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Manchaiah V.K.C.,University of Swansea | Manchaiah V.K.C.,Kimab - Corrosion And Metals Research Institute | Stephens D.,University of Cardiff
Hearing, Balance and Communication | Year: 2013

Objective: This discussion paper aims to highlight factors that may be important in defining hearing loss and its consequences and to present different perspectives based on various models of disability. Method: Relevant literature was reviewed to develop the discussion. Results: Hearing is a complex function that has both cognitive and emotional aspects. A person with hearing loss may have consequences in the physical, mental and social domains. Hearing loss in the context of clinical audiology is currently defined based on type of pathology and severity. However, evidence from both clinical findings and research suggest that this may not cover all the aspects of 'hearing loss' as a disability. Conclusion: Defining and describing hearing loss and its consequences with a holistic approach has some clinical value particularly in the context of audiological enablement/rehabilitation. © 2013 Informa Healthcare.

Tzanis C.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Varotsos C.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Christodoulakis J.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Tidblad J.,Kimab - Corrosion And Metals Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2011

In the frame of the European project, entitled MULTI-ASSESS, specimens of structural metals, glass, stone and concrete materials were exposed to air pollution at a station, which was installed for this purpose on a building, located in the centre of Athens. The main purpose of this project was to determine the corrosion and soiling effects of air pollution on materials. A set of the specimens was exposed in a position that was sheltered from rain and partly from wind, and another set was exposed in unsheltered positions on the roof of the above said building. In addition, other specimens were exposed at different heights on the same building, in order to investigate for the first time the corrosion and soiling effects on various materials as a function of height. For the determination of these effects, chemical analysis of the specimens was performed and basic parameters as the weight change, the layer thickness and the optical properties were calculated. Finally, the results obtained are discussed and their plausible interpretation is attempted. © 2011 Author(s).

Laftman S.B.,Kimab - Corrosion And Metals Research Institute | Modin B.,Center for Health Equity Studies
Sociology of Health and Illness | Year: 2012

Although boys and girls are generally located in the same physical school environment, it may be experienced differently by, and have varying implications for, boys and girls. Girls like school more and achieve higher school marks, but they also perceive more school-related pressure. Based on a total sample of 8456 ninth grade pupils in Stockholm in 2004, this study uses multilevel linear regression to analyse differences between boys and girls with regard to a number of school-performance indicators (demands, motivation, teacher support and school marks) and their association with subjective health complaints. Results showed that girls perceive more demands, show greater academic motivation, perform better in school and report more emotional support from teachers than boys. In contrast, instrumental and appraisal support from teachers are more commonly reported by boys. Associations between school-performance indicators and subjective health complaints were slightly stronger for girls than for boys. Contextual variation in health complaints, especially between classes, was found only for girls. High achievement motivation and emotional teacher support in the school class was associated with better pupil health, suggesting that a positive climate in terms of motivation and support favours class health as a whole. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Lu Y.,RWTH Aachen | Hutchinson B.,Kimab - Corrosion And Metals Research Institute | Molodov D.A.,RWTH Aachen | Gottstein G.,RWTH Aachen
Acta Materialia | Year: 2010

Microstructure and texture evolution during cold rolling and subsequent annealing were studied in an Fe-22 wt.% Mn-0.376 wt.% C alloy. During rolling the deformation mechanisms were found to be dislocation slip, mechanical twinning, deformation-induced ε-martensite transformation and shear banding. At higher strains, the brass-type texture with a spread towards the Goss-type texture dominated. A decrease in the Cu- and S- components was attributed to the preferential transformation to ε-martensite in Cu- and S-oriented grains. The texture of ε-martensite was sharp and could be described as {1 1 2 9}〈3 3 6 2〉. The orientation relationship {1 1 1}γ//{0 0 0 1}ε and 〈110〉γ//〈1 1 -2 0〉ε between ε-martensite and austenite was observed but only certain variants were selected. On subsequent annealing, the ε-martensite transformed reversely to austenite by a diffusionless mechanism. Changes in length along rolling, normal and transverse directions on heating were anisotropic due to a combination of volume expansion and shape memory effects. The S-texture component increased significantly due to transformation from the ε-martensite. © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc.

Besser J.,VU University Amsterdam | Koelewijn T.,VU University Amsterdam | Zekveld A.A.,VU University Amsterdam | Zekveld A.A.,Kimab - Corrosion And Metals Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Trends in Amplification | Year: 2013

The ability to recognize masked speech, commonly measured with a speech reception threshold (SRT) test, is associated with cognitive processing abilities. Two cognitive factors frequently assessed in speech recognition research are the capacity of working memory (WM), measured by means of a reading span (Rspan) or listening span (Lspan) test, and the ability to read masked text (linguistic closure), measured by the text reception threshold (TRT). The current article provides a review of recent hearing research that examined the relationship of TRT and WM span to SRTs in various maskers. Furthermore, modality differences in WM capacity assessed with the Rspan compared to the Lspan test were examined and related to speech recognition abilities in an experimental study with young adults with normal hearing (NH). Span scores were strongly associated with each other, but were higher in the auditory modality. The results of the reviewed studies suggest that TRT and WM span are related to each other, but differ in their relationships with SRT performance. In NH adults of middle age or older, both TRT and Rspan were associated with SRTs in speech maskers, whereas TRT better predicted speech recognition in fluctuating nonspeech maskers. The associations with SRTs in steady-state noise were inconclusive for both measures. WM span was positively related to benefit from contextual information in speech recognition, but better TRTs related to less interference from unrelated cues. Data for individuals with impaired hearing are limited, but larger WM span seems to give a general advantage in various listening situations. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

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