Majeed M.,Government College University at Faisalabad |
Hussain A.I.,Government College University at Faisalabad |
Chatha S.A.S.,Government College University at Faisalabad |
Khosa M.K.K.,Government College University at Faisalabad |
And 4 more authors.
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2015
In the present work, the response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite rotatable design (CCRD), was used to determine optimum conditions for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from Origanum vulgare leaves. Four process variables were evaluated at three levels (31 experimental designs): methanol (70%, 80%, and 90%), the solute:solvent ratio (1:5, 1:12.5, 1:20), the extraction time (4, 10, 16h), and the solute particle size (20, 65, 110 micron). Using RSM, a quadratic polynomial equation was obtained by multiple regression analysis for predicting optimization of the extraction protocol. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied and the significant effect of the factors and their interactions were tested at 95% confidence interval. The antioxidant extract (AE) yield was significantly influenced by solvent composition, solute to solvent ratio, and time. The maximum AE was obtained at methanol (70%), liquid solid ratio (20), time (16h), and particle size (20 micron). Predicted values thus obtained were closer to the experimental value indicating suitability of the model. Run 25 (methanol:water 70:30; solute:solvent 1:20; extraction time 16h and solute particle size 20) showed highest TP contents (18.75mg/g of dry material, measured as gallic acid equivalents) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 5.04μg/mL). Results of the present study indicated good correlation between TP contents and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Results of the study indicated that phenolic compounds are powerful scavengers of free radical as demonstrated by a good correlation between TP contents and DPPH radical scavenging activity. © 2015 The Authors.
Darwesh A.A.,King Abdalaziz University |
El-Marakby A.A.,King Abdalaziz University |
Khalifa D.A.,King Abdalaziz University Hospital |
Aboeleneen A.M.,King Abdalaziz University |
Gad A.A.,King Abdalaziz University
Advances in Environmental Biology | Year: 2012
Background: Lateral epicondylitis is the most commonly diagnosed elbow condition and affects about 1- 3% of the population at large. It produces a heavy burden of workdays lost and residual impairments. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of low intensity laser therapy and ultrasound diathermy on hand grip strength, pain sensation and psychological well-being in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Material and Methods: Thirty male patients with lateral epicondylitis were included in two equal groups. The first group (A) received ultrasound therapy in addition to their regular medical treatment. The second group (B) received low intensity laser therapy and their regular medical treatment. The program consisted of three sessions per week for one month. Results: There was a significant improvement in hand grip strength, pain severity and psychological well-being in both groups.Also, there were no significant differences between mean levels of the investigated parameters in both groups at the end of the study. Conclusion: Ultrasound diathermy and low intensity laser therapy improves grip strength, pain sensation and psychological well-being in patients with lateral epicondylitis with no significant differences between both treatment modalities.