Niitsu T.,Chiba University |
Shirayama Y.,Chiba University |
Shirayama Y.,Teikyo University |
Matsuzawa D.,Chiba University |
And 13 more authors.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2011
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of serum BDNF levels with the cognition and clinical characteristics in patients with schizophrenia. Sixty-three patients with schizophrenia and 52 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were examined with neuropsychological tests. Serum BDNF levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There were no significant differences in serum BDNF levels between normal controls and patients with schizophrenia. Serum BDNF levels of normal controls showed negative correlations with verbal working memory, but this was not the case with schizophrenic patients. Meanwhile, serum BDNF levels of schizophrenic patients showed positive correlations with the scores of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the Information subtest scores of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised (WAIS-R). Serum BDNF levels are related with the impairment of verbal working memory and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Uwada J.,University of Fukui |
Hayashi R.,Toray Industries Inc |
Kainoh M.,Toray Industries Inc |
Masuoka T.,Kanazawa Medical University |
And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2014
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The pharmacological properties of particular receptors have recently been suggested to vary under different conditions. We compared the pharmacological properties of the α1B-adrenoceptor subtype in various tissue preparations and under various conditions.EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH [3H]-prazosin binding to α1B-adrenoceptors in rat liver (segments, dispersed hepatocytes and homogenates) was assessed and the pharmacological profiles were compared with the functional and binding profiles in rat carotid artery and recombinant α1B-adrenoceptors.KEY RESULTS In association and saturation-binding experiments with rat liver, binding affinity for [3H]-prazosin varied significantly between preparations (KD value approximately ten times higher in segments than in homogenates). The binding profile for various drugs in liver segments also deviated from the representative α1B-adrenoceptor profile observed in liver homogenates and recombinant receptors. L-765,314 and ALS-77, selective antagonists of α1B-adrenoceptors, showed high binding and antagonist affinities in liver homogenates and recombinant α1B-adrenoceptors. However, binding affinities for both ligands in the segments of rat liver and carotid artery were 10 times lower, and the antagonist potencies in α1B-adrenoceptor-mediated contractions of carotid artery were more than 100 times lower than the representative α1B-adrenoceptor profile.CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS In contrast to the consistent profile of recombinant α1B-adrenoceptors, the pharmacological profile of native α1B-adrenoceptors of rat liver and carotid artery varied markedly under various receptor environments, showing significantly different binding properties between intact tissues and homogenates, and dissociation between functional and binding affinities. In addition to conventional 'subtype' characterization, 'phenotype' pharmacology must be considered in native receptor evaluations in vivo and in futre pharmacotherapy. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.
Ishikawa H.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine |
Mutoh M.,National Cancer Center Research Institute |
Suzuki S.,Nagoya City University |
Tokudome S.,Nagoya City University |
And 25 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2014
Objective: To evaluate the influence of low-dose, enteric-coated aspirin tablets (100 mg/day for 2 years) on colorectal tumour recurrence in Asian patients with single/multiple colorectal tumours excised by endoscopy. Design: A double-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled multicentre clinical trial was conducted. Participants: 311 subjects with single/multiple colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas excised by endoscopy were enrolled in the study (152 patients in the aspirin group and 159 patients in the placebo group). Enrolment began at the hospitals (n=19) in 2007 and was completed in 2009. Results: The subjects treated with aspirin displayed reduced colorectal tumourigenesis and primary endpoints with an adjusted OR of 0.60 (95% CI 0.36 to 0.98) compared with the subjects in the placebo group. Subgroup analysis revealed that subjects who were non-smokers, defined as those who had smoked in the past or who had never smoked, had a marked reduction in the number of recurrent tumours in the aspirin-treated group. The adjusted OR for aspirin treatment in non-smokers was 0.37 (CI 0.21 to 0.68, p<0.05). Interestingly, the use of aspirin in smokers resulted in an increased risk, with an OR of 3.44. In addition, no severe adverse effects were observed in either group. Conclusions: Low-dose, enteric-coated aspirin tablets reduced colorectal tumour recurrence in an Asian population. The results are consistent with those obtained from other randomised controlled trials in Western countries. © 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Society of Gastroenterology.
Maehata Y.,Kyushu University |
Maehata Y.,Saiseikai Yahata General Hospital |
Nakamura S.,Kyushu University |
Fujisawa K.,Kyushu University |
And 15 more authors.
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy | Year: 2012
A prospective, randomized trial proved that Helicobacter pylori eradication significantly reduces the incidence of metachronous gastric cancer during a 3-year follow-up. To investigate the long-term effect of H pylori eradication on the incidence of metachronous gastric cancer after endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer. Retrospective, multicenter study. Kyushu University Hospital and 6 other hospitals in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. Follow-up data for 268 H pyloripositive patients who had undergone endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer were retrospectively investigated. A total of 177 patients underwent successful H pylori eradication (eradicated group), whereas 91 had persistent H pylori infection (persistent group). The incidence of metachronous gastric cancer was compared in these 2 groups. When the follow-up period was censored at 5 years, the incidence rate in the eradicated group was lower than that observed in the persistent group (P =.007). During the overall follow-up period ranging from 1.1 to 11.1 years (median 3.0 years), metachronous gastric cancer developed in 13 patients (14.3%) in the persistent group and in 15 patients (8.5%) in the eradicated group (P =.262, log-rank test). Based on a multivariate logistic regression analysis, baseline severe mucosal atrophy and a follow-up of more than 5 years were found to be independent risk factors for the development of metachronous gastric cancer. Retrospective study. H pylori eradication does not reduce the incidence of metachronous gastric cancer. H pylori eradication should be performed before the progression of gastric mucosal atrophy. © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.
PubMed | Fujita Hospital, Chiba University and Kimura Hospital
Type: | Journal: Annals of general psychiatry | Year: 2016
This study aimed to evaluate whether selecting mirtazapine as the first choice for current depressive episode instead of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) reduces benzodiazepine use in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We concurrently examined the relationship between clinical responses and serum mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its precursor, proBDNF.We conducted an open-label randomized trial in routine psychiatric practice settings. Seventy-seven MDD outpatients were randomly assigned to the mirtazapine or predetermined SSRIs groups, and investigators arbitrarily selected sertraline or paroxetine. The primary outcome was the proportion of benzodiazepine users at weeks 6, 12, and 24 between the groups. We defined patients showing a 50% reduction in Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) scores from baseline as responders. Blood samples were collected at baseline, weeks 6, 12, and 24.Sixty-five patients prescribed benzodiazepines from prescription day 1 were analyzed for the primary outcome. The percentage of benzodiazepine users was significantly lower in the mirtazapine than in the SSRIs group at weeks 6, 12, and 24 (21.4 vs. 81.8%; 11.1 vs. 85.7%, both This study demonstrated mirtazapine as the first-choice antidepressant for current depressive episodes may reduce benzodiazepine use in patients with MDD.
PubMed | Hitachi Medical Corporation, Kimura Hospital and Kyushu University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European journal of radiology | Year: 2016
To elucidate the utility of PROPELLER for motion artefact reduction on shoulder MRI and to examine the influence of streak artefacts on diagnosis of clinical images.15 healthy volunteers and 48 patients underwent shoulder MRI with/without PROPELLER (coronal oblique proton density-fast spin echo [PD-FSE], sagittal oblique T2-FSE). In a volunteer study, all sequences were performed in both static and exercise-loaded conditions. Two radiologists graded artefacts and delineation of various anatomical structures in the volunteer study and motion and streak artefacts in the clinical study. Mean scores were compared between sequences with/without PROPELLER. In the clinical study, mean scores of motion artefacts were compared with mean scores of streak artefacts. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for all comparisons.In both studies, PROPELLER significantly reduced motion artefacts (P<0.05). In the volunteer study, it significantly improved delineations in sagittal oblique images in the exercise-loaded condition (P<0.05). In the clinical study, streak artefacts appeared dominantly on images with PROPELLER (P<0.05), but influenced diagnosis to a lesser extent than motion artefacts.PROPELLER can reduce motion artefacts in shoulder MRI. While it does cause streak artefacts, it affects diagnosis to a lesser extent.