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Manchaiah V.K.C.,University of Swansea | Manchaiah V.K.C.,Kimab - Corrosion And Metals Research Institute | Stephens D.,University of Cardiff
Hearing, Balance and Communication | Year: 2013

Objective: This discussion paper aims to highlight factors that may be important in defining hearing loss and its consequences and to present different perspectives based on various models of disability. Method: Relevant literature was reviewed to develop the discussion. Results: Hearing is a complex function that has both cognitive and emotional aspects. A person with hearing loss may have consequences in the physical, mental and social domains. Hearing loss in the context of clinical audiology is currently defined based on type of pathology and severity. However, evidence from both clinical findings and research suggest that this may not cover all the aspects of 'hearing loss' as a disability. Conclusion: Defining and describing hearing loss and its consequences with a holistic approach has some clinical value particularly in the context of audiological enablement/rehabilitation. © 2013 Informa Healthcare.


Tzanis C.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Varotsos C.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Christodoulakis J.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Tidblad J.,Kimab - Corrosion And Metals Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2011

In the frame of the European project, entitled MULTI-ASSESS, specimens of structural metals, glass, stone and concrete materials were exposed to air pollution at a station, which was installed for this purpose on a building, located in the centre of Athens. The main purpose of this project was to determine the corrosion and soiling effects of air pollution on materials. A set of the specimens was exposed in a position that was sheltered from rain and partly from wind, and another set was exposed in unsheltered positions on the roof of the above said building. In addition, other specimens were exposed at different heights on the same building, in order to investigate for the first time the corrosion and soiling effects on various materials as a function of height. For the determination of these effects, chemical analysis of the specimens was performed and basic parameters as the weight change, the layer thickness and the optical properties were calculated. Finally, the results obtained are discussed and their plausible interpretation is attempted. © 2011 Author(s).


Ng E.H.N.,Kimab - Corrosion And Metals Research Institute | Rudner M.,Kimab - Corrosion And Metals Research Institute | Lunner T.,Kimab - Corrosion And Metals Research Institute | Lunner T.,Eriksholm Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Ear and Hearing | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVES: A hearing aid noise reduction (NR) algorithm reduces the adverse effect of competing speech on memory for target speech for individuals with hearing impairment with high working memory capacity. In the present study, we investigated whether the positive effect of NR could be extended to individuals with low working memory capacity, as well as how NR influences recall performance for target native speech when the masker language is non-native.DESIGN: A sentence-final word identification and recall (SWIR) test was administered to 26 experienced hearing aid users. In this test, target spoken native language (Swedish) sentence lists were presented in competing native (Swedish) or foreign (Cantonese) speech with or without binary masking NR algorithm. After each sentence list, free recall of sentence final words was prompted. Working memory capacity was measured using a reading span (RS) test.RESULTS: Recall performance was associated with RS. However, the benefit obtained from NR was not associated with RS. Recall performance was more disrupted by native than foreign speech babble and NR improved recall performance in native but not foreign competing speech.CONCLUSION: Noise reduction improved memory for speech heard in competing speech for hearing aid users. Memory for native speech was more disrupted by native babble than foreign babble, but the disruptive effect of native speech babble was reduced to that of foreign babble when there was NR. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Besser J.,VU University Amsterdam | Koelewijn T.,VU University Amsterdam | Zekveld A.A.,VU University Amsterdam | Zekveld A.A.,Kimab - Corrosion And Metals Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Trends in Amplification | Year: 2013

The ability to recognize masked speech, commonly measured with a speech reception threshold (SRT) test, is associated with cognitive processing abilities. Two cognitive factors frequently assessed in speech recognition research are the capacity of working memory (WM), measured by means of a reading span (Rspan) or listening span (Lspan) test, and the ability to read masked text (linguistic closure), measured by the text reception threshold (TRT). The current article provides a review of recent hearing research that examined the relationship of TRT and WM span to SRTs in various maskers. Furthermore, modality differences in WM capacity assessed with the Rspan compared to the Lspan test were examined and related to speech recognition abilities in an experimental study with young adults with normal hearing (NH). Span scores were strongly associated with each other, but were higher in the auditory modality. The results of the reviewed studies suggest that TRT and WM span are related to each other, but differ in their relationships with SRT performance. In NH adults of middle age or older, both TRT and Rspan were associated with SRTs in speech maskers, whereas TRT better predicted speech recognition in fluctuating nonspeech maskers. The associations with SRTs in steady-state noise were inconclusive for both measures. WM span was positively related to benefit from contextual information in speech recognition, but better TRTs related to less interference from unrelated cues. Data for individuals with impaired hearing are limited, but larger WM span seems to give a general advantage in various listening situations. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.


Rossow I.,Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research | Norstrom T.,Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research | Norstrom T.,Kimab - Corrosion And Metals Research Institute
Addiction | Year: 2012

Aims To estimate the effect on violence of small changes in closing hours for on-premise alcohol sales, and to assess whether a possible effect is symmetrical. Design, setting, and participants A quasi-experimental design drawing on data from 18 Norwegian cities that have changed (extended or restricted) the closing hours for on-premise alcohol sales. All changes were≤2 hours. Measurements Closing hours were measured in terms of the latest permitted hour of on-premise trading, ranging from 1 a.m. to 3 a.m. The outcome measure comprised police-reported assaults that occurred in the city centre between 10 p.m. and 5 a.m. at weekends. Assaults outside the city centre during the same time window should not be affected by changes in closing hours but function as a proxy for potential confounders, and was thus included as a control variable. The data spanned the period Q1 2000-Q3 2010, yielding 774 observations. Findings Outcomes from main analyses suggested that each 1-hour extension of closing hours was associated with a statistically significant increase of 4.8 assaults (95% CI 2.60, 6.99) per 100000 inhabitants per quarter (i.e. an increase of about 16%). Findings indicate that the effect is symmetrical. These findings were consistent across three different modelling techniques. Conclusion In Norway, each additional 1-hour extension to the opening times of premises selling alcohol is associated with a 16% increase in violent crime. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.


Laftman S.B.,Kimab - Corrosion And Metals Research Institute | Modin B.,Center for Health Equity Studies
Sociology of Health and Illness | Year: 2012

Although boys and girls are generally located in the same physical school environment, it may be experienced differently by, and have varying implications for, boys and girls. Girls like school more and achieve higher school marks, but they also perceive more school-related pressure. Based on a total sample of 8456 ninth grade pupils in Stockholm in 2004, this study uses multilevel linear regression to analyse differences between boys and girls with regard to a number of school-performance indicators (demands, motivation, teacher support and school marks) and their association with subjective health complaints. Results showed that girls perceive more demands, show greater academic motivation, perform better in school and report more emotional support from teachers than boys. In contrast, instrumental and appraisal support from teachers are more commonly reported by boys. Associations between school-performance indicators and subjective health complaints were slightly stronger for girls than for boys. Contextual variation in health complaints, especially between classes, was found only for girls. High achievement motivation and emotional teacher support in the school class was associated with better pupil health, suggesting that a positive climate in terms of motivation and support favours class health as a whole. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Nelson K.,Kimab - Corrosion And Metals Research Institute
Journal of European Social Policy | Year: 2012

Material deprivation is high on the political agenda in Europe and part of the agreed benchmarks in the EU social inclusion process. This study analyses the link between social assistance benefit levels and material deprivation in European countries. It is shown that the relationship between assistance and deprivation is negative, indicating that material deprivation is less extensive in countries with higher benefit levels. The influence of other relevant contextual effects does not change this relationship to any serious extent. There was no clear effect of public services or active labour market policy on material deprivation, factors essential in the EU discussion on poverty and social inclusion. The results demonstrate that the role of social assistance in combating material hardships should perhaps be strengthened in future EU policy frameworks. The empirical analyses are based on data from the EU-SILC and the SaMip dataset, covering 26 European countries. © The Author(s) 2012.


Lu Y.,RWTH Aachen | Hutchinson B.,Kimab - Corrosion And Metals Research Institute | Molodov D.A.,RWTH Aachen | Gottstein G.,RWTH Aachen
Acta Materialia | Year: 2010

Microstructure and texture evolution during cold rolling and subsequent annealing were studied in an Fe-22 wt.% Mn-0.376 wt.% C alloy. During rolling the deformation mechanisms were found to be dislocation slip, mechanical twinning, deformation-induced ε-martensite transformation and shear banding. At higher strains, the brass-type texture with a spread towards the Goss-type texture dominated. A decrease in the Cu- and S- components was attributed to the preferential transformation to ε-martensite in Cu- and S-oriented grains. The texture of ε-martensite was sharp and could be described as {1 1 2 9}〈3 3 6 2〉. The orientation relationship {1 1 1}γ//{0 0 0 1}ε and 〈110〉γ//〈1 1 -2 0〉ε between ε-martensite and austenite was observed but only certain variants were selected. On subsequent annealing, the ε-martensite transformed reversely to austenite by a diffusionless mechanism. Changes in length along rolling, normal and transverse directions on heating were anisotropic due to a combination of volume expansion and shape memory effects. The S-texture component increased significantly due to transformation from the ε-martensite. © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc.


Lundqvist A.,Health Science University | Lundqvist A.,University Hospital | Grundstrm K.,University Hospital | Samuelsson K.,Health Science University | And 2 more authors.
Brain Injury | Year: 2010

Objective: Study short- and long-term transfer effects of a computerized working memory (WM) training programme for patients suffering from working memory deficits after acquired brain injury. Research design: A controlled experimental study with a cross-over design. Methods: A consecutive sample of 21 subjects. Mean age 43.2 years, time since injury/illness onset 37 months (median). The subjects were randomly selected into two groups where one group served as controls. All subjects trained daily for 5 weeks in a computer WM task program. They were followed-up at 4 and 20 weeks after the training. Results: A significant improvement in the trained WM tasks, significant improvements in neuropsychological WM-test results at 4 and 20 weeks after training compared to baseline. Improvement in the subjects' rated occupational performance and satisfaction with performance in pre-defined occupational problems. Rated quality-of-life did not change. However, rated overall health increased 20 weeks after training. Conclusions: Structured and intense computerized WM training improves subjects' cognitive functioning as measured by neuropsychological WM-demanding tests, rated occupational performance, satisfaction with performance and rated overall health. The training probably has an impact on the rehabilitation outcome, returning to work, as well as on daily activities for individuals with verified WM impairments. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved.


Cuijpers P.,VU University Amsterdam | Donker T.,VU University Amsterdam | Van Straten A.,VU University Amsterdam | Li J.,CAS Institute of Psychology | And 2 more authors.
Psychological Medicine | Year: 2010

Background Although guided self-help for depression and anxiety disorders has been examined in many studies, it is not clear whether it is equally effective as face-to-face treatments.Method We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in which the effects of guided self-help on depression and anxiety were compared directly with face-to-face psychotherapies for depression and anxiety disorders. A systematic search in bibliographical databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane) resulted in 21 studies with 810 participants.Results The overall effect size indicating the difference between guided self-help and face-to-face psychotherapy at post-test was d=0.02, in favour of guided self-help. At follow-up (up to 1 year) no significant difference was found either. No significant difference was found between the drop-out rates in the two treatments formats.Conclusions It seems safe to conclude that guided self-help and face-to-face treatments can have comparable effects. It is time to start thinking about implementation in routine care. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

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