion: Our findings indicate disparities in hospital care between NS and SN ACS patients. NS patients had worse hospital outcomes, which may reflect unequal health coverage and access-to-care issues. © 2015 AlFaleh et al.

Hersi A.S.,King Saud University | Alhabib K.F.,King Saud University | Al Faleh H.F.,King Saud University | Al Nemer K.,Security Forces Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Saudi Medicine | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mortality in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with ventricular arrhythmia (VA) has been shown to be higher than those without VA. However, there is a paucity of data on VA among ACS patients in the Middle Eastern countries. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study of patients admitted in 17 government hospitals with ACS between December 2005 and December 2007. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were categorized as having VA if they experienced either ventricular fibrillation (VF) or sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) or both. RESULTS: Of 5055 patients with ACS enrolled in the SPACE registry, 168 (3.3%) were diagnosed with VA and 151 (98.8%) occurred in-hospital. The vast majority (74.4%) occurred in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. In addition, males were twice as likely to develop VA than females (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.1- 3). Killip class >I (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.3-3.1); and systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg (OR 6.4; 95% CI 3.5-11.8) were positively associated with VA. Those admitted with hyperlipidemia (OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.3-0.7) had a lower risk of developing VA. Adverse in-hospital outcomes including re-myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, congestive heart failure, major bleeding, and stroke were higher for patients with VA (P≤.01 for all variables) and signified a poor prognosis. The in-hospital mortality rate was significantly higher in VA patients compared with non-VA patients (27% vs 2.2%; P=.001). CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital VA in Saudi patients with ACS was associated with remarkably high rates of adverse events and increased in-hospital mortality. Using a well-developed registry data with a large number of patients, our study documented for the first time the prevalence and risk factors of VA in unselected population of ACS.

Al-Harbi T.,King Khalid National Guard Hospital | Al-Shaikh A.,King Abdul Aziz Medical City KAMC Jeddah
Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2012

The syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypertension, hypokalemia, low renin, and hypoaldosteronism. It is caused by deficiency of 11 β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which results in a defect of the peripheral metabolism of cortisol to cortisone. As a consequence, the serum cortisol half-life (T 1/2 ) is prolonged, ACTH is suppressed, and serum cortisol concentration is normal. The hormonal diagnosis of the disorder is made by the increased ratio of urine-free cortisol to cortisone. In patients with AME, this ratio is 5 - 18, while in normal individuals it is < 0.5. These studies suggest that an abnormality in cortisol action or metabolism results in cortisol behaving as a potent mineralocorticoid and causing the syndrome of AME. We report three siblings - two female and one male - with the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess who presented with hypertension, hypokalemia, low renin, and low aldosterone levels. The finding of abnormally high ratios of 24-h urine-free cortisol to cortisone in our three patients (case 1, 8.4; case 2, 25; and case 3, 7.5) confirmed the diagnosis of apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome in these children. They were treated with oral potassium supplements. The addition of spironolactone resulted in a decrease in blood pressure, rise in serum potassium and a gradual increase in plasma renin activity in all three. In this study, the genetic testing of those three siblings with the typical clinical features of AME has detected missense mutation c.662C > T (p.Arg208Cys) in exon 3 of the HSD11B2 gene in the homozygous state.

Basakran N.S.,King Khalid National Guard Hospital
Saudi Medical Journal | Year: 2015

CD44 is a cellular protein that has been intensively studied in relation to carcinogenesis over the last decade. It is altered during inflammatory responses and cellular malfunctioning during tumor progression. Tumors of epithelial origin express CD44 in multiple isoforms called variants; some isoforms are related to specific cancer cells. An increase of CD44 specific isoforms is detected in certain leukemic proliferations. Most published data indicates a partial involvement of CD44 in cancer cells, either in invasiveness or self-renewability. However, there is still uncertainty regarding the exact mechanism by which CD44 participates in growth of cancer or the inflammatory response. This review focuses on CD44 prevalence in cancer cell. It considers tumorigenic behavior of cells that highly express CD44 as an early marker for neoplastic stem cell proliferation. We will discuss multiple examples of tumor in this paper, with an emphasis of 2 solid tumors; namely, breast and colon cancer. © 2015, Saudi Arabian Armed Forces Hospital. All rights reserved.

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