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Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Ferwana M.,King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences | Firwana B.,King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences | Firwana B.,University of Missouri | Firwana B.,Knowledge and Evaluation Research Unit | And 11 more authors.
Diabetic Medicine | Year: 2013

Aims: Pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione, was approved for treatment of Type 2 diabetes. However, several observational studies suggest an association of pioglitazone with an increased risk of bladder cancer in patients with diabetes. Therefore, we sought to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the magnitude of this association and the quality of the supporting evidence. Methods: Electronic databases were queried to identify controlled studies of pioglitazone that measured the risk of bladder cancer. Results: Six studies involving 215 142 patients using pioglitazone were included, with a median period of follow-up of 44 months. The hazard of developing bladder cancer was significantly higher in patients using pioglitazone (hazard ratio 1.23; 95% CI 1.09-1.39; I2 = 0%) compared with control groups. The risk of bias was moderate across the six studies. Considering an incidence rate of 20.8 per 100 000 person years, the number needed to harm was five additional cases of bladder cancer per 100 000 person years. Conclusions: Patients treated with pioglitazone have a slight increased risk of bladder cancer compared to general population. Patient involvement and weighing treatment benefits versus risks should be discussed with patient toward shared decision. Patients with type 2 diabetes with risk factors, such as family history, smoking, or exposure to certain forms of chemotherapy may need to consider other anti-hyperglycemic agents. Also, pioglitazone should be discontinued in type 2 diabetes patients with newly diagnosed bladder cancer. © 2013 Diabetes UK. Source

Chen J.,Yale University | Fazel R.,Emory University | Ross J.S.,Yale University | McNamara R.L.,Yale University | And 6 more authors.
JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging | Year: 2011

Objectives: The goal of this study was to compare patterns of downstream testing and procedures after stress testing with imaging performed at physician offices versus at hospital-outpatient facilities Background: Stress testing with imaging has grown dramatically in recent years, but whether the location of where the test is performed correlates with different patterns for subsequent cardiac testing and procedures is unknown Methods: We identified 82,178 adults with private health insurance from 2005 to 2007 who underwent ambulatory myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) or stress echocardiography (SE). Subsequent MPI, SE, cardiac catheterization or revascularization within 6 months was compared between physician office and hospital outpatient settings. Results: Overall, 85.1% of MPI and 84.9% of SE were performed in physician offices. The proportion of patients who underwent subsequent MPI, SE, or cardiac catheterization was not statistically different between physician office and hospital outpatient settings for MPI (14.2% vs. 13.9%, p = 0.44) or SE (7.9% vs. 8.6%, p = 0.21). However, patients with physician office imaging had slightly higher rates of repeat MPI within 6 months compared with hospital-outpatient imaging for both index MPI (3.5% vs. 2.0%, p < 0.001) and SE (3.4% vs. 2.1%, p < 0.001), and slightly lower rates of cardiac catheterization after index MPI (11.4% vs. 12.2%, p = 0.04) and SE (4.5% vs. 7.0%, p < 0.001). Differences in 6-month utilization were observed across the 5 healthcare markets after index MPI but not after index SE Conclusions: Physician office imaging is associated with slightly higher repeat MPI and fewer cardiac catheterizations than hospital outpatient imaging, but no overall difference in the proportion of patients undergoing additional further testing or procedures. Although regional variation exists, especially for MPI, the relationship between physician office location of stress testing with imaging and greater downstream resource utilization appears modest. © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source

Blaha M.J.,Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease | Dardari Z.A.,Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease | Blumenthal R.S.,Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease | Martin S.S.,Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease | And 4 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2014

Background: The 2013 ACC/AHA Report on the Assessment of Cardiovascular (CVD) Risk redefined "intermediate risk". We sought to critically compare the intermediate risk groups identified by prior guidelines and the new ACC/AHA guidelines. Methods: We analyzed data from 30,005 adult men free of known CVD from a large, multi-ethnic study of middle-aged adults. The Framingham Risk Score was calculated using published equations, and CVD risk was calculated using the new ACC/AHA Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Estimator. We first compared the size and characteristics of the intermediate risk group identified by the old (ATP III, 10-20% 10-year CHD risk) and new guidelines (5-7.4% 10-year CVD risk). We then defined time-to-high-risk as the length of time an individual patient resides in the intermediate risk group before progressing to high risk status based on advancing age alone. Results: The mean age of the study population was 53±13 years, and 24% were African-American. Patients identified as intermediate risk by the new ACC/AHA Guidelines were younger and more likely to be African-American and have lower risk factor burden (all p<0.05). The new intermediate risk group was just 37% the size of the traditional ATP III intermediate risk group, while the new high risk group was 103% larger. Under the new guidelines, men remain intermediate risk for an average of just 3 years, compared to 8 years under the prior guidelines (63% shorter time-to-high-risk, p<0.05), before progressing to high risk based on advancing age alone. Conclusion: The new 2013 ACC/AHA risk assessment guidelines produce a markedly smaller, lower absolute risk, and more temporary "intermediate risk" group. These findings reshape the modern understanding of "intermediate risk", and have distinct implications for risk assessment, clinical decision making, and pharmacotherapy in primary prevention. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Roberson L.L.,Center for Prevention and Wellness Research | Aneni E.C.,Center for Prevention and Wellness Research | Maziak W.,Florida International University | Agatston A.,Center for Prevention and Wellness Research | And 12 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2014

Background: A subgroup has emerged within the obese that do not display the typical metabolic disorders associated with obesity and are hypothesized to have lower risk of complications. The purpose of this review was to analyze the literature which has examined the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) population. Methods. Pubmed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched from their inception until December 2012. Studies were included which clearly defined the MHO group (using either insulin sensitivity and/or components of metabolic syndrome AND obesity) and its association with either all cause mortality, CVD mortality, incident CVD, and/or subclinical CVD. Results: A total of 20 studies were identified; 15 cohort and 5 cross-sectional. Eight studies used the NCEP Adult Treatment Panel III definition of metabolic syndrome to define "metabolically healthy", while another nine used insulin resistance. Seven studies assessed all-cause mortality, seven assessed CVD mortality, and nine assessed incident CVD. MHO was found to be significantly associated with all-cause mortality in two studies (30%), CVD mortality in one study (14%), and incident CVD in three studies (33%). Of the six studies which examined subclinical disease, four (67%) showed significantly higher mean common carotid artery intima media thickness (CCA-IMT), coronary artery calcium (CAC), or other subclinical CVD markers in the MHO as compared to their MHNW counterparts. Conclusions: MHO is an important, emerging phenotype with a CVD risk between healthy, normal weight and unhealthy, obese individuals. Successful work towards a universally accepted definition of MHO would improve (and simplify) future studies and aid inter-study comparisons. Usefulness of a definition inclusive of insulin sensitivity and stricter criteria for metabolic syndrome components as well as the potential addition of markers of fatty liver and inflammation should be explored. Clinicians should be hesitant to reassure patients that the metabolically benign phenotype is safe, as increased risk cardiovascular disease and death have been shown. © 2014 Roberson et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Tam L.M.,Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease | Kim J.,Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease | Kim J.,Michigan State University | Blumenthal R.S.,Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease | And 5 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2013

Objective: We sought to identify the predictors of non-calcified plaque (NCP) burden in patients with low coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores of 1-100. Methods: We studied 920 consecutive patients clinically referred for coronary CT angiography (CCTA) with concomitant CAC scoring. The 276 patients with CAC 1-100 were divided into four groups based on the CAC score: CAC=0, 1-10, 11-50, and 51-100. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed for the demographic, risk factor, and CAC score predictors of number of coronary segments with NCP. Results: Mean age was 55±11 years and 56% were women. Demographics and risk factors failed to identify NCP involvement in univariate models. The lone predictor of NCP burden was the absolute CAC score, which was persistently associated with NCP in multivariable models (CAC 51-100 vs. CAC 1-10, β-coefficient 0.35, p=0.03). Conclusions: Absolute CAC score is the lone robust predictor of NCP burden when CAC is 1-100. Risk within this mild coronary calcification group is likely heterogeneous, driven by the absolute CAC score. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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