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Zamani M.A.,Kinectrics Inc. | Sidhu T.S.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology | Yazdani A.,Ryerson University
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2014

With the increasing attention to the concept of microgrids, it has become important to identify the requirements that enable an electric distribution network to operate as a microgrid. This paper studies a realistic distribution network to accomplish the following: 1) determine the conditions under which the network can operate as a microgrid and 2) present the control scenarios that allow the islanded operation of the network. In particular, the employment of electronically coupled distributed energy resources with the fault-ride-through and synchronization capabilities is investigated. Another objective of this paper is to propose practical protection strategies that are effective in both operational modes of a microgrid (i.e., the grid-connected mode and the islanded mode), considering the system constraints; the protection strategies provide the microgrid with acceptable reliability against different fault scenarios. The effectiveness of the control and protection strategies is demonstrated and discussed through a comprehensive set of simulation studies conducted in the PSCAD/EMTDC software environment. © 1982-2012 IEEE.


Hasegawa K.,Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization | Meshii T.,University of Fukui | Scarth D.A.,Kinectrics Inc.
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Transactions of the ASME | Year: 2011

One of the more common modes of degradation in power plant piping has been wall thinning due to erosion-corrosion or flow-accelerated corrosion. Extensive work has been performed to understand flow-accelerated corrosion mechanisms and develop fracture criteria of locally thinned pipes since the tragic events at Surry Unit 2 and Mihama Unit 3. A large number of tests have been performed on carbon steel pipes, elbows, and tees with local wall thinning. In addition, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides procedures in Code Case N-597-2 for the evaluation of wall thinning in pipes. This paper provides validation of the evaluation procedures in Code Case N-597-2 by comparing with the field rupture data and pipe burst test data. The allowable wall thinning from the Code Case N-597-2 procedures is shown to maintain adequate margins against rupture. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.


Baradarani F.,University of Western Ontario | Dadash Zadeh M.R.,University of Western Ontario | Zamani M.A.,Kinectrics Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery | Year: 2015

This paper proposes a positive-sequence phase-angle estimation method based on discrete Fourier transform for the synchronization of three-phase power-electronic converters under distorted and variable-frequency conditions. The proposed method is designed based on a fixed sampling rate and, thus, it can simply be employed for control applications. First, analytical analysis is presented to determine the errors associated with the phasor estimation using standard discrete Fourier transform in a variable-frequency environment. Then, a robust phase-angle estimation technique is proposed, which is based on a combination of estimated positive and negative sequences, tracked frequency, and two proposed compensation coefficients. The proposed method has one cycle transient response and is immune to harmonics, noises, voltage imbalances, and grid frequency variations. An effective approximation technique is proposed to simplify the computation of the compensation coefficients. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through a comprehensive set of simulations in Matlab software. Simulation results show the robust and accurate performance of the proposed method in various abnormal operating conditions. © 1986-2012 IEEE.


Bagheri M.,University of New South Wales | Phung B.T.,University of New South Wales | Blackburn T.,University of New South Wales | Naderian A.,Kinectrics Inc.
2013 IEEE Electrical Insulation Conference, EIC 2013 | Year: 2013

Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) has been operated since last decade as a sensitive method in transformer internal defect recognition. This study has concentrated on influence of temperature variation of the transformer winding on FRA trace. An oil-free single phase model transformer involving concentric LV and HV windings is taken as a test object. The test object temperature is changed widely from low to high temperatures and the frequency response traces of the windings are recorded. In addition, a pair of winding discs including oil filled metal container is taken as another test object and its frequency response traces are recoded for various temperatures. FRA traces deviations as well as total capacitance variation due to the temperature changes in transformer windings are elaborated and discussed. © 2013 IEEE.


Tylman W.,Technical University of Lodz | Kolczynski J.,Technical University of Lodz | Anders G.J.,Kinectrics Inc.
Energy | Year: 2010

This paper presents a fully automatic system intended to detect leaks of dielectric fluid in underground high-pressure, fluid-filled (HPFF) cables. The system combines a number of artificial intelligence (AI) and data processing techniques to achieve high detection capabilities for various rates of leaks, including leaks as small as 15 l per hour. The system achieves this level of precision mainly thanks to a novel auto-tuning procedure, enabling learning of the Bayesian network - the decision-making component of the system - using simulated leaks of various rates. Significant new developments extending the capabilities of the original leak detection system described in [1] and [2] form the basis of this paper. Tests conducted on the real-life HPFF cable system in New York City are also discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Chisholm W.A.,Kinectrics Inc. | Chisholm W.A.,University of Quebec at Chicoutimi
IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine | Year: 2010

Lightning overvoltages were causing problems on overhead lines well before Tesla and Edison argued over the merits of ac and dc. Many of the overvoltage protection methods for distribution lines follow the same philosophy as that used for telegraph and telephone lines. For example, early surge protective devices on single-phase power lines used single or multiple air gaps (Figure 1) that followed telegraph line protection measures closely. © 2006 IEEE.


In any reactor physics analysis, the instantaneous power distribution in the reactor core of any power reactor, including CANDU-type reactor, can be calculated when the actual bundle-wise burnup distribution is known. Considering the fact that CANDU utilizes the on-power refuelling to compensate for the reduction in reactivity due to fuel burnup, in the CANDU fuel management analysis, snapshots of power and burnup distributions can be obtained by simulating and tracking reactor operation over an extended period using various tools such as the∗SIMULATE module of the reactor fuelling simulation program (RFSP) code. However, for some studies, such as an evaluation of a conceptual design of a next generation CANDU reactor, the preferred approach to obtain a snapshot of the power distribution in the core is based on the patterned-channel-age model implemented in the∗INSTANTAN module of the RFSP code. The objective of this approach is to obtain a representative snapshot of core conditions quickly. Presently such patterns could be generated by a program called RANDIS which is implemented within the∗INSTANTAN module. Presented in this paper is an alternative approach to derive the patterned-channel-age model where an optimization algorithm is utilized to find patterns which produce representative power distributions in the core. In the present analysis, the genetic algorithm (GA) technique has been successfully utilized to find a quasi-optimal patterned-channel-age. This paper is Part I of a two-part paper which highlights the development of this alternative method for generating patterned-channel-ages. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chisholm W.A.,Kinectrics Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications | Year: 2015

A single, simplified, and general model for the resistance of solid or wire-frame electrodes offers insight into the performance improvements that can be expected when additional electrode components are added in parallel. This model separates the geometric and contact resistance terms RGeometric and RContact. For solid and wire-frame electrodes, RGeometric depends on the geometric radius and the overall surface area. For solid electrodes, RContact=; however, for wire-frame approximations, it depends on the ratio of overall to wire surface area. The simple model incorporates the effects of depth of burial and wire radius to give remarkably good estimates of resistance, as compared to reference calculations, and can be used to identify weakness in many traditional expressions when used outside their conditions of derivation. © 1972-2012 IEEE.


The instantaneous power distribution in the core can be calculated when the actual bundle-wise burnup distribution is known. In the light water reactor technology where batch fuelling practice is employed, the snapshot of power distribution during the cycle could be easily obtained by monitoring and simulating the core from the beginning to the end of the fuel cycle. Such calculation is more challenging for CANDU reactors. Considering the fact that CANDU utilizes the on-power refuelling to compensate for the reduction in reactivity due to fuel burnup, in CANDU fuel management analyses, snapshots of power and burnup distributions can be obtained by simulating and tracking reactor operation over an extended period using various tools such as the *SIMULATE module of the reactor fuelling simulation program (RFSP) code. However, for some studies, such as an evaluation of a conceptual design of a next generation CANDU reactor, the preferred approach to obtain a snapshot of the power distribution in the core is based on the patterned-channel-age model implemented in the *INSTANTAN module of the RFSP code. The objective of this approach is to obtain a representative snapshot of core conditions quickly and use such snapshot to perform additional reactor-physics related analyses. Presently such patterns could be generated by a program called RANDIS which is implemented within the *INSTANTAN module. An alternative approach called DERMAGA (DistributEd RandoM Age generator using Genetic Algorithm) has been developed to derive the patterned-channel-age model where an optimization algorithm is utilized to find patterns which produce representative power distributions in the core. Within DERMAGA, the genetic algorithm technique has been utilized as the optimization engine to find a quasi-optimal patterned-channel-age. It has been demonstrated that DERMAGA is a viable alternative tool to produce representative snapshots of daily core configuration. In the present paper which is Part II of a two-part paper, the robustness of DERMAGA is tested against various different sizes of basic grid used for generating the random patterned-channel-age. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


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Kinectrics Inc. | Date: 2016-05-10

Tool for inspecting steel stranding.

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