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Vyas S.,Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College | Heise L.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Journal of Interpersonal Violence | Year: 2014

Estimates of the effect of employment on women’s risk of partner violence in cross-sectional studies are subject to potential “self-selection bias.” Women’s personal choice of whether to pursue employment or not may create fundamental differences between the group of women who are employed and those who are not employed that standard regression methods cannot account for even after adjusting for confounding. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the utility of propensity score matching (PSM), a technique used widely in econometrics, to address this bias in cross-sectional studies. We use PSM to estimate an unbiased effect-size of women’s employment on their risk of experiencing partner violence in urban and rural Tanzania using data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Three different measures of women’s employment were analyzed: whether they had engaged in any productive work outside of the home in the past year, whether they received payment in cash for this productive work, and whether their employment was stable. Women who worked outside of the home were significantly different from those who did not. In both urban and rural Tanzania, women’s risk of violence appears higher among women who worked in the past year than among those who did not, even after using PSM to account for underlying differences in these two groups of women. Being paid in cash reversed this effect in rural areas whereas stability of employment reduced this risk in urban centers. The estimated size of effect varied by type of matching estimator, but the direction of the association remained largely consistent. This study’s findings suggest substantial self-selection into employment. PSM methods, by compensating for this bias, appear to be a useful tool for estimating the relationship between women’s employment and partner violence in cross-sectional studies. © The Author(s) 2014. Source


Vanderburg S.,Duke University | Rubach M.P.,Duke University | Halliday J.E.B.,University of Glasgow | Cleaveland S.,University of Glasgow | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2014

Background:Q fever is a common cause of febrile illness and community-acquired pneumonia in resource-limited settings. Coxiella burnetii, the causative pathogen, is transmitted among varied host species, but the epidemiology of the organism in Africa is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review of C. burnetii epidemiology in Africa from a "One Health" perspective to synthesize the published data and identify knowledge gaps.Methods/Principal Findings:We searched nine databases to identify articles relevant to four key aspects of C. burnetii epidemiology in human and animal populations in Africa: infection prevalence; disease incidence; transmission risk factors; and infection control efforts. We identified 929 unique articles, 100 of which remained after full-text review. Of these, 41 articles describing 51 studies qualified for data extraction. Animal seroprevalence studies revealed infection by C. burnetii (≤13%) among cattle except for studies in Western and Middle Africa (18-55%). Small ruminant seroprevalence ranged from 11-33%. Human seroprevalence was <8% with the exception of studies among children and in Egypt (10-32%). Close contact with camels and rural residence were associated with increased seropositivity among humans. C. burnetii infection has been associated with livestock abortion. In human cohort studies, Q fever accounted for 2-9% of febrile illness hospitalizations and 1-3% of infective endocarditis cases. We found no studies of disease incidence estimates or disease control efforts.Conclusions/Significance:C. burnetii infection is detected in humans and in a wide range of animal species across Africa, but seroprevalence varies widely by species and location. Risk factors underlying this variability are poorly understood as is the role of C. burnetii in livestock abortion. Q fever consistently accounts for a notable proportion of undifferentiated human febrile illness and infective endocarditis in cohort studies, but incidence estimates are lacking. C. burnetii presents a real yet underappreciated threat to human and animal health throughout Africa. © 2014 Vanderburg et al. Source


Mahande M.J.,Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College | Obure J.,Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2016

Background: Both short and long interpregnancy intervals have been associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is limited information about the impact of interpregnancy interval on pregnancy (IPI) outcomes in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of IPI on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study using maternally-linked data from Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) birth registry. A total of 17,030 singlet births from women who delivered singleton infant at KCMC from 2000 to 2010 were studied. Women with multi-fetal gestations and those who were referred from rural areas for various medical reasons were excluded. Outcome variables were preterm birth, low birth weight infants and perinatal death. A multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association between IPI and pregnancy outcomes. Results: The median IPI was 36 months. Compared with IPIs of 24-36 months (referent group), short interpregnancy intervals (<24 months) was associated with preterm delivery (OR 1.52; 95 % CI 1.31-1.74); low birth weight (OR 1.61; 95 % CI 1.34-1.72) and perinatal death, (OR 1.63; 95 % CI 1.22-1.91). The IPI of 37-59 months or longer were also associated with higher risks of preterm birth and low birth weight, but not with perinatal death. Conclusions: Our study confirmed that both short and long IPI are independent risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. These finding emphasize the importance of providing support for family planning programs which will support optimal IPI and improve pregnancy outcomes. © 2016 The Author(s). Source


Mukama L.J.,Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College | Moran A.,University of Minnesota | Nyindo M.,Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College | Philemon R.,Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College | Msuya L.,Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College
Pediatric Diabetes | Year: 2013

Objective: There are an estimated 1000 children with diabetes in Tanzania. Recently, the first two pediatric endocrinologists, trained in the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE)/International Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) program in Nairobi, Kenya, entered practice. The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess the impact of a 6-month diabetes management and education program on glycemic control and acute complications in children and adolescents in Tanzania. Research design and methods: Eighty-one patients aged 3-19yr were enrolled. All were on split-dose Insulatard (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) and Actrapid (soluble, regular) insulin, and were given three glucose test strips per week. Children were seen in clinic an average of six times over 6months and received 3h of diabetes education. A structured questionnaire evaluated social demographic data and acute complications. Results: Despite regular clinic attendance, diabetes education, and provision of insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels did not improve. Four children (5%) had HbA1c 7.5%, 22 (28%) HbA1c 7.5-10%, 9 (24%) HbA1c 11-12.5%, and 36 (44%) HbA1c >12.5%. There was a substantial reduction in severe hypoglycemia, with 17% of subjects experiencing this acute complication compared to 52% in the 6months prior to study enrolment. Six children were admitted in diabetic ketoacidosis during the study compared to three during the previous 6months. Twenty-six children (36%) reported missing >6 doses of insulin (but only two lacked insulin). Conclusions: Diabetes education significantly reduced the risk of severe hypoglycemia, but better glycemic control of diabetes was not attained. Further study is needed to explore factors to improve glycemic control including increased testing, or perhaps different insulin regimens. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source


O'Loughlin S.M.,Imperial College London | Magesa S.,Amani Research Center | Magesa S.,Rti International | Mbogo C.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2014

Anopheles gambiae s.l. are important malaria vectors, but little is known about their genomic variation in the wild. Here, we present inter- and intraspecies analysis of genome-wide RADseq data, in three Anopheles gambiae s.l. species collected from East Africa. The mosquitoes fall into three genotypic clusters representing described species (A. gambiae, A. arabiensis, and A. merus) with no evidence of cryptic breeding units. Anopheles merus is the most divergent of the three species, supporting a recent new phylogeny based on chromosomal inversions. Even though the species clusters are well separated, there is extensive shared polymorphism, particularly between A. gambiae and A. arabiensis. Divergence between A. gambiae and A. arabiensis does not vary across the autosomes but is higher in X-linked inversions than elsewhere on X or on the autosomes, consistent with the suggestion that this inversion (or a gene within it) is important in reproductive isolation between the species. The 2La/2L+a inversion shows no more evidence of introgression between A. gambiae and A. arabiensis than the rest of the autosomes. Population differentiation within A. gambiae and A. arabiensis is weak over approximately 190-270 km, implying no strong barriers to dispersal. Analysis of Tajima's D and the allele frequency spectrum is consistent with modest population increases in A. arabiensis and A. merus, but a more complex demographic history of expansion followed by contraction in A. gambiae. Although they are less than 200 km apart, the two A. gambiae populations show evidence of different demographic histories. © 2014 The Author. Source

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