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Sydenham, South Africa

O'Donnell M.R.,Yeshiva University | O'Donnell M.R.,Center for Programme of Research in South Africa | Zelnick J.,Touro College | Werner L.,Center for Programme of Research in South Africa | And 4 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

To determine whether women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, with drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) were more likely than men to have extensively drug-resistant TB, we reviewed 4,514 adults admitted during 2003-2008 for drug-resistant TB. Female sex independently predicted extensively drug-resistant TB, even after we controlled for HIV infection. This association needs further study.

O'Donnell M.R.,Yeshiva University | O'Donnell M.R.,Center for Programme of Research in South Africa | Padayatchi N.,Center for Programme of Research in South Africa | Padayatchi N.,Boston University | And 5 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

High mortality rates have been reported for patients co-infected with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) and HIV, but treatment outcomes have not been reported. We report treatment outcomes for adult XDR TB patients in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Initial data were obtained retrospectively, and outcomes were obtained prospectively during 24 months of treatment. A total of 114 XDR TB patients were treated (median 6 drugs, range 3-9 drugs) 82 (73%) were HIV positive and 50 (61%) were receiving antiretroviral therapy. After receiving treatment for 24 months, 48 (42%) of 114 patients died, 25 (22%) were cured or successfully completed treatment, 19 (17%) withdrew from the study, and 22 (19%) showed treatment failure. A higher number of deaths occurred among HIV-positive patients not receiving antiretroviral therapy and among patients who did not show sputum culture conversion. Culture conversion was a major predictor of survival but was poorly predictive (51%) of successful treatment outcome.

Shenoi S.V.,Yale University | Brooks R.P.,Philanjalo Care Center | Barbour R.,Yale University | Altice F.L.,Yale University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a major threat to global public health. Patients with extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB), particularly those with HIV-coinfection, experience high and accelerated mortality with limited available interventions. To determine modifiable factors associated with survival, we evaluated XDR-TB patients from a community-based hospital in rural South Africa where a large number of XDR-TB cases were first detected. Methodology/Principal Findings: A retrospective case control study was conducted of XDR-TB patients diagnosed from 2005-2008. Survivors, those alive at 180 days from diagnostic sputum collection date, were compared with controls who died within 180 days. Clinical, laboratory and microbiological correlates of survival were assessed in 69 survivors (median survival 565 days [IQR 384-774] and 73 non-survivors (median survival 34 days [IQR 18-90]). Among 129 HIV+ patients, multivariate analyses of modifiable factors demonstrated that negative AFB smear (AOR 8.4, CI 1.84-38.21), a lower laboratory index of routine laboratory findings (AOR 0.48, CI 0.22-1.02), CD4>200 cells/mm 3 (AOR 11.53, 1.1-119.32), and receipt of antiretroviral therapy (AOR 20.9, CI 1.16-376.83) were independently associated with survival from XDR-TB. Conclusions/Significance: Survival from XDR-TB with HIV-coinfection is associated with less advanced stages of both diseases at time of diagnosis, absence of laboratory markers indicative of multiorgan dysfunction, and provision of antiretroviral therapy. Survival can be increased by addressing these modifiable risk factors through policy changes and improved clinical management. Health planners and clinicians should develop programmes focusing on earlier case finding and integration of HIV and drug-resistant TB diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive activities. © 2012 Shenoi et al.

Padayatchi N.,Center for Programme of Research in South Africa | Daftary A.,Center for Programme of Research in South Africa | Daftary A.,University of Toronto | Moodley T.,Center for Programme of Research in South Africa | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCWs) are at greater risk for tuberculosis (TB), including multidrugresistant TB (MDR-TB), compared to the general population. The psychosocial impact of nosocomial TB on HCWs has received little attention in the literature. METHODS: A retrospective medical record review from 1999 to 2003 found 15 HCWs who were treated for drug-resistant TB at a specialist hospital in South Africa. Five human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative doctors with no predisposing factors for drug resistance are included in this case series. We collectively present their clinical case histories based on medical records from 2000 to 2005, and explore the long-term psychosocial impact of TB from interviews conducted in 2009. RESULTS: Four doctors had primary MDR-TB and one had primary resistance to multiple first-line drugs. Time from symptom onset to commencement of effective treatment ranged from 8 to 39 weeks. Time for bacteriological confirmation of drug-resistant TB ranged from 6 to 24 weeks. All were cured within 3 years of initial presentation. Content analysis of follow-up interviews revealed five main themes: 1) prolonged morbidity, 2) psychological impact, 3) poor infection control, 4) weak support structures and 5) attrition from the field. CONCLUSION: Themes emergent from this case series encourage prioritisation of TB infection control education and practice to minimise HCW morbidity and prevent HCW attrition from high-burden resource-constrained settings. © 2010 The Union.

Thomas T.A.,Tugela Ferry Care and Research Collaboration | Thomas T.A.,Yale University | Thomas T.A.,University of Virginia | Shenoi S.V.,Tugela Ferry Care and Research Collaboration | And 13 more authors.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2010

SETTING: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDRTB) has been documented worldwide, but reports of XDR-TB in children are extremely limited. OBJECTIVE: To report the characteristics of pediatric XDR-TB patients in rural South Africa. DESIGN: We retrospectively reviewed children with sputum culture-confirmed XDR-TB from Tugela Ferry, South Africa, from January 2006 to December 2007. Demographic, clinical and microbiologic data were abstracted from medical records. RESULTS: Four children aged 6-8 years with XDR-TB were reviewed. Two had previous histories of TB. All were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected orphans; three received highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) before XDR-TB diagnosis. All had clinical and radiographic improvement and sputum culture conversion while on standardized XDR-TB treatment and HAART. Two tolerated concomitant XDR-TB and HIV treatment well. Two experienced neuropsychiatric side effects related to cycloserine. All have survived >24 months and all were cured. Prior to XDR-TB diagnosis, the children had resided in the hospital's pediatric ward for a median of 8 months (range 5-17), including a 3-month overlapping period. CONCLUSIONS: XDR-TB is a microbiologic diagnosis that, even with HIV co-infection, can be successfully identified. Concurrent XDR-TB and HIV therapy is feasible and effective in children, although more research is needed into potential overlapping toxicities. Nosocomial transmission is suggested, calling for infection control policies in pediatric wards. © 2010 The Union.

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