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Mittlefehldt D.W.,NASA | Beck A.W.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Beck A.W.,Smithsonian Institution | Lee C.-T.A.,Rice University | And 2 more authors.
Meteoritics and Planetary Science | Year: 2012

We have done bulk rock compositional analyses (INAA, ICP-MS) and petrologic study of a suite of diogenite meteorites. Most contain orthopyroxenes with mg#s of 70.6-79.0. Meteorite Hills (MET) 00425 is magnesian (mg# of 83.9). Lewis Cliff (LEW) 88011 contains orthopyroxene grains of varying mg# (76.3-68.6). Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 93009 (orthopyroxene mg# 70.6) contains coarse-grained noritic clasts (plagioclase An 84.7-88.3), and is rich in incompatible trace elements. It has Eu/Eu*<1, indicating that cumulate norites do not dominate its trace element inventory. Queen Alexandra Range 93009 may be transitional between diogenites and magnesian cumulate eucrites. Lewis Cliff 88679, a dimict breccia of harzburgite and orthopyroxenite, has anomalously low concentrations of highly incompatible elements (e.g., Nb, La, Ta, U) compared to other diogenites, but is similar to them in less highly incompatible elements (e.g., Y, Zr, Yb, Hf). It is unlikely that this characteristic reflects a low proportion of a trapped melt component. The highly incompatible elements were likely mobilized after impact mixing of the two parent lithologies. Graves Nunataks 98108 shows an extreme range in Eu/Eu* attributable to the heterogeneous distribution of plagioclase; one sample has the lowest Eu/Eu* among diogenites. We find no compelling evidence to support the hypothesis that diogenite parent magmas were contaminated by partial melts of the eucritic crust. We posit that subsolidus equilibration between orthopyroxene and minor/trace phases (including phosphates) resulted in preferential redistribution of Eu 2+ relative to Eu 3+ and other rare earth elements, and results in anomalously low Eu/Eu* in samples leached in acids that dissolve phosphates. © The Meteoritical Society, 2011. Source

Mirik M.,Texas AgriLife Research Center | Ansley R.J.,Texas AgriLife Research Center | Steddom K.,Kilgore College | Rush C.M.,Texas AgriLife Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Applied Remote Sensing | Year: 2014

The effects of insect infestation in agricultural crops are of major ecological and economic interest because of reduced yield, increased cost of pest control and increased risk of environmental contamination from insecticide application. The Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia) is an insect pest that causes damage to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). We proposed that concentrated RWA feeding areas, referred to as "hot spots," could be identified and isolated from uninfested areas within a field for site specific aphid management using remotely sensed data. Our objectives were to (1) investigate the reflectance characteristics of infested and uninfested wheat by RWA and (2) evaluate utility of airborne hyperspectral imagery with 1-m spatial resolution for detecting, quantifying, and mapping RWA infested areas in commercial winter wheat fields using the constrained energy minimization classifier. Percent surface reflectance from uninfested wheat was lower in the visible and higher in the near infrared portions of the spectrum when compared with RWA-infested wheat. The overall classification accuracies of >89% for damage detection were achieved. These results indicate that hyperspectral imagery can be effectively used for accurate detection and quantification of RWA infestation in wheat for site-specific aphid management. © The Authors. Source

Giribet G.,Harvard University | McIntyre E.,Harvard University | Christian E.,University of Vienna | Espinasa L.,Marist College | And 8 more authors.
Invertebrate Systematics | Year: 2014

Palpigradi are a poorly understood group of delicate arachnids, often found in caves or other subterranean habitats. Concomitantly, they have been neglected from a phylogenetic point of view. Here we present the first molecular phylogeny of palpigrades based on specimens collected in different subterranean habitats, both endogean (soil) and hypogean (caves), from Australia, Africa, Europe, South America and North America. Analyses of two nuclear ribosomal genes and COI under an array of methods and homology schemes found monophyly of Palpigradi, Eukoeneniidae and a division of Eukoeneniidae into four main clades, three of which include samples from multiple continents. This supports either ancient vicariance or long-range dispersal, two alternatives we cannot distinguish with the data at hand. In addition, we show that our results are robust to homology scheme and analytical method, encouraging further use of the markers employed in this study to continue drawing a broader picture of palpigrade relationships. © CSIRO 2014. Source

Greenwood R.C.,Open University Milton Keynes | Barrat J.-A.,CNRS Oceanic Domains Laboratory | Scott E.R.D.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Haack H.,Center for Star and Planet Formation | And 7 more authors.
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2015

Evidence from iron meteorites indicates that a large number of differentiated planetesimals formed early in Solar System history. These bodies should have had well-developed olivine-rich mantles and consequentially such materials ought to be abundant both as asteroids and meteorites, which they are not. To investigate this "Great Dunite Shortage" we have undertaken a geochemical and oxygen isotope study of main-group pallasites and dunitic rocks from mesosiderites. Oxygen isotope analysis of 24 main-group pallasites (103 replicates) yielded a mean δ17O value of -0.187±0.016‰ (2σ), which is fully resolved from the HED δ17O value of -0.246±0.014 (2σ) obtained in our earlier study and demonstrates that both groups represent distinct populations and were derived from separate parent bodies. Our results show no evidence for δ17O bimodality within the main-group pallasites, as suggested by a number of previous studies. Olivine-rich materials from the Vaca Muerta, Mount Padbury and Lamont mesosiderites, and from two related dunites (NWA 2968 and NWA 3329), have δ17O values within error of the mesosiderite average. This indicates that these olivine-rich materials are co-genetic with other mesosiderite clasts and are not fragments from an isotopically distinct pallasite-like impactor. Despite its extreme lithologic diversity the mesosiderite parent body was essentially homogeneous with respect to δ17O, a feature best explained by an early phase of large-scale melting (magma ocean), followed by prolonged igneous differentiation. Based on the results of magma ocean modeling studies, we infer that Mg-rich olivines in mesosiderites formed as cumulates in high-level chambers and do not represent samples of the underlying mantle. By analogy, recently documented Mg-rich olivines in howardites may have a similar origin. Although the Dawn mission did not detect mesosiderite-like material on Vesta, evidence linking the mesosiderites and HEDs includes: (i) their nearly identical oxygen isotope compositions; (ii) the presence in both of coarse-grained Mg-rich olivines; (iii) both have synchronous Lu-Hf and Mn-Cr ages; (iv) there are compositional similarities between the metal in both; and (v) mesosiderite-like material has been identified in a howardite breccia. The source of the mesosiderites remains an outstanding question in meteorite science. The underrepresentation of olivine-rich materials amongst both asteroids and meteorites results from a range of factors. However, evidence from pallasites and mesosiderites indicates that the most important reason for this olivine shortage lies in the early, catastrophic destruction of planetesimals in the terrestrial planet-forming region and the subsequent preferential loss of their olivine-rich mantles. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

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