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Beit Jann, Israel

Elad D.,Kimron Veterinary Institute
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2011

Fungi belonging to the Scedosporium/. Pseudallescheria complex (SPCF) have been known to cause human infections for nearly a century and are important human pathogens, with an increasing frequency of infection in patients with underlying conditions. There appears to be a lower incidence of infections with SPCF in veterinary species, although this may be related to a lack of awareness of these diseases. Important recent taxonomic changes in this group of fungi include the classification of Pseudallescheria boydii and Scedosporium apiospermum as two distinct species and the identification of new pathogenic species of SPCF. In this article, the literature on natural and experimental infections caused by SPCF in veterinary species is reviewed. The importance of an accurate identification of veterinary isolates by molecular methods is stressed, especially since virulence and susceptibility to antimycotic drugs of different species may vary. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Elad D.,Kimron Veterinary Institute
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2013

The emergence of immunosuppressive human diseases and therapies in the last decades has raised the question of the risks and benefits for this group of patients deriving from their interaction with pets and the necessity to balance them in the best interest of the pet owner. Risks are related to the possibility of contracting zoonotic infections that are more severe and occasionally lethal in immunocompromised patients. To mitigate the risks and allow the owner to keep the pet, guidelines have been devised. The cooperation and communication between the owner, the physician and the veterinarian are fundamental for a rational approach in evaluating of the potential health risks associated with pets as sources of zoonotic diseases. The final decision should, however, be made by the owner, who alone will enjoy the benefits of the relationship but also be the one to bear the consequences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

The history of recorded cases of anthrax in human beings and animals from 1909 to 2012 in the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea is reviewed. The disease was endemic until the middle of the 20th century, but the incidence decreased thereafter, with only sporadic cases from the 1980s onwards. Human cases have not been diagnosed in the region since 1984 and the number of episodes of animal disease has reduced to less than one per year. This decline is mostly due to the disruption of the infective cycle by improved veterinary control, including vaccination, treatment and outbreak management. A policy of reactive vaccination for 10. years of affected herds and herds grazing in their proximity has been applied. No new outbreaks have been observed in such herds after the cessation of vaccination, despite continued grazing on the same sites, so it is assumed that spore survival in such areas is shorter than 10. years. This is independent of the soil composition, which is calcareous throughout most of the relevant area. However, reemergence of anthrax, even after decades, has occurred following disturbance and heavy rainfall. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ben-Nathan D.,Kimron Veterinary Institute
Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2013

Stress has been found to exacerbate the outcome of bacterial and viral infectious diseases in humans and animal models. The effect of stress on the immune system in human and animal studies is suppressive with changes in the activity of a wide range of immune system components. The data suggests that immune changes induced by stress appear to be great enough to be a health risk. The interaction of the immune system with the brain plays a significant role in the outcome of infectious diseases. The results reported demonstrate that stress paradigms are proposed to increase the fluidity of cell membranes in the central nervous system (CNS), and consequently disrupt the blood-brain-barrier, promoting viral neuroinvasion causing encephalitis and death in mice infected with attenuated West Nile Virus (WNV). Exposure of infected mice to various stress paradigms have been found to induce immunosuppression, increased replication of the virus and caused penetration of non-invasive viruses into the brain. Source

Kimron Veterinary Institute | Date: 2010-10-07

An isolated polynucleotide is disclosed which comprises a nucleic acid sequence of a

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