Jasani B.,King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women
Journal of Perinatology | Year: 2017
Objective:A systematic review (2005) of observational studies has reported 87% reduction in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) after introducing standardized feeding regimen (SFR) in preterm infants. Considering the many new studies in this field since 2005 and the continued health burden of NEC, we aimed to systematically review the incidence of NEC in preterm infants ‘before’ vs ‘after’ implementing a SFR.Study Design:PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and E-abstracts from the Pediatric Academic Society meetings and other pediatric and neonatal conference proceedings were searched in May 2016. Observational studies reporting incidence of NEC before and after implementing a SFR were included. Relevant data were extracted independently by two reviewers. Meta-analysis was conducted using random effects model (REM) and results rechecked with fixed effects model.Results:Pooled results from 15 observational studies (N=18 160) using REM showed that SFR significantly reduced the incidence of NEC (risk ratio 0.22; 95% confidence interval 0.13 to 0.36; P<0.00001; I2=74%). The results remained significant after comparing studies in two epochs (1978 to 2003 vs 2004 to 2016).Conclusion:SFR continues to be an important tool in prevention of NEC in preterm infants.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 30 March 2017; doi:10.1038/jp.2017.37. © 2017 Nature America, Inc., part of Springer Nature.
Paech M.J.,University of Western Australia |
Doherty D.A.,University of Western Australia |
Doherty D.A.,Women and Infants Research Foundation |
Christmas T.,King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women |
Wong C.A.,Northwestern University
Anesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2011
Background: Our aim in this multinational, multicenter, randomized, blinded trial was to determine the optimum of 3 volumes of autologous blood for an epidural blood patch. Methods: Obstetric patients requiring epidural blood patch after unintentional dural puncture during epidural catheter insertion were allocated to receive 15, 20, or 30 mL of blood, stratified for the timing of epidural blood patch and center. Participants were followed for 5 days. The primary study end point was a composite of permanent or partial relief of headache, and secondary end points included permanent relief, partial relief, persisting headache severity, and low back pain during or after the procedure. Results: One hundred twenty-one women completed the study. The median (interquartile range) volume administered was 15 (15-15), 20 (20-20), and 30 (22-30) mL, with 98%, 81%, and 54% of groups 15, 20, and 30 receiving the allocated volume. Among groups 15, 20, and 30, respectively, the incidence of permanent or partial relief of headache was 61%, 73%, and 67% and that of complete relief of headache was 10%, 32%, and 26%. The 0- to 48-hour area under the curve of headache score versus time was highest in group 15. The incidence of low back pain during or after the epidural blood patch was similar among groups and was of low intensity, although group 15 had the highest postprocedural back pain scores. Serious morbidity was not reported. Conclusions: Although the optimum volume of blood remains to be determined, we believe these findings support an attempt to administer 20 mL of autologous blood when treating postdural puncture headache in obstetric patients after unintentional dural puncture. © 2011 International Anesthesia Research Society.
Deshpande G.,King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women |
Deshpande G.,Princess Margaret Hospital for Children |
Rao S.,King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women |
Rao S.,Princess Margaret Hospital for Children |
And 3 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2010
OBJECTIVE: Systematic reviews of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) indicate lower mortality and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and shorter time to full feeds after probiotic supplementation in preterm (<34 weeks' gestation) very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight <1500 g) neonates. The objective of this study was to update our 2007 systematic review of RCTs of probiotic supplementation for preventing NEC in preterm VLBW neonates. METHODS: We searched in March 2009 the Cochrane Central register; Medline, Embase, and Cinahl databases; and proceedings of the Pediatric Academic Society meetings and gastroenterology conferences. Cochrane Neonatal Review Group search strategy was followed. Selection criteria were RCTs of any enteral probiotic supplementation that started within first 10 days and continued for ≥7 days in preterm VLBW neonates and reported on stage 2 NEC or higher (Modified Bell Staging). RESULTS: A total of 11 (N = 2176), including 4 new (n = 783), trials were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis by using a fixed-effects model. The risk for NEC and death was significantly lower. Risk for sepsis did not differ significantly. No significant adverse effects were reported. Trial sequential analysis) showed 30% reduction in the incidence of NEC (α = .05 and .01; power: 80%). CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the significant benefits of probiotic supplements in reducing death and disease in preterm neonates. The dramatic effect sizes, tight confidence intervals, extremely low P values, and overall evidence indicate that additional placebo-controlled trials are unnecessary if a suitable probiotic product is available. Copyright © 2010 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Green L.K.,King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women |
Paech M.J.,King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia | Year: 2010
Background: Clinically overt infections of the epidural catheter skin entry site occur in approximately 1-5% of patients after a few days of catheterization but serious complications such as deep tissue infection or epidural abscess appear rare in the obstetric population. In recent years, sporadic reports and small series suggest that the incidence may be higher than previously estimated. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted to identify epidural catheter-related infections occurring between January 2002 and December 2005 in a tertiary referral maternity hospital delivering between 4000 and 6000 women per annum. Cases were identified using International Statistical Classification of Diseases coding. Results: In total 9482 women (52.8%) who delivered had an epidural catheter inserted. There were 258 cases with the relevant code identified and 49 (0.52%, 95% CI 0.37-0.66%) had epidural catheter-related infection. Four women had deep tissue infection (incidence 0.04%, 95% CI 0.01-0.11%; rate 1 in 4741), represented by paraspinous and epidural abscess formation (incidence of both 0.02%, 95% CI 0-0.08%; rate 1 in 2371). Three of the cases are described. Conclusions: Serious epidural catheter-related infection in obstetric patients is rare, but our incidence of serious deep tissue infection was at the upper extreme of figures quoted in other studies. Crown Copyright © 2009.
Rakshasbhuvankar A.A.,King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women |
Patole S.K.,King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women |
Patole S.K.,University of Western Australia
Resuscitation | Year: 2014
Background: Simulation-based training (SBT) is being more frequently recommended for neonatal resuscitation education (NRE). It is important to assess if SBT improves clinical outcomes as neonatal resuscitation aims to improve survival without long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. We aimed to assess the evidence supporting benefits of SBT in NRE. Method: A systematic review was conducted using the Cochrane methodology. PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo and Cochrane databases were searched. Related abstracts were scanned and full texts of the potentially relevant articles were studied. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) and quasi-experimental studies with controls (non-RCT) assessing SBT for NRE were eligible for inclusion in the review. Results: Four small studies [three RCT (. n=. 126) and one non-RCT (. n=. 60)] evaluated SBT for NRE. Participants included medical students (one RCT and one non-RCT), residents (one RCT) and nursing staff (one RCT). Outcomes included performance in a simulation scenario, theoretical knowledge, and confidence in leading a resuscitation scenario. One RCT favoured simulation [improved resuscitation score (. p=. 0.016), 2.31 more number of critical actions (. p=. 0.017) and decreased time to achieve resuscitation steps (. p=. <0.001)]. The remaining two RCTs and the non-RCT did not find any difference between SBT and alternate methods of instruction. None of the four studies reported clinical outcomes. Conclusions: Evidence regarding benefits of SBT for NRE is limited. There are no data on clinical outcomes following SBT for NRE. Large RCTs assessing clinically important outcomes are required before SBT can be recommended widely for NRE. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Collins N.F.,King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women |
Bloor M.,King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women |
McDonnell N.J.,King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia | Year: 2013
Rotational thromboelastometry is a viscoelastomeric, point-of-care method for testing haemostasis in whole blood which can be visualised rapidly, in real time, in the operating theatre. Advantages over traditional coagulation tests relate to the rapid feedback of results and the ability to visualise hyperfibrinolysis. We present a case of suspected amniotic fluid embolism that presented with sudden respiratory arrest associated with haemodynamic compromise during a non-elective caesarean delivery. Soon after the collapse, coagulopathy developed. Rotational thromboelastometry showed hyperfibrinolysis and hypofibrinogenaemia, which allowed targeted coagulation factor replacement therapy and the use of tranexamic acid. Hyperfibrinolysis may be a contributor to the coagulopathy associated with amniotic fluid embolism but has been infrequently reported, perhaps due to limited diagnosis with traditional coagulation tests. Treatment of the coagulopathy associated with a suspected amniotic fluid embolism with antifibrinolytic agents may deserve greater consideration.
Deshpande G.,Nepean Hospital |
Deshpande G.,University of Western Australia |
Simmer K.,University of Western Australia |
Simmer K.,King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care | Year: 2011
Purpose of Review: In neonatal intensive care units, the interest and scope for research in the field of intravenous lipids has significantly widened in recent years. This brief review covers the advances in this field in the last 2 years. Recent Findings: These include a significant amount of research in evaluating safety and efficacy of novel lipid emulsions that include olive oil or fish oil. Short-term studies involving novel lipid emulsions have documented safety and benefits in terms of reduced inflammation and lipid peroxidation. Fish oil-based lipid emulsions have also been used to prevent and treat parenteral nutrition-induced cholestasis. Other areas of progress include stability studies of all-in-one parenteral nutrition mixtures including lipid emulsions for neonates. Summary: Since the first soybean oil-based lipid emulsions were introduced 50 years ago, progress has been made in understanding the composition, dose and clinical effects of parenteral lipids in neonatal patients. However there is a paucity of data in terms of definitive head-to-head trials of different novel lipid emulsions evaluating short-term as well as long-term clinically important outcomes including neurodevelopment. Future research is required to determine long-term benefits of novel lipid emulsions for neurological outcome and effects on the immune system. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Bloor M.,King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women |
Paech M.,King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women
Anesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2013
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and aspirin, which are available as "over-the counter" medications in most countries, are widely used by both pregnant and lactating women. They are popular non-opioid analgesics for the treatment of pain after vaginal and operative delivery. In addition, NSAIDs are used for tocolysis in premature labor, and low-dose aspirin has a role in the prevention of preeclampsia and recurrent miscarriage in antiphospholipid syndrome. NSAIDs and aspirin may affect fertility and increase the risk of early pregnancy loss. In the second trimester their use is considered reasonably safe, but has been associated with fetal cryptorchism. In the third trimester, NSAIDs and aspirin are usually avoided because of significant fetal risks such as renal injury, oligohydramnios, constriction of the ductus arteriosus (with potential for persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn), necrotizing enterocolitis, and intracranial hemorrhage. Maternal administration or ingestion of most NSAIDs results in low infant exposure via breastmilk, such that both cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors are generally considered safe, and preferable to aspirin, when breastfeeding. Copyright © 2013 International Anesthesia Research Society.
McDonnell N.J.,University of Western Australia |
McDonnell N.J.,King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women |
Pavy T.J.G.,University of Western Australia |
Pavy T.J.G.,King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women |
And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2011
Anaphylaxis during anaesthesia is a rare event that in ∼6070 of cases is secondary to neuromuscular blocking agents. It has been suggested previously that the recent introduction of sugammadex may provide a novel therapeutic approach to the management of rocuronium-induced anaphylaxis. We describe the case of a 33-yr-old female who suffered a severe anaphylactic reaction to rocuronium, presenting with cardiovascular collapse on induction of anaesthesia. After 19 min of traditional management, she was given a bolus of sugammadex 500 mg. This was associated with an improvement in the adverse haemodynamic state. The underlying reasons for this are unclear, but sugammadex may potentially be a useful adjunct in the management of rocuronium-induced anaphylaxis. © The Author . Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved.
McDonnell N.J.,St John of God Hospital |
Percival V.,King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women |
Paech M.J.,University of Western Australia
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia | Year: 2013
Amniotic fluid embolism is a rare and potentially catastrophic condition that is unique to pregnancy. The presentation may range from relatively subtle clinical events to sudden maternal cardiac arrest. Despite an increased awareness of the condition, it remains a leading cause of maternal mortality. The underlying mechanisms of amniotic fluid embolism are poorly understood, but current theories support an immune-based mechanism which is triggered by potentially small amounts of amniotic fluid gaining access to the maternal circulation. This can result in a wide spectrum of clinical findings, with cardiovascular and haematological disturbances being prominent. The management of a suspected episode of amniotic fluid embolism is generally considered to be supportive, although in centres with specific expertise, echocardiography may assist in guiding management. Whilst outcomes after an episode of amniotic fluid embolism are still concerning, mortality would appear to have decreased in recent times, likely secondary to an improved awareness of the condition, advances in acute care and the inclusion of less severe episodes in case registries. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.