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Jan I.,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University | Khan H.,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University | Hayat S.,Institute of Management Sciences
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2012

'Multiple fuels-multiple choice' is a common notion associated with the energy choice theory. Following the same theoretical framework, this study aims to identify: (i) existing sources of energy (ii) the associated factors that determine a household choice of a particular source of energy. The study is based on primary data collected from 100 randomly selected households in two villages in northwest Pakistan. The study found that rural households, though having access to multiple sources of energy, persistently depend on biomass fuels for domestic energy consumption. Nonetheless, rural households exhibit inter-fuel switching according to changes in their socioeconomic conditions. The study concludes that income is not the only determinant of transition from traditional to more convenient forms of energy, other factors such as access to alternative energy sources and consumer preferences also account for a household energy choice.


Khan N.U.,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University | Hassan G.,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

The nature and magnitude of genetic effects on morpho-yield traits were studied in a 6 × 6 F1 and F2 diallel cross in upland cotton. An additive-dominance model was adequate for most of the traits except plant height and seed cotton yield, where the model was partially adequate. Genetic parameters were estimated following Hayman's and Mather's model. Additive effects controlled lint percentage and monopodia in both generations, and plant height and sympodia in F2. Non-additive inheritance with over-dominance controlled yield in both generations, and plant height and sympodia in F1. Most traits presented an unequal proportion of positive (U) and negative (V) alleles in the loci (H2


Amanullah,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University | Muhammad A.,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

An experiment consisted of 33 germplasm of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) collected from FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas) and neglected pockets of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa were evaluated at the sub-Research Station, Kalam (Swat) during summer 1999-2000. Based on the grain yield potential, these germplasm were divided into three groups. Germplasm CB-9 ranked first by producing maximum grain yield of 3310 kg ha-1, while germplasm CB-6 with 3188 kg ha-1ranked second, while the lowest grain yield (333 kg ha-1) was produced by germplasm CB-23. Average grain yield in groups decreased in descending order from 2701 kg ha-1 in group I to 1553 kg ha-1 in group II and then further decreased to 750 kg ha-1 in group III. Maturity period varied from 76 to 96 days, plant height 39 to 96 cm, branches per plant 4 to 7, pod length 5.7 to 14.3 cm, seeds per pod 4.9 to 7.6, pods per plant 9 to 39, dry matter yield 1334 to 6666 kg ha-1, 100-seeds weight 19.0 to 72.1 g, and harvest index varied from 14.3 to 66.2% among different germplasm. Average values of grain yield in the three groups showed positive relationship with plant height, dry matter yield, and harvest index; but showed negative relationship with days to maturity.


Muhammad D.,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University | Khattak R.A.,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University
Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan | Year: 2011

Crop yields are limited under salt-affected soils receiving saline irrigation water. A field experiment was conducted on silty clay loam saline sodic soil [fine loamy, mixed, hyperthermic Typic Haplustepts, ECe = 8.03-11.76 dS m-1, SAR=15.8-17.9] to investigate the effect of gypsum (G), pressmud (PM), and farmyard manure (FYM) applied alone or in various combinations on soil reclamation and mitigating the adverse effects of saline tube-well waters (ECiw = 5.5 dSm-1, SAR = 10.0). Treatments included the amendments (AM) ;G (6.0 Mg ha-1), PM (7.0 Mg ha-1), G+PM (3.0 + 3.5 Mg ha-1) equivalent to 100% gypsum requirement (GR) applied alone or with 4.0 Mg ha-1 FYM in two factorial [4 AM x 2 FYM] RCB design with three replications. Sole application of G, PM, and G+PM significantly increased wheat plant height, grain and biomass yield by 24-28%, 27- 36%, and 37-39% over control which further increased to 42-46%, 68-87% and 61-73%, respectively, when these AM were applied in combination with 4.0 Mg FYM ha-1. Wheat leaf K and Ca+Mg concentrations increased while Na was depressed by G and PM but was highest in FYM treated plants. Due to increases in tissue [K], the K:Na ratio was higher in G and PM treated plots and lowest in control and FYM alone. The K:Na ratio in tissue was positively correlated to Ca+Mg:Na ratio (r2 = 0.53) and K:Na ratio (r2 = 0.43) in the soil solution. The post harvest soil SAR significantly (P > 0.01) decreased from 13.03 in control to 5.40, 7.73 and 6.27 with G, PM and G+PM treated plots, respectively. Water soluble K increased by 2-3 times with sole AM and 4-5 times with AM+FYM applications. In spite of saline irrigation the lower SAR values and high K values revealed the significant role of AM application for better management of these soils. The comparable increases in wheat grain yield and decreases in post harvest soil SAR and EC suggest that PM could be as effective as gypsum in these saline-sodic soils. The combined use of PM+G equivalent to 100% GR along with FYM is advised for the reclamation and mitigating the adverse effect of saline irrigation in these areas and for obtaining economical yields on sustainable basis.


Khan M.S.,University of Tsukuba | Khan M.S.,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University
Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment | Year: 2011

DREBs belong to the ethylene response factor (ERF) family of transcription factors that bind to the DRE/CRT element in the promoter regions of a large number of genes involved in biotic and abiotic stress signaling in plants. In the recent past, there has been substantial progress towards understanding the regulatory role of DREBs in abiotic stress responses of crop plants. Following isolation from various plant species, DREB genes have been introduced into a number of transgenic plants, which showed tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. Despite the initial success of achieving abiotic stress tolerance with DREBs, there are several issues that need further research to ensure increased plant growth and yield under abiotic stress conditions. This review focuses on the current status of research on DREB transcription factors, their role in abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic plants, and challenges confronting deployment of these plants.


Jan I.,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

Large dependence of the world population on biomass fuels for domestic energy consumption is one of the major anthropogenic causes of deforestation worldwide. The use of biomass in inefficient ways in rural areas increases fuelwood demand of a household. Development of the improved biomass stove programs in the 1970s has been one of the efforts to reduce burden on biomass resource base through reliable and efficient methods of energy consumption. However, despite having multiple economic, social, environmental, and health benefits; the improved stove dissemination programs failed to capture worldwide recognition. A wide array of socio-cultural, economic, political, and institutional barriers contributes to the low adoption rate of such programs. Drawing on field work surveys in rural northwest Pakistan, this paper provides empirical evidence of individual, household, and community level variables that play a vital role in the adoption of improved cookstoves. The study is based on primary data collected from 100 randomly selected households in two villages of rural northwest Pakistan. Using regression analysis, the study depicts that education and household income are the most significant factors that determine a household willingness to adopt improved biomass stoves. The study concludes that the rate of adoption could substantially be improved if the government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) play a greater role in overcoming the social, economic, cultural, political, and institutional barriers to adopting improved cooking technologies. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Stewart B.A.,West Texas A&M University | Ullah H.,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2015

Shoot:root (S:R) response in four winter C3-grasses (cereals) viz. wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and oats (Avena sativa L.) was investigated under eight different NPK sources (S1= 20-20-20, S2= 20-27-5, S3= 7-22-8, S4= 10-10-10-20S, S5= 11-15-11, S6= 31-11-11, S7= 24-8-16, and S8= 19-6-12) in pot experiment at Dryland Agriculture Institute, West Texas A&M University, Canyon, Texas, USA during winter 2009–2010. The experiment was performed in completely randomized design (CRD) with three repeats. The objective of this experiment was to investigate whether the S:R of winter cereals differ or not when applied with different NPK sources. Considerable variations in the shoot: root was noticed in the four grasses at different growth stages, i.e., 30, 60 and 90 days after emergence (DAE) when applied with different NPK fertilizers sources. Wheat had the highest S:R of 3.4 at 30 days after emergence (DAE), barley at 60 DAE (6.5), while oats at 90 DAE (3.9). Among the NPK sources, crops had the highest S:R of 3.6, 6.2 and 3.7 when applied with S3, S2, and S6at 30, 60 and 90 DAE, respectively. Shoot to root ratio showed positive relationship with increase in shoot weight and negative relationship with increase in root weight. The NPK fertilizer S6(31: 11: 11), an acid loving fertilizer had negative effects on the shoot and root development of cool season cereals, but among these cereals under study, barley and oats roots were affected more than wheat and rye. It was concluded from this present study, that the four cool season cereals responded differently in terms of shoot: root to different NPK fertilizers at different growth stages. © 2015, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Shehzad F.D.,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University | Farhatullah,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

Interspecific crosses of Brassica species were evaluated to identify desirable genotypes for yield and associated traits. Parent al species included Brassica napus (Dunkled, Maluko, line A-20-20), B. campestris (lines 1203 and 2163), B. carinata (Peela raya), and B. juncea (lines PR-64 and 89111-1). All traits were segregated in F2 population. All parameters were decreased in F3 in comparison to F2 population, indicating higher response of the crosses to inbreeding depression (0- 85%). A reduction in height (12-27%), primary branches (18-35%), pods main raceme-1 (19-35%), seed pod-1 (10-31%), pod length (14-28%), 100-seed weight (5-28%) and seed yield plant-1 (14-35%) of F3 population was recorded as compared to F2. Heritability estimates were low to medium (50-70%) for primary branches, medium to high (70-80%) for plant height, pod length, seeds pod-1, and seed yield plant-1 while low-medium-high for pods raceme-1 and 100-seed weight. It was concluded that selection for one of these characters would be beneficial for the others also. F3 population of Maluko × 1203 produced the maximum silique main raceme-1, seeds silique-1, silique length and 100-seed weight. Peela raya × PR-64 produced the maximum primary branches plant-1, while 2163 × 89111-1 was the best for seed yield plant-1 and plant height in F3 as compared to the F2 population.


Khan N.U.,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University
Sabrao Journal of Breeding and Genetics | Year: 2011

Heterosis in upland cotton has been exploited for many decades, but efforts have not bestowed the predictable results due to its predominant nature of self-pollination and floral structure. Currently, hand pollinated hybrid seed is being used for hybrid cotton production in some countries. Thirty F 1 and F 2 diallel cross combinations with six parental upland cotton genotypes were used to evaluate genetic potential, heterobeltiosis in F 1 and F 2 populations, economic heterosis in F 1s and inbreeding depression in F 2s during 2007 to 2009. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant variation among F 1s, F 2s and their parents. Cultivar CIM-1100 exhibited exceptional performance as paternal/maternal parent in crossing with other cultivars. Positive heterobeltiotic values were also exhibited by F 1 and F 2 hybrids. Positive economic heterotic values were recorded as 80% in F 1 hybrids for plant height, 97% for sympodia, 60% for boll weight, 83% for bolls per plant, and 60% for seed cotton yield. However, some F 2s showed inbreeding depression for the above traits. Results revealed that the F 1 and F 2 cross combinations obtained from good with medium/poor performing parents had relatively high dominant effects and exceeded check cultivars and their better parents.


Amanullah,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University | Stewart B.A.,West Texas A&M University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

Shoot: root (S:R) response of three warm season C4-cereals (grasses) viz., corn (Zea mays L., cv. Hybrid-5393 VT3), grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, cv. Hybrid-84G62 PAT), and foxtail millets (Setaria italica, cv. German Strain R) grown in pure and mixed stands was investigated at one month interval in pot experiment at West Texas A&M University, Texas, USA during spring 2010. The results indicated that the three warm season grasses responded differently in terms of S:R when grown in pure and mixed stands under low and high water levels at different growth stages. In the mixed stands, the roots and shoot biomass accumulation in millets decreased while its S:R increased and was considered the least competitor in the mixed stands than sorghum and corn. Corn plants on the other hand with higher root and shoot biomass accumulation but lower S:R was ranked first (strong) in terms of competitiveness in the mixed stands. In contrast, grain sorghum in the mixed stands produced more root and shoot biomass while grown mixed with millets, but produced less root and shoot biomass in the corn mixed stands was therefore ranked second in terms of competitiveness (corn > grain sorghum > millets). Better understanding of root architecture of different crop species in pure and mixed stands could maximize water and nutrients uptake. Early emergence of the three crop plants had positive effects on shoot and root biomass accumulation and was considered the best criteria in crops competitiveness. We also found that decreasing water level increased root biomass which declined the S:R in all three crop plants. With advancement in crop age, increase in shoot biomass was more than root biomass, and therefore, reduction in S:R was observed. We suggests that more studies are required to assess more accurately the root biomass contribution of different crops species in pure and mixed stands to improve carbon sequestration into the soils under different environmental conditions.

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