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Rao V.,Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology
Indian journal of cancer | Year: 2010

Tobacco is a well-acknowledged social and health evil. The history of tobacco use traces back to the dawn of human civilization and has been deeply entrenched into the human society since time immemorial. The social, economic, and health impact of tobacco has been a subject of intense debate over the recent decades. For India, this problem has been a unique one, with the consumption patterns either largely influenced by the socioeconomic backgrounds or dictated by the cultural diversity. With more than 200 million tobacco consumers in the country at present, it becomes imperative to address this health hazard and stir up strong measures toward damage control. This article addresses the tobacco problem, its evolution, and the factors that have affected the growth of Indian tobacco industry. It also highlights the current legislative measures against tobacco, fiscal gains to the government, and the serious health and economic impact to the consumer, compounded by the increasing cost of private health care in the present era of consumerism.

Burrah R.,Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology
The Indian journal of chest diseases & allied sciences | Year: 2012

Solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura is a rare primary pleural neoplasm. These tumours are usually asymptomatic and are incidentally detected. Majority of these neoplasms are benign and surgical excision provides excellent results. With the widespread use of imaging and better diagnostic criteria, this tumour is likely to be detected more frequently. We encountered a patient with a giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura. In this report, we describe the case of a patient with a giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura, review the literature and present the details of management of this patient.

Saminathan S.,Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology
Journal of applied clinical medical physics / American College of Medical Physics | Year: 2010

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy treatment demands stringent quality assurance and accurate dose determination for delivery of highly conformal dose to the patients. Generally 3D dose distributions obtained from a treatment planning system have to be verified by dosimetric methods. Mainly, a comparison of two-dimensional calculated and measured data in several coplanar planes is performed. In principle, there are many possibilities to measure two-dimensional dose distributions such as films, flat-panel electronic portal imaging devices (EPID), ion chambers and ionization chamber arrays, and radiographic and radiochromic films. The flat-panel EPIDs show a good resolution and offer a possibility for real-time measurements: however to convert the signal into dose, a separate commercial algorithm is required. The 2D ion chamber array system offers the real-time measurements. In this study, dosimetric characteristics of 2D ion chamber array matrix were analyzed for verification of radiotherapy treatments. The dose linearity and dose rate effect of the I'matriXX device was studied using 6 MV, 18 MV photons and 12 MeV electrons. The output factor was estimated using I'matriXX device and compared with ion chamber measurements. The ion chamber array system was found to be linear in the dose range of 2-500 cGy and the response of the detector was found to be independent of dose rate between 100 MU/min to 600 MU/min. The estimated relative output factor with I'matriXX was found to match very well with the ion chamber measurements. To check the final dose delivered during IMRT planning, dose distribution patterns such as field-in-field, pyramidal, and chair tests were generated with the treatment planning system (TPS) and the same was executed in the accelerator and measured with the I'matriXX device. The dose distribution pattern measured by the matrix device for field-in-field, pyramidal, and chair test were found to be in good agreement with the calculated dose distribution by TPS both for 6 and 18 MV photons (gamma < or = 1: 96%, criteria 3%, 3 mm). Two 7-field IMRT plans (one prostate, one head and neck) dose distribution patterns were also measured with I'matriXX device and compared with film dosimetry. The measurements and evaluation proves that I'matriXX can be used for quantifying absolute dose. Moreover, using I'matriXX as absolute dosimeter in IMRT field verification, avoids the time-consuming procedure of making ionometric measurement for absolute dose estimation and film for dose distribution verification. The I'matriXX can also used for routine quality assurance checks like flatness, symmetry, field width, and penumbra of the linear accelerator beam.

Suma T.L.,Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology | Year: 2016

Tumors arising from urachus in children are exceedingly rare and sporadically reported in literature. Being a midline structure, the urachus may harbor neoplastic germ cell elements and can occasionally present as a case of acute abdomen. A 20-month-old toddler presented with spontaneous rupture of an urachal yolk sac tumor causing hemoperitoneum. He underwent resection, received platinum-based chemotherapy and presently remains well on follow-up. Despite its rarity, urachal germ cell tumors must be considered in a child with acute abdomen and tumor markers must be measured preemptively in such cases. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Shwetha B.,Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology
Journal of applied clinical medical physics / American College of Medical Physics | Year: 2010

HDR brachytherapy treatment planning often involves optimization methods to calculate the dwell times and dwell positions of the radioactive source along specified afterloading catheters. The purpose of this study is to compare the dose distribution obtained with geometric optimization (GO) and volume optimization (VO) combined with isodose reshaping. This is a retrospective study of 10 cervix HDR interstitial brachytherapy implants planned using geometric optimization and treated with a dose of 6 Gy per fraction. Four treatment optimization plans were compared: geometric optimization (GO), volume optimization (VO), geometric optimization followed by isodose reshape (GO_IsoR), and volume optimization followed by isodose reshape (VO_IsoR). Dose volume histogram (DVH) was analyzed and the four plans were evaluated based on the dosimetric parameters: target coverage (V100), conformal index (COIN), homogeneity index (HI), dose nonuniformity ratio (DNR) and natural dose ratio (NDR). Good target coverage by the prescription dose was achieved with GO_ IsoR (mean V100 of 88.11%), with 150% and 200% of the target volume receiving 32.0% and 10.4% of prescription dose, respectively. Slightly lower target coverage was achieved with VO_IsoR plans (mean V100 of 86.11%) with a significant reduction in the tumor volume receiving high dose (mean V150 of 28.29% and mean V200 of 7.3%). Conformity and homogeneity were good with VO_ IsoR (mean COIN = 0.75 and mean HI = 0.58) as compared to the other optimization techniques. VO_IsoR plans are superior in sparing the normal structures while also providing better conformity and homogeneity to the target. Clinically acceptable plans can be obtained by isodose reshaping provided the isodose lines are dragged carefully.

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