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Martinez-Outschoorn U.E.,Kimmel Cancer Center | Lisanti M.P.,University of Manchester | Sotgia F.,University of Manchester
Seminars in Cancer Biology | Year: 2014

Fibroblasts are the most abundant "non-cancerous" cells in tumors. However, it remains largely unknown how these cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) promote tumor growth and metastasis, driving chemotherapy resistance and poor clinical outcome. This review summarizes new findings on CAF signaling pathways and their emerging metabolic phenotypes that promote tumor growth. Although it is well established that altered cancer metabolism enhances tumor growth, little is known about the role of fibroblast metabolism in tumor growth. New studies reveal that metabolic coupling occurs between catabolic fibroblasts and anabolic cancer cells, in many types of human tumors, including breast, prostate, and head & neck cancers, as well as lymphomas. These catabolic phenotypes observed in CAFs are secondary to a ROS-induced metabolic stress response. Mechanistically, this occurs via HIF1-alpha and NFκB signaling, driving oxidative stress, autophagy, glycolysis and senescence in stromal fibroblasts. These catabolic CAFs then create a nutrient-rich microenvironment, to metabolically support tumor growth, via the local stromal generation of mitochondrial fuels (lactate, ketone bodies, fatty acids, glutamine, and other amino acids). New biomarkers of this catabolic CAF phenotype (such as caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and MCT4), which are reversible upon treatment with anti-oxidants, are strong predictors of poor clinical outcome in various types of human cancers. How cancer cells metabolically reprogram fibroblasts can also help us to understand the effects of cancer cells at an organismal level, explaining para-neoplastic phenomena, such as cancer cachexia. In conclusion, cancer should be viewed more as a systemic disease, that engages the host-organism in various forms of energy-transfer and metabolic co-operation, across a whole-body "ecosystem". © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Gao J.-S.,Brown University | Zhang Y.,Brown University | Tang X.,Brown University | Tucker L.D.,Brown University | And 4 more authors.
FEBS Letters | Year: 2011

MicroRNA profiling of diseased/non-diseased tissue has identified expression signatures associated with a wide range of pathogenic conditions including malignancy. For example, colon cancer is associated with the under expression of miRNA-143 yet the molecular etiology of under expression is unknown. The K-Ras oncogene is a target of miRNA-143. Here, we show that the ecotropic viral integration site 1 oncoprotein (Evi1) is a transcriptional suppressor of the miRNA-143 gene. We find an indirect relationship between miRNA-143 and Evi1 expression. A complex molecular axis linking Evi1, miRNA-143 is operational in human colon cancer. © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Eschelman D.J.,Thomas Jefferson University | Gonsalves C.F.,Thomas Jefferson University | Sato T.,Kimmel Cancer Center
Seminars in Interventional Radiology | Year: 2013

Despite successful treatment of the primary tumor, uveal melanoma has a propensity to metastasize to the liver. Prognosis is poor due to the very aggressive nature of these tumors. Because systemic therapies are relatively ineffective and patient survival correlates to disease control in the liver, locoregional therapies provide a means of prolonging survival. We review various techniques including chemoembolization, immunoembolization, radioembolization, arterial fotemustine infusion, and hepatic perfusion for the treatment of liver metastases from uveal melanoma.

Goodson W.H.,California Pacific Medical Center | Sayeed S.A.,Kimmel Cancer Center | Jaffee I.M.,California Pacific Medical Center | Moore D.H.,University of California at San Francisco
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2011

Breast cancer is an estrogen-driven disease. Consequently, hormone replacement therapy correlates with disease incidence. However, increasing male breast cancer rates over the past three decades implicate additional sources of estrogenic exposure including wide spread estrogen-mimicking chemicals or xenoestrogens (XEs), such as bisphenol-A (BPA). By exposing renewable, human, high-risk donor breast epithelial cells (HRBECs) to BPA at concentrations that are detectable in human blood, placenta and milk, we previously identified gene expression profile changes associated with activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway genesets likely to trigger prosurvival changes in human breast cells. We now provide functional validation of mTOR activation using pairwise comparisons of 16 independent HRBEC samples with and without BPA exposure. We demonstrate induction of key genes and proteins in the PI3K-mTOR pathway-AKT1, RPS6 and 4EBP1 and a concurrent reduction in the tumor suppressor, phosphatase and tensin homolog gene protein. Altered regulation of mTOR pathway proteins in BPA-treated HRBECs led to marked resistance to rapamycin, the defining mTOR inhibitor. Moreover, HRBECs pretreated with BPA, or the XE, methylparaben (MP), surmounted antiestrogenic effects of tamoxifen showing dose-dependent apoptosis evasion and induction of cell cycling. Overall, XEs, when tested in benign breast cells from multiple human subjects, consistently initiated specific functional changes of the kind that are attributed to malignant onset in breast tissue. Our observations demonstrate the feasibility of studying renewable human samples as surrogates and reinforce the concern that BPA and MP, at low concentrations detected in humans, can have adverse health consequences. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.

Liu Q.,Drexel University | Russell M.R.,Colket Translational Research Building | Shahriari K.,Drexel University | Jernigan D.L.,Drexel University | And 4 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Despite the progress made in the early detection and treatment of prostate adenocarcinoma, the metastatic lesions from this tumor are incurable. We used genome-wide expression analysis of human prostate cancer cells with different metastatic behavior in animal models to reveal that bone-tropic phenotypes upregulate three genes encoding for the cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1b), the chemokine CXCL6 (GCP-2), and the protease inhibitor elafin (PI3). The Oncomine database revealed that these three genes are significantly upregulated in human prostate cancer versus normal tissue and correlate with Gleason scores ≥7. This correlation was further validated for IL-1β by immunodetection in prostate tissue arrays. Our study also shows that the exogenous overexpression of IL-1β in nonmetastatic cancer cells promotes their growth into large skeletal lesions in mice, whereas its knockdown significantly impairs the bone progression of highly metastatic cells. In addition, IL-1β secreted by metastatic cells induced the overexpression of COX-2 (PTGS2) in human bone mesenchymal cells treated with conditioned media from bone metastatic prostate cancer cells. Finally, we inspected human tissue specimens from skeletal metastases and detected prostate cancer cells positive for both IL-1β and synaptophysin while concurrently lacking prostate-specific antigen (PSA, KLK3) expression. Collectively, these findings indicate that IL-1β supports the skeletal colonization and metastatic progression of prostate cancer cells with an acquired neuroendocrine phenotype. © 2013 American Association for Cancer Research.

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