Kigali Institute of Science and Technology

Kigali, Rwanda

Kigali Institute of Science and Technology

Kigali, Rwanda

The Kigali Institute of Science, Technology and Management in Kigali, Rwanda is the first technology-focused institution of higher education to be created by the Rwanda government. It was established in November, 1997. Major partners in its creation were the Ministry of Education, the UNDP Rwanda, and GTZ, a German enterprise. Wikipedia.

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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2007.9.1 | Award Amount: 984.89K | Year: 2008

The development of SandT cooperation on ICT is today of strategic and mutual interest to the EU and to Africa. A couple of projects supporting this cooperation have been funded these last years by the EC, including the START SSA, the last one launched under FP6 and upon which the EuroAfriCa-ICT project will build. From the experience gained through these initiatives, the EuroAfriCa-ICT partnership has identified the following project objectives to efficiently support the development of a strategic cooperation between the EU and Africa on ICT: support to the dialogue between DG InfSo and African authorities; identification, support and promotion of strategic cooperation opportunities; implementation of awareness activities in Africa (and the ACP region) and in Europe; promotion in the considered regions; development of synergies with national and international programmes and initiatives. The project will mainly focus on sub-Saharan Africa as a coherent target region for the development of SandT cooperation on ICT, including South Africa, considered as a key reference country in the project. A set of methodologies and activities allowing reaching these objectives over the project lifetime has been identified. Among the project outputs: the organisation of EuroAfriCa-ICT cooperation summits in Europe and in Africa, the organisation of awareness workshops in Africa and in the Caribbean region, the coordination of the work undertaken by the EuroAfriCa-ICT Group, the development of a mapping database and of a content oriented web portal. Between the START and the EuroAfriCa-ICT activities, a suited complementarity and a seamless continuity will be ensured. The START consortium has been extended on the European and African sides so that the EuroAfriCa-ICT activities can have the widest impact on the European and African ICT communities. The project is formally supported by the NEPAD and by leading European companies and research organisations in the ICT field.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2009.9.1 | Award Amount: 844.44K | Year: 2010

The EUROAFRICA-ICT.ORG project is defined in full continuity and builds on the substantial results obtained and the important momentum created by two previous projects: the FP6/IST START and the FP7/ICT EuroAfriCa-ICT projects.\n\nIt is on this basis and on the conclusions of the 1st Euro-Africa Cooperation Forum on ICT research successfully organised in March 2009 in Brussels by the EuroAfriCa-ICT project, that the present project is proposed.\n\nProject activities will be developed over a 24-month period:\n Policy and research priorities will be explored through an approach involving all interested stakeholders, and recommendations for future cooperation opportunities will be derived from them,\n cooperation events will be organised in Europe and in Africa, synchronised whenever possible with policy dialogue meetings, in order to provide inputs to these meetings, facilitate the development of synergies with other programmes and initiatives (including the CAAST-NET project), involve key stakeholders (such as the ETPs and JTIs in the ICT area), fine tune priorities, etc. Among these cooperation events: the 2010 and 2011 editions of the Euro-Africa Cooperation Forum on ICT research,\n Support will be provided to European and African organisations in their efforts to connect and develop joint projects (through an active online community of researchers from both regions, a database of African excellence research centers, proactive help desk services, etc.),\n Dissemination activities will support all other activities in order to ensure the highest overall impact to the project.\n\nThe EUROAFRICA-ICT project is:\n A focused, result-oriented and ambitious project, while requiring a reasonable amount of resources,\n Presented by a limited partnership, offering all skills to develop planned activities and having already worked together, hence being efficient since the start of the project,\n Supported by a high number of leading ICT organisations from both regions

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRA-2012-3.3. | Award Amount: 1.03M | Year: 2012

The eI4Africa project aims to boost the research, technological development and innovation (RTDI) potential of African e-Infrastructures and to support policy dialogues and Euro-African cooperation in the framework of the Joint Africa-EU Strategic Partnership on trade, regional integration and infrastructures (JAES Partnership #3) as well as the Joint Africa-EU Strategic Partnership on science, information society and space (JAES Partnership #8).\n\nSpecifically, the eI4Africa project seeks to achieve the following main objectives:\n\n- Define and implement a structured multi-channel outreach strategy to support the development of African national and regional research and education networks (NRENs/RENs), build cooperation between Euro-African NRENs, RENs and user communities, raise awareness at policy level on the benefits and value of research and education networks, and promote and strengthen Euro-African collaborative research on e-Infrastructures and their applications;\n\n- Produce a state-of-the-art study of e-Infrastructure application uptake in Africa to identify who are early adopters of e-Infrastructures (providers) and which user communities are early beneficiaries (consumers) of e-Infrastructures;\n\n- Select existing flagship demonstrations from other continents and illustrate their relevance to the African context in order to stimulate policy dialogue on e-Infrastructures;\n\n- Stimulate targeted policy and regulatory discussions, including (but not limited to) cross-border connectivity and affordable access to infrastructure by organising awareness raising flagship African e-Infrastructure application demonstrations.\n\nThe project Consortium consists of 9 partners with significant experience of ICT policies in Europe and Africa and Africa-EU S&T/ICT/Infrastructures cooperation. It is capable of significantly impacting the expansion of Euro-African e-Infrastructures in close liaison with the EC/AUC and in partnership with key stakeholders in the field.

Parawira W.,Kigali Institute of Science and Technology | Tekere M.,University of South Africa
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology | Year: 2011

One of the major challenges faced in commercial production of lignocellulosic bioethanol is the inhibitory compounds generated during the thermo-chemical pre-treatment step of biomass. These inhibitory compounds are toxic to fermenting micro-organisms. The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds formed or released during thermo-chemical pre-treatment step such as acid and steam explosion. This review describes the application and/or effect of biological detoxification (removal of inhibitors before fermentation) or use of bioreduction capability of fermenting yeasts on the fermentability of the hydrolysates. Inhibition of yeast fermentation by the inhibitor compounds in the lignocellulosic hydrolysates can be reduced by treatment with enzymes such as the lignolytic enzymes, for example, laccase and micro-organisms such as Trichoderma reesei, Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616, Trametes versicolor, Pseudomonas putida Fu1, Candida guilliermondii, and Ureibacillus thermosphaericus. Microbial and enzymatic detoxifications of lignocellulosic hydrolysate are mild and more specific in their action. The efficiency of enzymatic process is quite comparable to other physical and chemical methods. Adaptation of the fermentation yeasts to the lignocellulosic hydrolysate prior to fermentation is suggested as an alternative approach to detoxification. Increases in fermentation rate and ethanol yield by adapted micro-organisms to acid pre-treated lignocellulosic hydrolysates have been reported in some studies. Another approach to alleviate the inhibition problem is to use genetic engineering to introduce increased tolerance by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for example, by overexpressing genes encoding enzymes for resistance against specific inhibitors and altering co-factor balance. Cloning of the laccase gene followed by heterologous expression in yeasts was shown to provide higher enzyme yields and permit production of laccases with desired properties for detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolysates. A combination of more inhibitor-tolerant yeast strains with efficient feed strategies such as fed-batch will likely improve lignocellulose-to-ethanol process robustness. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Asemota G.N.O.,Kigali Institute of Science and Technology
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

Effective and efficient electricity load- and demand-side management depends on the transmission, distribution and interconnecting networks of properly designed and adequately sized conductors to carry the produced electrical power to the ultimate consumers. A two-way optimal conductor design using computable convex functions was investigated in this paper. Composite materials whose area approaches the minimum and for which both the maximum vertical and horizontal currents simultaneously satisfy the Laplace's equation, was considered. The resulting variational problem was homogenised or relaxed and thence, made polyconvex through the Lagrangian multipliers and Green's identity. The main reason for the convexification of this design problem is that over the interval of convexity, there is only one minimum. This is so because any polyconvex function, which satisfies the boundary conditions is always minimising. That fact can strengthen many of the results we might desire while using the developed computable convex functions to show that no conductor area can be lower than that of the optimal two-way conductor designed in this study. Although the conductor proposed in this study would be more expensive than the conventional steel-cored cables, the economics of much higher current carrying capacities makes it more attractive. Additionally, their light weight requires that no new transmission towers are installed; they will suffer less sag, able to operate at much higher temperatures than aluminium conductor steel reinforced (ACSR) and less blackouts. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Parawira W.,Kigali Institute of Science and Technology
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Biogas technology provides an alternative source of energy to fossil fuels in many parts of the world. Using local resources such as agricultural crop remains, municipal solid wastes, market wastes and animal waste, energy (biogas), and manure are derived by anaerobic digestion. The hydrolysis process, where the complex insoluble organic materials are hydrolysed by extracellular enzymes, is a rate-limiting step for anaerobic digestion of high-solid organic solid wastes. Biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis are areas in need of drastic improvement for economic production of biogas from complex organic matter such as lignocellulosic material and sewage sludge. Despite development of pretreatment techniques, sugar release from complex biomass still remains an expensive and slow step, perhaps the most critical in the overall process. This paper gives an updated review of the biotechnological advances to improve biogas production by microbial enzymatic hydrolysis of different complex organic matter for converting them into fermentable structures. A number of authors have reported significant improvement in biogas production when crude and commercial enzymes are used in the pretreatment of complex organic matter. There have been studies on the improvement of biogas production from lignocellulolytic materials, one of the largest and renewable sources of energy on earth, after pretreatment with cellulases and cellulase-producing microorganisms. Lipids (characterised as oil, grease, fat, and free long chain fatty acids, LCFA) are a major organic compound in wastewater generated from the food processing industries and have been considered very difficult to convert into biogas. Improved methane yield has been reported in the literature when these lipid-rich wastewaters are pretreated with lipases and lipase-producing microorganisms. The enzymatic treatment of mixed sludge by added enzymes prior to anaerobic digestion has been shown to result in improved degradation of the sludge and an increase in methane production. Strategies for enzyme dosing to enhance anaerobic digestion of the different complex organic rich materials have been investigated. This review also highlights the various challenges and opportunities that exist to improve enzymatic hydrolysis of complex organic matter for biogas production. The arguments in favor of enzymes to pretreat complex biomass are compelling. The high cost of commercial enzyme production, however, still limits application of enzymatic hydrolysis in full-scale biogas production plants, although production of low-cost enzymes and genetic engineering are addressing this issue. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Nkurikiyimfura I.,South China University of Technology | Nkurikiyimfura I.,Kigali Institute of Science and Technology | Wang Y.,South China University of Technology | Wang Y.,Key Laboratory of Specially Functional Materials | And 2 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

Magnetic nanofluids (MNF) constitute a special class of nanofluids that exhibit both magnetic and fluid properties. The interests in the use of MNF as a heat transfer medium stem from a possibility of controlling its flow and heat transfer process via an external magnetic field. This review presents recent developments in this field with the aim of identifying major affecting parameters and some novel applications. This review emphasizes on thermal conductivity enhancement and thermomagnetic convection in devices using MNFs as heat transfer media. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Parawira W.,Kigali Institute of Science and Technology
Scientific Research and Essays | Year: 2010

Biodiesel has attracted considerable attention during the past decade as a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel alternative to fossil fuels. Biodiesel can be obtained from vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible) and from animal fat. Jatropha curcas Linnaeus, a multipurpose plant, contains high amount of oil in its seeds which can be converted to biodiesel. J. curcas is probably the most highly promoted oilseed crop at present in the world. The availability and sustainability of sufficient supplies of less expensive feedstock in the form of vegetable oils, particularly J. curcas and efficient processing technology to biodiesel will be crucial determinants of delivering a competitive biodiesel. Oil contents, physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition of J. curcas reported in literature are provided in this review. The fuel properties of Jatropha biodiesel are comparable to those of fossil diesel and confirm to the American and European standards. The objective of this review is to give an update on the J. curcas L. plant, the production of biodiesel from the seed oil and research attempts to improve the technology of converting vegetable oil to biodiesel and the fuel properties of the Jatropha biodiesel. The technological methods that can be used to produce biodiesel are presented together with their advantages and disadvantages. The use of lipase as biotechnological solution to alkali and acid catalysis of transesterification and its advantages is discussed. There is need to carry out research on the detoxification of the seed cake to increase the benefits from J. curcas. There is also need to carry out life-cycle assessment and the environment impacts of introducing large scale plantations. There is also still a dearth of research about the influence of various cultivation-related factors and their interactions and influence on seed yield. Many other areas that need to be researched on Jatropha curcas L. are pointed out in this review. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Wootters W.K.,Williams College | Wootters W.K.,Kigali Institute of Science and Technology
Foundations of Physics | Year: 2012

The limitation on the sharing of entanglement is a basic feature of quantum theory. For example, if two qubits are completely entangled with each other, neither of them can be at all entangled with any other object. In this paper we show, at least for a certain standard definition of entanglement, that this feature is lost when one replaces the usual complex vector space of quantum states with a real vector space. Moreover, the difference between the two theories is extreme: in the real-vector-space theory, there exist states of arbitrarily many binary objects, "rebits," in which every rebit in the system is maximally entangled with each of the other rebits. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Akinyemi F.O.,Kigali Institute of Science and Technology
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2013

The Nigerian government is reviving the agricultural sector to shift from its sole dependence on crude oil for foreign exchange earnings. Thus, the Cocoa Belt (agro-ecological region) of southwest Nigeria is important to the national economy. With the increasing demand for land to grow export crops and to meet other needs such as settlement expansion, land use is changing. Land-use data and mapping are essential inputs for the process of formulating, implementing, and monitoring policy with the aim of reducing the impact of land-cover/land-use (LCLU) change. Land-use types, their spatial extent and dynamics over a 25 year period are examined from multispectral images of the Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. This study examines the main drivers of LCLU change and the environmental impact. Results show that forest conversion to agricultural lands is the main trend, and cultivation is the main cause of forest loss in the study area. The need to produce food for the teeming population, coupled with the government's policy to expand export crop production is resulting in the loss of native forest, including areas designated as forest reserves. Results underscore the need for deliberate land-use planning and management in this belt. This study reveals the situation of unplanned and rapid changes to land use in the context of a developing country where explicit policies to cater for such activities are absent. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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