Harada K.,Kibi International University
[Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health | Year: 2010
OBJECTIVE: Life-space is a spatial measure of mobility defined by the distance a person routinely travels to perform activities over a specific time period. Life-space assessment (LSA) has been widely applied, but measurement properties have not been investigated in a Japanese population. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to describe distributions of maximal life-space and to clarify the validity of composite scores of an LSA scale among community-dwelling older adults using preventive health care services in Japan. METHODS: Surveys were conducted between November 2007 and February 2008 with a specially prepared Japanese LSA version. The sample was composed of 2,147 participants using preventive health care services provided by the Japanese long-term care insurance system, all being aged 65 and over, with adequate cognitive functions and living at home in the community (29.5% men, mean age +/- [SD] 79.4 +/- 6.9 years). First, the levels of life-space, based on how far a person had travelled on leaving his or her place of residence during the month preceding the assessment, were investigated. Second, LSA scores were calculated considering the degree of independence as well as frequencies for individuals at each level, then descriptive statistics were checked. Finally, it was tested whether the scores could be related to external criteria and functional or socio-psychological variables stated in previous studies. RESULTS: Sixty-four percent of individuals attained the highest level of life-space (i.e. outside town). The average of the composite scores was 51.4 +/- 25.2 points and the distribution was almost normal. The dispersion of the scores tended to be large. Values correlated with the hierarchical mobility level classification as an external criterion (0.539). As hypothesized, the scores were correlated with age (-0.296), functional mobility (time up and go test) (-0.387), and instrumental activities of daily living (0.533), and were discriminated by sex, depressive mood, and perceived health status, in the expected directions. CONCLUSIONS: The present study described the extent of life-space in older adults using preventive health care services in Japan, and provided preliminary support for criterion-related (concurrent) and construct validity of scores with the LSA Japanese version. The LSA composite scoring method may have advantages for detecting differences in life-space among individuals, as compared to simply using the maximal level attained.
Rein R.,German Sport University Cologne |
Bril B.,Groupe de Recherche Apprentissage et Contexte |
Nonaka T.,Kibi International University
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2013
Stone tool-use and manufacture is seen as an important skill during the evolution of our species and recently there has been increased interest in the understanding of perceptual-motor abilities underlying this skill. This study provides further information with respect to the motor strategies used during stone knapping. Kinematics of the striking arm were recorded in expert and novice knappers while producing flakes of two different sizes. Using Uncontrolled Manifold Analysis, the results showed that knappers structure joint angle movements such that the hammer trajectory variability is minimized across trials, with experts displaying significantly smaller variability compared with novices. Principal component analysis further revealed that a single component captures the complexity of the strike and that the strike is governed by movements of the elbow and the wrist. Analysis of movement velocities indicated that both groups adjusted movement velocities according to flake size although experts used smaller hammer, wrist, and elbow velocities in both flake conditions compared with novices. The results suggest that while the gross striking movement is easy to replicate for a novice knapper, it requires prolonged training before a knapper becomes attuned to the finer details necessary for controlled flaking. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nonaka T.,Kibi International University
Ecological Psychology | Year: 2013
This study examined the movement coordination in an exceptional tetraplegic individual who has practiced Japanese calligraphy with a mouth-held brush for over 25 years to reach master level. In the experiment, the calligrapher wrote the same Chinese character on a sheet of ink paper multiple times. The uncontrolled manifold analysis revealed the forms of covariation among joint degrees of freedom so as to keep the brush pressure, brush angle, and upright head posture invariant over different realizations of the task while allowing for joint configuration fluctuations that do not affect these task variables. The fact that the 3 task variables were simultaneously controlled further suggested that the acquisition of the skill was not only a matter of learning to control each of the task variables but also a matter of learning to nest different layers of activities that control the multiple functional relationships to the environment in such a way as not to be dysfunctional for one layer to another. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Hirao K.,Kibi International University
International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health | Year: 2015
Background: Internet addiction (IA) is a common disorder among adolescents throughout most of the industrialized world. The purpose of this study was to compare mental states between Japanese undergraduates with IA and those without IA. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, 165 healthy participants were assessed for IA using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), for the frequency and quality of flow experiences in daily life using the Flow Experience Checklist (FEC), and for depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). Results: The results showed that the prevalence of IA in the participants of this study was 15% and the frequencies of flow experience and depressive symptoms were significantly higher in the IA group. Conclusion: The results indicate that IA affects a significant number of Japanese university students and is associated with higher rates of depressive symptoms, suggesting a need for intervention programs as part of student mental health services. © 2015 by De Gruyter.
Hirao K.,Kibi International University
North American Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2014
Background: Autotelic personality (AP) is known to have a positive effect on the quality of life. We hypothesized that inferiority feelings may be less pronounced in individuals with AP than in those with an average (AV) or a nonautotelic personality (NAP). Aims: This study aimed to compare inferiority feelings among three personality groups: An AP group, an AV group, and an NAP group. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey among 148 undergraduate students aged 18-24 undertaken in Okayama, Japan. Participants completed the Flow Experience Checklist and Inferiority Feelings Scale. Results: With the number of flow activities, participants were classified into three groups: 3+ for AP (n = 28, 18.9%), 1-2 for AV (n = 72, 48.6%), and 0 for NAP (n = 48, 32.4%). One-way analysis of variance showed significant differences among the three groups with respect to the Inferiority Feelings Scale. Multiple comparison analysis using Tukey’s test showed that inferiority feelings in AP were significantly less pronounced than in the NAP group. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that AP was lesser than NAP in association with pronounced inferiority feelings. © 2014, North American Journal of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.