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King Abdullah Petroleum Studies And Research Center | Date: 2016-08-04

A system and method for ex post counterfactual simulation to identify and estimate the non-members who could counterfactually be categorized in a specific group of interest, based on probabilistically matching nearest non-members to the group of interest.


Filippini M.,ETH Zurich | Filippini M.,University Svizzera Italiana | Hunt L.C.,University of Surrey | Hunt L.C.,King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center
Energy Economics | Year: 2015

Energy efficiency policy is seen as a very important activity by almost all policy makers. In practical energy policy analysis, the typical indicator used as a proxy for energy efficiency is energy intensity. However, this simple indicator is not necessarily an accurate measure given changes in energy intensity are a function of changes in several factors as well as 'true' energy efficiency; hence, it is difficult to make conclusions for energy policy based upon simple energy intensity measures. Related to this, some published academic papers over the last few years have attempted to use empirical methods to measure the efficient use of energy based on the economic theory of production. However, these studies do not generally provide a systematic discussion of the theoretical basis nor the possible parametric empirical approaches that are available for estimating the level of energy efficiency. The objective of this paper, therefore, is to sketch out and explain from an economic perspective the theoretical framework as well as the empirical methods for measuring the level of energy efficiency. Additionally, in the second part of the paper, some of the empirical studies that have attempted to measure energy efficiency using such an economics approach are summarized and discussed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Pierru A.,King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center | Roussanaly S.,Sintef | Sabathier J.,French Institute of Petroleum
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

This paper provides new empirical insights on the capital structure of project-financed LNG infrastructures and gas pipeline projects, by using data relating to projects whose financial close occurred between June 2004 and March 2011. Most results are consistent with the basic view of risk-averse funds suppliers. Especially, the projects located in risky countries and larger projects tend to exhibit lower debt ratios and less-concentrated equity ownerships. In addition, regasification projects appear to have a more diluted equity ownership. Methodological issues raised by the financing of these projects are also examined from a capital-budgeting perspective. In particular, the equity residual method, usually used by industrial practitioners to value these projects, should be adjusted. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Gasim A.A.,King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center
Energy Policy | Year: 2015

Many industrialized countries are net importers of embodied energy and emissions, while many developing countries are net exporters. We examine the role of specialization in driving these trade patterns by conducting a spatial index decomposition analysis on the embodied energy in net exports for 41 economies. The results reveal that industrialized countries have generally offshored energy intensive production, which many developing countries specialize in. We find that specialization, on average, makes the biggest contribution, accounting for roughly 50% of a country's embodied energy in net exports. However, other factors, namely energy intensity and the trade balance, combine to make an equally important contribution. In summary, specialization, despite its significant role, is not the only cause of the embodied energy trade patterns observed between industrialized and developing countries. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Napoli C.,King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center | Garcia-Tellez B.,King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center
International Journal of Water Resources Development | Year: 2016

This article offers a framework for understanding how energy is used to meet water demand in countries. Specifically, the relationships between energy use and water scarcity, the location of renewable water resources, and aggregate water demand are explored. The article also examines how policy options such as water price reforms, agriculture subsidies and crop elimination may influence the energy use and energy intensity of water withdrawals. Conclusions suggest that while policy options exist, certain uncontrollable factors such as severe water scarcity or substantial freshwater abundance limit the ability of some countries to significantly improve the aggregate energy efficiency of water provision. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.


Napoli C.,King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center | Rioux B.,King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center
International Journal of Water Resources Development | Year: 2016

This article constructs a cost calculator to estimate the economic competitiveness of solar-powered desalination in Saudi Arabia. Solar desalination is defined as a plant that obtains solar energy from a closed system. This is done to focus the investigation on desalination technologies, rather than the efficacy of replacing conventional energy sources with renewables in an integrated electricity grid. The results suggest that current options for solar-powered desalination are not cost-competitive compared to incumbent technologies in Saudi Arabia. The article offers insight into where costs must decrease before solar technologies are economically competitive in the country. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Howarth N.A.A.,University of Oxford | Howarth N.A.A.,King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center | Rosenow J.,University of Oxford
Energy Policy | Year: 2014

Much academic attention has been directed at analysing energy efficiency investments through the lens of 'behavioural failure'. These studies have challenged the neoclassical framing of regulation which emphasises the efficiency benefits of price based policy, underpinned by the notion of rational individual self-mastery. The increasing use of a regulatory ban on electric lamps in many countries is one of the most recent and high profile flash points in this dialectic of 'freedom-versus-the-state' in the public policy discourse. This paper interrogates this debate through a study of electric lamp diffusion in Germany. It is argued that neoclassical theory and equilibrium analysis is inadequate as a tool for policy analysis as it takes the formation of market institutions, such as existing regulations, for granted. Further still, it may be prone to encourage idealistic debates around such grand narratives which may in practice simply serve those who benefit most from the status quo. Instead we argue for an evolutionary approach which we suggest offers a more pragmatic framing tool which focuses on the formation of market institutions in light of shifting social norms and political goals-in our case, progress towards energy efficiency and environmental goals. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Pierru A.,King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center | Matar W.,King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center
Energy Journal | Year: 2014

Since real oil price is positively correlated with real consumption and domesticincome in Saudi Arabia, a risk premium needs to be considered when assessingthe net present value of oil-related public investment projects. For projects generatingadditional oil exports, this risk premium quantifies the cost of increaseddependence on oil revenues. For projects transforming oil into products whoseprices are less correlated with the Saudi economy, it quantifies the benefit fromreducing the aggregate risk. The value of this risk premium depends on expectationsabout future consumption and oil price. By considering alternative assumptions,we show that over a one-year horizon this risk premium could rangebetween 1.3% and 5% of the expected oil-related cash flow, with higher premiafor longer planning horizons. We discuss the implications of these calculationsfor energy-related public projects in Saudi Arabia and, more generally, for publicdecision-making in resource-rich countries. © 2014 by the IAEE. All rights reserved.


Trademark
King Abdullah Petroleum Studies And Research Center | Date: 2011-01-03

Interactive multimedia computer programs and software used for accessing computer databases and computer navigation systems in the field of history, science, geography, biography, culture, art, energy, technology of and relating to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Electronic interactive game programs and software; Interactive video game programs and software; Audio and video analog and digital recordings on video tapes, records, DVDs, CDs, cassette tapes, and computer discs all featuring a wide variety of topics, namely, the energy and petroleum industries, history, science, geography, culture, art, technology, current events, business, finance, and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; motion picture films featuring a wide variety of topics, namely, documentaries, comedies, dramas and films featuring topics relating to the energy and petroleum industries, history, science, geography, culture, art, technology, current events, business, finance and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Recorded and downloadable computer software used to develop interactive computer programs; Computer game software for use on an external monitor; Apparatus for recording, transmission or reproduction of sound and images; DVD recording apparatus; Sound and picture recording apparatus; audio cassette recorders and players; CD and DVD recorders and players; terrestrial and satellite radios, televisions; computers, computer memory cards and computer disc drives; cameras, exposed camera film; digital cameras; memory cards; telephones, mobile telephones; personal digital assistant PDA; electronic diaries; electronic books recorded on electronic media featuring a wide variety of topics, namely, the energy and petroleum industries, history, science, geography, culture, art, technology, current events, business, finance and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; computer and video game programs and software; computer discs featuring computer games sold as a unit for playing a parlor type computer game; computer and video game apparatus, namely, computer game consoles for use with television or computer monitors, computer game joysticks and video game joysticks; calculators; mouse pads; optical instruments, namely, binoculars, telescopes, periscopes, microscopes, magnifying lenses and glasses, prisms, sunglasses and eyeglasses; graduated rulers; compasses; scales; decorative magnets; magnets; batteries; encoded magnetic cards; computer programs, namely, software linking digitized video and audio media to a global computer information network; electronically encoded cards for use in identification and providing security; consumer electronics, namely, all types of computer hardware and computer peripherals, audio and video recorders, players, and transmitters and mobile communication devices for recording, producing, editing, reproducing and transmitting sound, video, data and images, namely, mobile data receivers, mobile phones, mobile radios, headsets for mobile phones, and keyboards for mobile phones; replacement parts for the foregoing, and accessories for cassette players and CD and DVD players, namely, headphones and hands free headsets. Paper and paper articles, namely, printed publications in the nature of books, magazines, newspapers, newsletters, catalogs, manuals, all in printed form featuring a wide variety of topics, namely, the energy and petroleum industries, history, science, geography, culture, art, technology, current events, business, finance and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; printed business, classified, telephone and informational directories relating to the energy and petroleum industries and university facilities and personnel; posters; etchings; lithographs; photographs; maps; almanacs; calendars; stationery; memo pads; notebooks; book covers; appointment books; time management books; stationery and envelope sets; Postcards; gift cards; place cards; greeting cards; announcement cards; note pads; ungraduated rulers; photograph albums, address books; book and paper binders; autograph books; diaries; date books; news bulletins; picture books; memo boards; letter openers; desk pads; coloring books; activity books; sketch books; sticker albums; modeling clay; staplers; erasers; pencil sharpeners; pens, pencils; markers; crayons; highlighter pens; chalk; pencil cases; paperweights; office supplies and school supplies, namely, book and paper binders, folders, assignment books, note books, note pads, book covers, book markers; printed educational and instructional materials featuring a wide variety of topics, namely, the energy and petroleum industries, history, science, geography, culture, art, technology, current events, business, finance and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Stickers; decals; appliqus in the form of decal; trading cards; paper identification tags; paper party hats; paper napkins; paper party bags; paper gift wrap; plastic gift wrap; paper gift wrap bows; paper party decorations; paper tablecloths; bookends; passport cases; paper flags; paper banners and pennants made of paper. Museum services; Art exhibitions; Educational services, namely, arranging and conducting exhibitions, workshops, seminars, training courses, lectures, educational conferences, film and video presentations in the fields of history, archeology, geography, biography, culture, art, science, energy, economy, technology, petroleum, religion; Childrens educational services, namely, providing classes and workshops in the field of energy and petroleum industries, history, science, geography, culture, art, technology, current events, business, finance, and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Childrens entertainment and amusement centers, namely, providing interactive play facilities; Educational demonstrations; Arranging and conducting educational exhibitions and displays and interactive exhibitions in the field of science, history, culture and regarding the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, not for business purposes; Arranging and conducting educational competitions; Library services; Book, CD, DVD, film loaning and rental services; Reference libraries of literature and documentary records; Publishing services, namely, publishing of non-downloadable educational material in the nature of books, magazines, and electronic publications on a wide variety of topics, namely, the energy and petroleum industries, history, science, geography, culture, art, technology, current events, business, finance, and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Providing online electronic, non-downloadable electronic publications in the nature of articles, newsletters and books featuring a wide variety of topics, namely, the energy and petroleum industries, history, science, geography, culture, art, technology, current events, business, finance, and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Publication of electronic books and journals online; electronic publishing of text and graphic works of others on CD, DVD and online featuring a wide variety of topics, namely, the energy and petroleum industries, history, science, geography, culture, art, technology, current events, business, finance, and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; online review of books; Entertainment services, namely, movie theaters, audio and visual performances, production, distribution and presentation of programs for television, cable television, digital television, satellite television, the global computer network, and terrestrial and satellite radio; motion picture film productions; providing online non-downloadable magazines in the field of a wide variety of topics, namely, the energy and petroleum industries, history, science, geography, culture, art, technology, current events, business, finance, and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Providing news, information and commentary in the field of education and entertainment relating to a wide variety of topics, namely, the energy and petroleum industries, history, science, geography, culture, art, technology, current events, business, finance, and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia via on-line computer and interactive database; providing on-line information in the field of university courses. Scientific and technological services, namely, scientific research and research services in the field of information and telecommunications technology; Research and design services in the field of energy and petroleum; industrial analysis and scientific research services in the fields of energy, petroleum, information technology and telecommunications technology used in the fields of energy and petroleum; engineering services for building and property condition assessment, facility management, repair and restoration; consulting in the field of environmental assessment; Creating an online community for registered users to participate in online meetings, gatherings, and interactive discussions about education, learning and studying; Design, installation and maintenance of computer software; design of a computer hardware; research services in the field of energy and petroleum.


Matar W.,King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center
Energy Efficiency | Year: 2015

Energy efficiency in buildings has garnered significant attention in Saudi Arabia. This paper outlines the potential effects of higher residential efficiency on electricity load profiles in the Kingdom. It further presents the associated benefits that could have been realized by the local utilities in 2011. To perform the analysis, we designed an integrated methodology in which an engineering-based residential electricity demand model is used within an economic equilibrium framework. The modeling approach allows us to capture the physical interactions arising from higher efficiency and the structural changes that could occur in the economy beyond the end-consumers. Raising the average air-conditioner energy efficiency ratio (EER) to 11 British thermal unit (BTU)/(Wh) from its 2011 average would have saved 225,000 barrels/day of crude oil in electricity generation. Alternatively, increasing the share of insulated homes from 27 to 64 % would have allowed the power sector to lower its use of the fuel by 158,000 barrels/day. Combining both measures in a single simulation yields incremental yet not additive reductions. All alternative scenarios reduce costs to the utilities and improve the average thermal efficiency for the electricity generated. The studied efficiency options shift the load curve downward during the peak load segment when the least efficient turbines would be used. We additionally show how efficiency improvements in end-uses can affect the decisions of other sectors in the economy. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

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