Rowe D.H.,King County Metro Transit |
Bae C.-H.C.,University of Washington |
Shen Q.,University of Washington
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2011
Many jurisdictions in the United States typically set minimum parking requirements for residential multifamily developments based on old data that were collected in suburban settings with little transit availability. Such parking requirements applied to urban settings with adequate transit service often result in an oversupply of parking, which in turn creates a barrier to smart growth. Not only does the oversupply of parking encourage automobile use and reduce housing affordability, but it also increases development costs, consumes land and natural resources, and increases associated air and water pollution. This research examines the relationship of parking demand and transit service in First Hill-Capitol Hill (FHCH) and Redmond, two urban centers in King County, Washington. An alternative method to collect parking demand data is explored. The results show a strong relationship between transit service and parking demand. The FHCH urban center, which abuts downtown Seattle, exhibited higher levels of transit service and lower parking demand. Parking demand in FHCH was observed to be 0.52 parking space per dwelling unit, which was about 50% less than parking demand observed in Redmond, a growing mixed-use suburban center, and 50% less than data reported by the Institute of Transportation Engineers. After a review of the parking policies of each urban center, opportunities to improve regulations - including adjusting minimum parking requirements and allowing for reductions in required parking when developers implement solutions to reduce demand for parking - were identified.
Rowe D.,King County Metro Transit |
Morse S.,Center for Neighborhood Technology |
Morse S.,Vermont Energy |
Ratchford C.,King County Metro Transit |
And 2 more authors.
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2014
Multifamily residential buildings often provide too much parking, which can be an impediment to a wide range of community goals. An over-supply of parking can have deleterious effects on economic development, consumers, the community at large, and the environment. Despite a recent surge in research, a lack of consensus still exists on the factors that drive demand for parking in multifamily buildings across a variety of urban and suburban contexts. Although sociodemographic, housing, and built environment variables have all been shown to have an impact on residential parking and vehicle availability, their relative influence is a source of debate. This research identified independent variables to be tested in a regression analysis of 208 multifamily parking use studies conducted in King County, Washington, in 2012. Parking use was correlated to building characteristics as well as to the neighborhood in which the building resided. The final model derived from this regression analysis contained a goodness of fit with an R2 value of 81.0% and incorporated seven variables: five pertained to the property or development characteristics and two to the built environment, specifically to access. The results of this study were intended for use by practitioners on an interactive website tool, the King County Multi-Family Residential Parking Calculator (www.rightsizeparking.org), which condensed the research findings into a simple, map-based format, accessible to a wide variety of stakeholders.
Rowe D.,King County Metro Transit |
Rowe D.,Chicago Bridge And Iron Company |
McCourt R.S.,DKS Associates |
Morse S.,Center for Neighborhood Technology |
And 2 more authors.
ITE Journal (Institute of Transportation Engineers) | Year: 2013
Parking policies of the past five decades have focused extensively on the provision of parking in a uniform manner to avoid conflicts between land owners. Policies were directed to avoid undersupplying parking in order to ensure adequate parking for all uses. The intent was to reduce risks resulting from those who did not sufficiently invest in parking and who then encroached, poached, or spilled over onto other property owners' parking supply. Assuming that all new residential tenants must have parking wastes an excellent opportunity to match land use development with appropriate transportation services and travel patterns. In addition, this assumption increases the costs of housing in urban areas, which can have a large economic impact. One-size-fits-all parking policies are simple but, as the cities become more complex, they have resulted in onerous ordinances that do not take into account context-sensitive site characteristics and demographics.
News Article | April 21, 2016
« Edmunds.com: EV and hybrid loyalty falls to all-time low | Main | Volkswagen reaches an agreement in principle in US over diesel emissions issue; binding consent decrees to come » Proterra, the market leader of zero-emission, battery-electric buses in North America, announced that SEPTA, Foothill Transit and King County Metro will use their Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Low or No Emission Vehicle Deployment Grants (Low-No) (earlier post) to purchase 33 Catalyst electric buses and charging infrastructure. These latest orders bring Proterra’s total number of orders to 155 vehicles from 16 transit agencies across the United States. Proterra customers won 33 of the 55 buses awarded under the Low-No program. As one of the largest transit agencies in the United States, serving 3.9 million people in five counties in and around Philadelphia, the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) will receive $2,585,075 from FTA and use the funds to purchase 25 Proterra Catalyst buses and five overhead chargers. SEPTA will be procuring more zero-emission vehicles with less Low-No funding than any other grant recipient. Proterra zero-emission buses will be deployed on Routes 29 and 79 in South Philadelphia. On the heels of completing one of the most rigorous performance tests in the industry, King County Metro Transit, serving the greater area of Seattle Washington, will now be able to electrify fully two routes using new funds from FTA’s Low-No Program for eight additional Proterra Catalyst vehicles. This award will increase KCM’s battery-electric fleet to 11 Catalyst vehicles. Proterra’s first customer and the first agency in the US to operate EV buses in revenue service, Foothill Transit, also received Low-No grant funding that will go towards electric charging facilities and support the transit agency’s ongoing electric bus program. Foothill Transit, which serves more than 14 million customers in Los Angeles County, will be getting 13 Proterra Catalyst buses from a previous order this year, bringing Foothill’s all-electric fleet to nearly 10% of the transit agency’s total.
News Article | April 28, 2016
One of the leading electric bus firms in the US, Proterra, has won the majority of the vehicle supply contracts accompanying the awards supplied through the Federal Transit Administration Low or No Emission Vehicle Deployment Grant, according to a new press release. What this means in practice, is that 33 brand-new Proterra Catalyst electric buses are now slated to be deployed to various transit agencies receiving Federal Transit Administration (FTA) funds around the country. Altogether, that means that Proterra has now received orders from 16 different US transit agencies, for a total of 155 electric buses. The press release provides more: As one of the largest transit agencies in the United States, serving 3.9 million people in five counties in and around Philadelphia, the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) will receive $2,585,075 from FTA and use the funds to purchase 25 Proterra Catalyst buses and five overhead chargers. SEPTA will be procuring more zero-emission vehicles with less Low-No funding than any other grant recipient, which is a testament to SEPTA’s electric vehicle vision and state of the EV bus market. Proterra zero-emission buses will be deployed on Routes 29 and 79 in South Philadelphia. …On the heels of completing one of the most rigorous performance tests, King County Metro Transit, serving the greater area of Seattle Washington, will now be able to fully electrify two routes using new funds from FTA’s Low-No Program for eight new Proterra Catalyst vehicles. Recently, the Catalyst simulated one year of operation and averaged 325 miles of driving each day with a constant 97 passenger equivalent load during King County’s accelerated durability and reliability test. Over the testing period, the Proterra Catalyst averaged 15 MPGe, which is 213% more efficient than current King County Metro 40′ diesel buses and is expected to improve to 18 MPGe with normal passenger loads. Proterra’s first customer and the first agency in the US to operate EV buses in revenue service, Foothill Transit, also received Low-No grant funding that will go towards electric charging facilities and support the transit agency’s ongoing electric bus program. Foothill Transit, which serves more than 14 million customers in Los Angeles County, will be receiving 15 more EVs from Proterra this year and next, including the first commercial deliveries of Proterra’s long-range XR technology vehicles, which will be fully compatible with their existing Fast Charge FC vehicles and chargers, bringing Foothill’s all-electric fleet to nearly 10% of the transit agency’s total. SEPTA’s Board Chairman, Pasquale T Deon, commented: “SEPTA is excited to be able to move forward with the purchase of 25 emission-free electric buses from Proterra. SEPTA already has one of the greenest bus fleets in the nation, with over half of our vehicles operating diesel-electric hybrids. The addition of electric buses furthers our commitment to a sustainable future for our riders and local residents.” The CEO of Proterra, Ryan Popple, did so as well: “This is a big win for Proterra and the industry alike because it signals continual market demand for zero-emission vehicles. We are pleased to be supporting SEPTA, Foothill Transit and King County Metro in their electrification efforts and are committed to designing and manufacturing state-of-the-art, zero-emission buses that ultimately save our customers time and money.” Drive an electric car? Complete one of our short surveys for our next electric car report. Keep up to date with all the hottest cleantech news by subscribing to our (free) cleantech newsletter, or keep an eye on sector-specific news by getting our (also free) solar energy newsletter, electric vehicle newsletter, or wind energy newsletter.
News Article | March 30, 2016
« INRIX Traffic mobile app now learns driving habits | Main | New Federal-Mogul Powertrain piston skirt coatings increase durability for the life of pistons » King County Metro Transit (KCM) in Washington state has completed an accelerated durability and reliability test of the Proterra Catalyst 40' FC (fast charge) battery-electric bus. Simulating one year of continuous operation with a constant 97 passenger equivalent load, this was the most rigorous test of its nature yet performed in the industry. Operating 24 hours per day over the 106-day period, the Proterra Catalyst vehicle achieved 32,545 total miles—nearly twice the distance of standard industry tests at Altoona. The bus was hauling 14,500 lbs (6,577 kg) of water ballast during the entire test period, which represents 125% of a normal full load of 77 passengers with standees. The vehicle averaged 325 miles (523 km) each day, with a maximum mileage of 572 miles (921 km) in one day, and was charged more than 1,750 times during the test period. From mid-October to the end of January 2016, the bus achieved 98% uptime. It was out of service for only 6 days, including 3 holidays, preventative maintenance checks summing to 1 day, and 2 days of quick maintenance to resolve minor issues. The vehicle experienced some basic wear and tear, but nothing out of the ordinary. Average fuel economy was 15 MPGe over this testing period, 3.125-times more efficient than current KCM 40' diesel buses (4.8 MPG). This is projected to improve to 18 MPGe (3.75 x diesel) at normal loads. (Proterra Altoona test results yielded 22 MPGe.) KCM’s diesel-hybrid buses average 6.3 MPG. Total estimated cost of maintenance for this test, incl. parts & labor was approximately $0.20/mile, compared to $0.90/mile for diesel; $1.10/mile for diesel hybrid; and $1.00/mile for CNG buses. In February 2016, three Proterra Catalyst buses went into King County Metro revenue service.