King Hussein Cancer Center

Amman, Jordan

King Hussein Cancer Center

Amman, Jordan
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Al Omar S.,King Hussein Cancer Center
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology | Year: 2017

BACKGROUND:: The aim of the study was to describe the incidence and type of bacterial infections associated with the use of ciprofloxacin prophylaxis as single agent in pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). PROCEDURE:: This was a retrospective review of all patients with AML, who were treated according to the AML02 protocol between 2011 and 2015. The medical records were reviewed for any positive cultures from the initiation of the protocol until death or protocol discontinuation. Patient demographics, type of infections, type of isolated bacteria, and intensive care unit admissions were recorded. RESULTS:: A total of 50 patients were evaluated, who were of a mean age of 8 years±5.1 (SD). We identified 77 episodes of bacterial infections in 42 (84%) patients. Among those bacterial infections, 73 episodes were with bacteremia and included 45 (62%) gram-positive bacterial infections, 24 (33%) gram-negative bacterial infections, and 4 (6%) mixed gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial infections. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Viridans streptococci were the most commonly isolated bacteria in 33% and 30% of the episodes, respectively. Seventeen (45%) patients with bacteremia required intensive care unit admission. CONCLUSIONS:: A high rate of bacterial infection was detected in patients who received the AML02 protocol, mainly gram-positive bacterial infections. The prophylactic regimen should be reconsidered for its efficacy, and other antibacterial prophylaxis may be used. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Younis E.,King Hussein Cancer center
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2017

Thyroid neoplasms encompass a variety of lesions that range from benign adenomas to malignancies. These latter can be well-differentiated, poorly differentiated or undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinomas. More than 95% of thyroid cancers are derived from thyroid follicular cells, while 2-3% (medullary thyroid cancers, MTC) originate from calcitonin producing C-cells. Over the last decade, investigators have developed a clearer understanding of genetic alterations underlying thyroid carcinogenesis. A number of point mutations and translocations are involved, not only in its tumorigenesis, but also as have potential use as diagnostic and prognostic indicators and therapeutic targets. Many occur in genes for several important signaling pathways, in particular the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Sporadic (isolated) lesions account for 75% of MTC cases, while inherited MTC, often in association with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A and 2B syndromes, constitute the remainder. However, non-MEN familial MTC may also occur. Advances in genetic testing have revolutionized the management of MTC, with prospects of genetic screening, testing and early prophylactic thyroidectomy. Ethical concerns of these advances are addressed.

Al-Loh S.,King Hussein Cancer Center | Al-Hussaini M.,King Hussein Cancer Center
Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2013

Undifferentiated endometrial carcinoma (UEC) is a relatively uncommon neoplasm with only few studies published thus far. It has always been a diagnostic challenge because of the lack of proper definition cited in most of the standard textbooks. Recently however, a few studies have highlighted the clinicopathologic features of UEC. The distinctive morphology of UEC was noted by the group from MD Anderson Cancer Center, which enabled them to establish the defining criteria. It appears to be more aggressive than endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma, FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) grade 3, its main differential diagnosis. Proper recognition of this entity is important owing to its aggressive behavior.

Korthof E.T.,Leiden University | Bekassy A.N.,Lund University | Hussein A.A.,King Hussein Cancer Center
Bone Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2013

The diagnosis of aplastic anemia in children requires exclusion of a variety of inherited or acquired BM failure syndromes with similar phenotypes. An efficient diagnostic plan is important because time from diagnosis to 'final' treatment is directly related to outcome regardless of the therapeutic option chosen. The gold standard of therapy remains hematopoietic SCT with a graft of BM cells for those children with matched sibling donors. Conversely for children without a sibling donor the high response and markedly improved overall survival rates of combined immunosuppressive therapy have proven robust, especially when horse derived anti-thymocyte globuline plus ciclosporine A are used. Incomplete response, relapse and progression to myelodysplasia/leukemia however have emerged as significant long-term issues. Improvements in outcome of alternative donor transplantation and the use of established and novel immunosuppressive agents provide multiple alternatives for treating refractory or relapsed patients. Regardless of the type of therapeutic approach, patients require centralized treatment in a center of excellence, ongoing monitoring for recurrence of disease and/or therapy-related immediate side effects and long-term effects. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Abdel-Razeq H.,King Hussein Cancer Center
Annals of Thoracic Medicine | Year: 2010

Venous thromboembolism (VTE), comprising life-threatening pulmonary embolism (PE) and its precursor deep-vein thrombosis (DVT), is commonly encountered problem. Although most patients survive DVT, they often develop serious and costly long-term complications. Both unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparins significantly reduce the incidence of VTE and its associated complications. Despite the evidence demonstrating significant benefit of VTE prophylaxis in acutely ill medical patients, several registries have shown significant underutilization. This underutilization indicates the need for educational and audit programs in order to increase the number of medical patients receiving appropriate prophylaxis. Many health advocacy groups and policy makers are paying more attention to VTE prophylaxis; the National Quality Forum and the Joint Commission recently endorsed strict VTE risk assessment evaluation for each patient upon admission and regularly thereafter. In the article, all major studies addressing this issue in medical patients have been reviewed from the PubMed. The current status of VTE prophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients is addressed and some improvement strategies are discussed.

Al-Khateeb J.M.,University of Jordan | Al-Khateeb A.J.,King Hussein Cancer Center
Epilepsy and Behavior | Year: 2014

This study reviewed research conducted on the psychological aspects of epilepsy in Arab countries. Several databases (Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, and PsycInfo) were searched using the following two sets of search words: (1) Arab, Jordan, Lebanon, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Yemen, Tunisia, Libya, Morocco, Algiers, Palestine, Mauritania, Djibouti, Sudan, Comoros, and Somalia; and (2) epilepsy, seizure disorders, and convulsive disorders. Fifty-one studies were conducted in 12 Arab states. Social/emotional, employment, and other problems; knowledge and attitudes; and quality of life (QOL) were the most commonly measured parameters of psychosocial aspects of epilepsy in Arab countries. Results revealed elevated levels of depression and anxiety, a decline in cognitive function, various behavioral problems, sexual dysfunction, and underemployment among persons with epilepsy (PWE). Misconceptions about epilepsy were found to be prevalent. While many studies reported limited knowledge of epilepsy, some studies found an average knowledge. Negative attitudes toward epilepsy were reported in most studies, and moderately positive attitudes were reported in some studies. Finally, PWE showed low overall QOL scores in the majority of studies. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

To describe the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) activities for children in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) region, data on transplants performed for children less than 18 years of age between 1984 and 2011 in eight EM countries (Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia) were collected. A total of 5187 transplants were performed, of which 4513 (87%) were allogeneic and 674 (13%) were autologous. Overall, the indications for transplantation were malignant diseases in 1736 (38.5%) and non-malignant in 2777 (61.5%) patients. A myeloablative conditioning regimen was used in 88% of the allografts. Bone marrow (BM) was the most frequent source of stem cells (56.2%), although an increasing use of PBSC was observed in the last decade. The stem cell source of autologous HSCT has shifted over time from BM to PBSC, and 80.9% of autologous HSCTs were from PBSCs. The donors for allogeneic transplants were matched-related in 94.5% of the cases, and unrelated transplants, mainly cord blood (99%) in 239 (5.5%) cases. This is the first report to describe the pediatric HSCT activities in EM countries. Non-malignant disorders are the main indication for allogeneic transplantation. Frequency of alternate donor transplantation is low.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 12 September 2016; doi:10.1038/bmt.2016.209. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature.

Elbjeirami W.M.,Applied Genomics | Abdel-Rahman F.,King Hussein Cancer Center | Hussein A.A.,King Hussein Cancer Center
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2013

Information regarding the probability of finding HLA-matched related donor for a patient awaiting hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in developing countries is scanty. We performed a retrospective review of HLA genotypes and related data for 1254 consecutive patients and their families at King Hussein Cancer Center in Amman, Jordan, between 2003 and 2011 to evaluate the chance of finding HLA-matched donor. The median family size was 5 for all patients in the study (range, 1-14), and the average number of donors was 1.4 ± 0.9 for pediatric patients and 1.6 ± 0.9 for adults. Overall, the probability of finding an HLA-matched related donor at our center was 65.5% (60.6% in pediatric patients and 74% in adults). Of the total identified donors, 18% were nonsibling donors after an immediate and/or extended family search in the pediatric group, and 6% were nonsibling donors in the adult group. Overall, 13% of donors were nonsibling donors. We conclude that the probability of finding a matched related donor for HSCT in Jordan is much higher than that reported in Western countries and Asia (65% versus 25%). We expect a similar trend in other developing and Arab countries. We recommend integrating an extended family search before or concomitantly with an unrelated donor search. © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Salah S.,King Hussein Cancer Center | Tanvetyanon Tawee T.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute | Abbasi S.,King Hussein Cancer Center
Lung Cancer | Year: 2012

Back ground: Although patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have a poor prognosis, a subset of patients with solitary brain or adrenal metastasis have more favorable outcome following surgical resection. Nevertheless, the outcome and predictive factors for survival following metastatectomy for patients with other metastatic sites are not well defined. Methods: We performed a systematic review using PUBMED database for all articles which included patients with NSCLC and solitary metastasis to sites other than the adrenal gland or the brain who had undergone resection of their metastasis and definitive treatment of the primary lung cancer. Potential prognostic factors on survival including age, sex, histology, T and N stage of the primary tumor, synchronous vs. metachronous presentation, visceral vs. non-visceral metastasis and the use of perioperative chemotherapy were analyzed using multi-variable Cox proportional hazard model. Results: 62 cases were eligible for the analysis. The 5-year survival rate was 50% for the entire cohort. Mediastinal lymph node involvement was independently predictive of inferior outcome; 5-year survival rate 0% vs. 64% in favor of no involvement, p< 0.001. Similarly, patients with intra-thoracic stage III disease had an inferior outcome compared to patients with stage II and stage I disease: 5-year survival rate 0% vs. 77% and 63%, respectively, p< 0.001. Other factors have no effect on outcome. Conclusion: Selected patients with distant metastatic NSCLC can achieve long term survival following metastatectomy and definitive treatment of the primary tumor. Mediastinal lymph node involvement is associated with poor prognosis. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Elbjeirami W.M.,King Hussein Cancer Center
Kidney International | Year: 2011

Interstitial fibrosis plays a major role in the progression of renal diseases. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) ligands are increasingly explored for their potential to reverse or halt tubulointerstitial fibrosis. This Commentary discusses new findings by Boor et al., who show that BAY PP1, a novel PPAR-α agonist, ameliorates renal fibrosis and dysfunction. © 2011 International Society of Nephrology.

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