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Lyimo E.J.,Tumaini University Makumira | Todd J.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Todd J.,Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College | Richey L.A.,Roskilde University | Njau B.,Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College
Sahara J | Year: 2013

This study describes the social networks of secondary school students in Moshi Municipality, and their association with self-rated risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted among 300 students aged 15-24 years in 5 secondary schools in Moshi, Tanzania. Bonding networks were defined as social groupings of students participating in activities within the school, while bridging networks were groups that included students participating in social groupings from outside of the school environs. A structured questionnaire was used to ask about participation in bonding and bridging social networks and self-rated HIV risk behavior. More participants participated in bonding networks (72%) than in bridging networks (29%). Participation in bridging networks was greater among females (25%) than males (12%, p <.005). Of 300 participants, 88 (29%) were sexually experienced, and of these 62 (70%) considered themselves to be at low risk of HIV infection. Factors associated with self-rated risk of HIV included: type of school (p <.003), family structure (p <.008), being sexually experienced (p <.004), having had sex in the past three months (p <.009), having an extra sexual partner (p <.054) and non-condom use in last sexual intercourse (p <.001), but not the presence or type of social capital. The study found no association between bonding and bridging social networks on self-rated risk of HIV among study participants. However, sexually experienced participants rated themselves at low risk of HIV infection despite practicing unsafe sex. Efforts to raise adolescents' self-awareness of risk of HIV infection through life skills education and HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome risk reduction strategies may be beneficial to students in this at-risk group. © 2014 © 2014 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis. Source


Woldemichael K.,Jimma University | Njau B.J.,Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College | Yakob B.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Biadgilign S.,John Hopkins University | Amberbir A.,University of Nottingham
Sahara J | Year: 2010

There are inconsistent findings about the relation between gender and HIV status disclosure. We conducted a facility-based cross sectional study, using qualitative and quantitative data collection methods, to explore gender differences in HIV-positive status disclosure among service users in south-west Ethiopia. Among 705 participants, an equal number of men and women (94.6% men v. 94.3%, women) indicated that they had disclosed their result to someone, and the majority (90.9% men v. 90.7% women) to their current main partner. 'It is customary to tell my partner everything' was the most frequently cited reason for disclosing (62.5% men v. 68.5% women). Reasons for non-disclosure varied by gender: men were concerned about their partner's worry and exposure of their own unfaithfulness. Women feared physical violence, and social and economic pressure in raising their children. Factors that influenced disclosure also indicated gender variation. For men, disclosure of HIV results to a sexual partner was positively associated with knowing the partner's HIV status and discussion about HIV testing prior to seeking services, while for women it was associated with knowing the partner's HIV status, advanced disease stage, having no more than primary education, being married, and perceiving the current relationship as long-lasting. There was no significant difference in the proportion of HIV status disclosure among men and women. However, the contextual barriers and motivators of disclosure varied by gender. Therefore it is important that clinicians, counsellors, and health educators underscore the importance of gender-specific interventions in efforts to dispel barriers to HIV status disclosure. Source


Ostermann J.,Duke University | Njau B.,Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College | Mtuy T.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Brown D.S.,Duke University | And 4 more authors.
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2015

In order to maximize the effectiveness of "Seek, Test, and Treat" strategies for curbing the HIV epidemic, new approaches are needed to increase the uptake of HIV testing services, particularly among high-risk groups. Low HIV testing rates among such groups suggest that current testing services may not align well with the testing preferences of these populations. Female bar workers and male mountain porters have been identified as two important high-risk groups in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. We used conventional survey methods and a discrete choice experiment (DCE), a preference elicitation method increasingly applied by economists and policy-makers to inform health policy and services, to analyze trade-offs made by individuals and quantify preferences for HIV testing services. Bivariate descriptive statistics were used to analyze differences in survey responses across groups. Compared to 486 randomly selected community members, 162 female bar workers and 194 male Kilimanjaro porters reported 2-3 times as many lifetime sexual partners (p < 0.001), but similar numbers of lifetime HIV tests (median 1-2 across all groups). For the DCE, participants' stated choices across 12,978 hypothetical HIV testing scenarios (422 female and 299 male participants x 9 choice tasks x 2 alternatives) were analyzed using gender-specific mixed logit models. Direct assessments and the DCE data demonstrated that barworkers were less likely to prefer home testing and were more concerned about disclosure issues compared with their community counterparts. Male porters preferred testing in venues where antiretroviral therapy was readily available. Both high-risk groups were less averse to traveling longer distances to test compared to their community counterparts. These results expose systematic differences in HIV testing preferences across high-risk populations compared to their community peers. Tailoring testing options to the preferences of high-risk populations should be evaluated as a means of improving uptake of testing in these populations. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source


Stanifer J.W.,Duke University | Turner E.L.,Duke University | Egger J.R.,Duke University | Thielman N.,Duke University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a leading cause of death among adults in sub-Saharan Africa, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing public health threat. Understanding knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with NCDs is vital to informing optimal policy and public health responses in the region, but few community-based assessments have been performed for CKD. To address this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of adults in northern Tanzania using a validated instrument. Methods: Between January and June 2014, we administered a structured survey to a random sample of adults from urban and rural communities. The validated instrument consisted of 25 items designed to measure knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with kidney disease. Participants were also screened for CKD, diabetes, hypertension, and human immunodeficiency virus. Results: We enrolled 606 participants from 431 urban and rural households. Knowledge of the etiologies, symptoms, and treatments for kidney disease was low (mean score 3.28 out of 10; 95% CI 2.94, 3.63). There were no significant differences by CKD status. Living in an urban setting and level of education had the strongest independent associations with knowledge score. Attitudes were characterized by frequent concern about the health (27.3%; 20.2, 36.0%), economic (73.1%; 68.2, 77.5%), and social impact (25.4%; 18.6, 33.6%) of kidney disease. Practices included the use of traditional healers (15.2%; 9.1, 24.5%) and traditional medicines (33.8%; 25.0, 43.9%) for treatment of kidney disease as well as a willingness to engage with mobile-phone technology in CKD care (94.3%; 90.1, 96.8%). Conclusions: Community-based adults in northern Tanzania have limited knowledge of kidney disease. However, there is a modest knowledge base upon which to build public health programs to expand awareness and understanding of CKD, but these programs must also consider the variety of means by which adults in this population meet their healthcare needs. Finally, our assessment of local attitudes suggested that such public health efforts would be well-received. © 2016 Stanifer et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source


Bastiaens G.J.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Schaftenaar E.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Ndaro A.,Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center | Keuter M.,Radboud University Nijmegen | And 4 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2011

Background: Patterns of decreasing malaria transmission intensity make presumptive treatment of malaria an unjustifiable approach in many African settings. The controlled use of anti-malarials after laboratory confirmed diagnosis is preferable in low endemic areas. Diagnosis may be facilitated by malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). In this study, the impact of a government policy change, comprising the provision of RDTs and advice to restrict anti-malarial treatment to RDT-positive individuals, was assessed by describing diagnostic behaviour and treatment decision-making in febrile outpatients <10 years of age in three hospitals in the Kagera and Mwanza Region in northern Tanzania. Methods. Prospective data from Biharamulo and Rubya Designated District Hospital (DDH) were collected before and after policy change, in Sumve DDH no new policy was implemented. Diagnosis of malaria was confirmed by RDT; transmission intensity was evaluated by a serological marker of malaria exposure in hospital attendees. Results: Prior to policy change, there was no evident association between the actual level of transmission intensity and drug-prescribing behaviour. After policy change, there was a substantial decrease in anti-malarial prescription and an increase in prescription of antibiotics. The proportion of parasite-negative individuals who received anti-malarials decreased from 89.1% (244/274) to 38.7% (46/119) in Biharamulo and from 76.9% (190/247) to 10.0% (48/479) in Rubya after policy change. Conclusion: This study shows that an official policy change, where RDTs were provided and healthcare providers were advised to adhere to RDT results in prescribing drugs can be followed by more rational drug-prescribing behaviour. The current findings are promising for improving treatment policy in Tanzanian hospitals. © 2011 Bastiaens et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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