Time filter

Source Type

Basavaraj V.H.,Vydehi Institute of Medical science and Research Center | Sampath G.,King Institute of Preventive Medicine and Research | Hegde N.R.,Ella Foundation | Mohan V.K.,Bharat Biotech International Ltd. | Ella K.M.,Bharat Biotech International Ltd.
Vaccine | Year: 2014

The clinical evaluation of the MDCK-based H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine HNVAC in adults aged 18-65 years is reported. In the Phase I randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-centre study, 160 subjects were parallelly assigned 3:1 to vaccine:placebo groups (n= 60:20) with both the aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted vaccine formulations. A single dose of both the formulations containing 15 μg of haemagglutinin protein showed minimal adverse reactions, the most common of which were pain at injection site (11.67%) and fever (10.00%). Both formulations produced 74-81% seroprotection (SRP: titre of ≥40), 67-70% seroconversion (SRC: four-fold increase in titres between days 0 and 21), and a four-fold increase in geometric mean titres (GMT). Aluminium hydroxide did not have a significant effect either on immunogenicity or on reactogenicity. Nevertheless, based on its recognized positive effects on the stability and immunogenicity of many vaccines, and its marginal benefit in both pre-clinical and Phase I studies of HNVAC, alum adjuvanted HNVAC was further tested in a staggered Phase II/III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centre study of 200 and 195 subjects, respectively, parallelly assigned 4:1 to adjuvanted vaccine and placebo groups. In these studies, the most common adverse reactions were pain at injection site (6.88% and 5.77% in Stage 1 and Stage 2, respectively) and fever (7.50% and 7.05%, respectively), and a single dose resulted in 87-90% SRP, 85-86% SRC, and a nearly six-fold increase in GMT, meeting or exceeding licensing criteria. It is concluded that HNVAC is safe and immunogenic to adults of 18-65 years. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Thangam R.,Bharathiar University | Thangam R.,King Institute of Preventive Medicine and Research | Suresh V.,Annamalai University | Suresh V.,Plant Cell Technology Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2014

In this study the extraction of hot water soluble polysaccharides (HWSPs) from Cymbopogon citratus using hot water decoction was discussed. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a three level, three variable central composite rotatable design (CCRD), was employed to obtain best possible combination of extraction time (X1: 30-180min), extraction temperature (X2: 70-100°C) and water to the raw material ratio (X3: 10-60) for maximum HWSPs extraction. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: extraction time was around 113.81min, extraction temperature at 99.66°C and the ratio of water to raw material was 33.11g/mL. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 13.24±0.23%, which is well in close agreement with the value predicted by RSM model yield (13.19%). The basic characterization of HWSPs was determined by using the FTIR. These preliminary in vitro biological studies indicated that lemongrass polysaccharides were useful for anticancer therapy. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Vivek R.,Bharathiar University | Thangam R.,Bharathiar University | Thangam R.,King Institute of Preventive Medicine and Research | Nipunbabu V.,Bharathiar University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2014

This study was to investigate "smart" pH-responsive drug delivery system (DDS) based on chitosan nano-carrier for its potential intelligent controlled release and enhancing chemotherapeutic efficiency of Oxalipaltin. Oxaliplatin was loaded onto chitosan by forming complexes with degradable to construct nano-carrier as a DDS. Oxaliplatin was released from the DDS much more rapidly at pH 4.5 than at pH 7.4, which is a desirable characteristic for tumor-targeted drug delivery. Furthermore, the possible intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway was explored by Western blot. It was found that expression of Bax, Bik, cytochrome C, caspase-9 and -3 was significantly up-regulated while the Bcl-2 and Survivin were inhibited in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. For instance, nanoparticles inducing apoptosis in caspase-dependent manner indicate that chitosan nanoparticles could act as an efficient DDS importing Oxalipaltin to target cancer cells. These approaches suggest that "smart" Oxaliplatin delivery strategy is a promising approach to cancer therapy. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Prasanna R.,Presidency College at Chennai | Harish C.C.,King Institute of Preventive Medicine and Research
Oncology Research | Year: 2010

A novel compound 2-arylidene-4,7-dimethyl indan-1-one synthesized was screened for anticancer effect against the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line, MCF-7. An IC50 value of ≥ 80 μM, nontoxic to the normal breast cell line HBL-100, showed complete inhibition of the MCF-7 cells. Analysis of mechanisms showed nuclear fragmentation and DNA laddering in gel electrophoresis. GSH and GR levels were found to be reduced after the compound treatment. Cell cycle analysis using fluorescent cytometry revealed G 2/M phase arrest, which indicates the compound deserves consideration for further studies against cancer. Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp. Source

Bedford T.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Riley S.,Imperial College London | Riley S.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Barr I.G.,World Health Organization | And 26 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2015

Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of emergence and circulation of new human seasonal influenza virus variants is a key scientific and public health challenge. The global circulation patterns of influenza A/H3N2 viruses are well characterized, but the patterns of A/H1N1 and B viruses have remained largely unexplored. Here we show that the global circulation patterns of A/H1N1 (up to 2009), B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata viruses differ substantially from those of A/H3N2 viruses, on the basis of analyses of 9,604 haemagglutinin sequences of human seasonal influenza viruses from 2000 to 2012. Whereas genetic variants of A/H3N2 viruses did not persist locally between epidemics and were reseeded from East and Southeast Asia, genetic variants of A/H1N1 and B viruses persisted across several seasons and exhibited complex global dynamics with East and Southeast Asia playing a limited role in disseminating new variants. The less frequent global movement of influenza A/H1N1 and B viruses coincided with slower rates of antigenic evolution, lower ages of infection, and smaller, less frequent epidemics compared to A/H3N2 viruses. Detailed epidemic models support differences in age of infection, combined with the less frequent travel of children, as probable drivers of the differences in the patterns of global circulation, suggesting a complex interaction between virus evolution, epidemiology, and human behaviour. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Discover hidden collaborations