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Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Memish Z.A.,Global Center for Mass Gatherings Medicine | Memish Z.A.,Alfaisal University | Assiri A.,Global Center for Mass Gatherings Medicine | Almasri M.,Global Center for Mass Gatherings Medicine | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Annually, Saudi Arabia is the host of the Hajj mass gathering. We aimed to determine the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) nasal carriage rate among pilgrims performing the 2013 Hajj and to describe the compliance with the Saudi Ministry of Health vaccine recommendations. Method: Nasopharyngeal samples were collected from 5235 adult pilgrims from 22 countries and screened for MERS-CoV using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Information regarding the participants, age, gender, country of origin, medical conditions, and vaccination history were obtained. Results: The mean age of the screened population was 51.8 years (range, 18-93 years) with a male/female ratio of 1.17:1. MERS-CoV was not detected in any of the samples tested (3210 pre-Hajj and 2025 post-Hajj screening). According to the vaccination documents, all participants had received meningococcal vaccination and the majority of those from at-risk countries were vaccinated against yellow fever and polio. Only 22% of the pilgrims (17.5% of those ≥65 years and 36.3% of diabetics) had flu vaccination, and 4.4% had pneumococcal vaccination. Conclusion: There was no evidence of MERS-CoV nasal carriage among Hajj pilgrims. While rates of compulsory vaccinations uptake were high, uptake of pneumococcal and flu seasonal vaccinations were low, including among the high-risk population. © The Author 2014. Source


Abdel Aziz M.T.,Cairo University | Motawi T.,Cairo University | Rezq A.,Cairo University | Mostafa T.,Cairo University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Sexual Medicine | Year: 2012

Introduction. Curcumin is involved in erectile signaling via elevation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Aim. Assessment of the effects of water-soluble curcumin in erectile dysfunction (ED). Methods. One hundred twenty male white albino rats were divided into: 1st and 2nd control groups with or without administration of Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), 3rd and 4th diabetic groups with or without ZnPP, 5th diabetic group on single oral dose of pure curcumin, 6th diabetic group on pure curcumin administered daily for 12 weeks, 7th and 8th diabetic groups on single dose of water-soluble curcumin administered with or without ZnPP, 9th and 10th diabetic groups on water-soluble curcumin administered daily for 12 weeks with or without ZnPP. All curcumin dosage schedules were administered after induction of diabetes. Main Outcome Measures. Quantitative gene expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), neuronal NOS (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), nuclear transcription factor-erythroid2 (Nrf2), NF-K{cyrillic}β, and p38. Cavernous tissue levels of HO and NOS enzyme activities, cGMP and intracavernosal pressure (ICP). Results. Twelve weeks after induction of diabetes, ED was confirmed by the significant decrease in ICP. There was a significant decrease in cGMP, NOS, HO enzymes, a significant decrease in eNOS, nNOS, HO-1 genes and a significant elevation of NF-K{cyrillic}β, p38, iNOS genes. Administration of pure curcumin or its water-soluble conjugate led to a significant elevation in ICP, cGMP levels, a significant increase in HO-1 and NOS enzymes, a significant increase in eNOS, nNOS, HO-1, and Nrf2 genes, and a significant decrease in NF-K{cyrillic}β, p38, and iNOS genes. Water-soluble curcumin showed significant superiority and more prolonged duration of action. Repeated doses regimens were superior to single dose regimen. Administration of ZnPP significantly reduced HO enzyme, cGMP, ICP/mean arterial pressure (MAP), HO-1 genes in diabetic groups. Conclusion. Water-soluble curcumin could enhance erectile function with more effectiveness and with more prolonged duration of action. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Source


Kim S.Y.,University of Sydney | Wong A.H.M.,University of Sydney | Abou Neel E.A.,King Abdualziz University | Abou Neel E.A.,Tanta University | And 3 more authors.
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery | Year: 2015

Introduction: Search for new, functional biomaterials that can be used to synergistically deliver a drug, enhance its adsorption and stimulate the post-injury recovery of tissue function, is one of the priorities in biomedicine. Currently used materials for drug delivery fail to satisfy one or more of these functionalities, thus they have limited potential and new classes of materials are urgently needed.Areas covered: Natural materials, due to their origin, physical and chemical structure can potentially fulfill these requirements and there is already strong evidence of their usefulness in drug delivery. They are increasingly utilized in various therapeutic applications due to the obvious advantages over synthetic materials. Particularly in pulmonary drug delivery, there have been limitations in the use of synthetic materials such as polymers and lipids, leading to an increase in the use of natural and protein-based materials such as silk, keratin, elastin and collagen. Literature search in each specialized field, namely, silk, keratin and collagen was conducted, and the benefits of each material for future application in pulmonary drug delivery are highlighted.Expert opinion: The natural materials discussed in this review have been well established in their use for other applications, yet further studies are required in the application of pulmonary drug delivery. The properties exhibited by these natural materials seem positive for their application in lung tissue engineering, which may allow for more extensive testing for validation of pulmonary drug delivery systems. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd. Source


Memish Z.A.,Global Center for Mass Gatherings Medicine and Ministry of Health | Al-Tawfiq J.A.,Aramco Services Company | Al-Tawfiq J.A.,University of Bonn | Makhdoom H.Q.,Regional Laboratory | And 22 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background.Analysis of clinical samples from patients with new viral infections is critical to confirm the diagnosis, to specify the viral load, and to sequence data necessary for characterizing the viral kinetics, transmission, and evolution. We analyzed samples from 112 patients infected with the recently discovered Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Methods.Respiratory tract samples from cases of MERS-CoV infection confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were investigated to determine the MERS-CoV load and fraction of the MERS-CoV genome. These values were analyzed to determine associations with clinical sample type. Results.Samples from 112 individuals in which MERS-CoV was detected by PCR were analyzed, of which 13 were sputum samples, 64 were nasopharyngeal swab specimens, 30 were tracheal aspirates, and 3 were bronchoalveolar lavage specimens; 2 samples were of unknown origin. Tracheal aspirates yielded significantly higher MERS-CoV loads, compared with nasopharyngeal swab specimens (P =. 005) and sputum specimens (P =. 0001). Tracheal aspirates had viral loads similar to those in bronchoalveolar lavage samples (P =. 3079). Bronchoalveolar lavage samples and tracheal aspirates had significantly higher genome fraction than nasopharyngeal swab specimens (P =. 0095 and P =. 0002, respectively) and sputum samples (P =. 0009 and P =. 0001, respectively). The genome yield from tracheal aspirates and bronchoalveolar lavage samples were similar (P =. 1174). Conclusions.Lower respiratory tract samples yield significantly higher MERS-CoV loads and genome fractions than upper respiratory tract samples. © 2014 © The Author 2014. Source


Moselhy S.S.,King Abdualziz University | Moselhy S.S.,Ain Shams University | Al-Malki A.L.,King Abdualziz University | Kumosani T.A.,King Abdualziz University | Jalal J.A.,King Abdualziz University
Toxicology and Industrial Health | Year: 2012

Osteoporosis represents a major public health problem through its association with fragility fractures, primarily of the hip, spine and distal forearm. The risk of osteoporosis increased in postmenopausal women due to decline in estrogen levels. Replicable hormone therapy is associated with undesirable side effects. Cod liver oil (CLO) is a rich source of docosahexaenoic acid eicosapentaenoic acid linolenic acid and vitamins A, E and D. In this study, the effect of CLO will be tested in the prevention of bone loss in the ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. One group of OVX rats (n = 12) received an estrogen implantation at the time of operation and the second group was supplemented orally with CLO (200 μl/kg body weight) daily for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood was analysed for serum calcium, phosphorous, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and estrogen and femur for calcium determination. Estrogen implantation as well as CLO supplementation in OVX rats increased the calcium level in femur as compared with sham rats (p < 0.05). It is concluded that supplementation of CLO have a positive effect on bone mineralization in rat, and this could offer a new strategy to avoid the side effects of replaceable hormonal therapy. © The Author(s) 2011. Source

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