Khyber Medical University is a public sector medical university in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It was established in January 2007 with jurisdiction on the entire province including the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Degrees awarded are MBBS and BDS . Wikipedia.
Ullah F.,Gyeongsang National University |
Ali T.,Gyeongsang National University |
Ullah N.,Khyber Medical University |
Kim M.O.,Gyeongsang National University
Neurochemistry International | Year: 2015
d-galactose has been considered a senescent model for age-related neurodegenerative disease. It induces oxidative stress which triggers memory impairment, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Caffeine act as anti-oxidant and has been used in various model of neurodegenerative disease. Nevertheless, the effect of caffeine against d-galactose aging murine model of age-related neurodegenerative disease elucidated. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of caffeine against d-galactose. We observed that chronic treatment of caffeine (3 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally (i.p) for 60 days) improved memory impairment and synaptic markers (Synaptophysin and PSD95) in the d-galactose treated rats. Chronic caffeine treatment reduced the oxidative stress via the reduction of 8-oxoguanine through immunofluorescence in the d-galactose-treated rats. Consequently caffeine treatment suppressed stress kinases p-JNK. Additionally, caffeine treatment significantly reduced the d-galactose-induced neuroinflammation through alleviation of COX-2, NOS-2, TNFα and IL-1β. Furthermore we also analyzed that caffeine reduced cytochrome C, Bax/Bcl2 ratio, caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP-1 level. Moreover by evaluating the immunohistochemical results of Nissl and Fluro-Jade B staining showed that caffeine prevented the neurodegeneration in the d-galactose-treated rats. Our results showed that caffeine prevents the d-galactose-induced oxidative stress and consequently alleviated neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration; and synaptic dysfunction and memory impairment. Therefore, we could suggest that caffeine might be a dietary anti-oxidant agent and a good candidate for the age-related neurodegenerative disorders. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ali N.,Khyber Medical University
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013
Background: We have previously reported that aerial parts of Tylophora hirsuta have antispasmodic profile. The current work is an attempt for isolation of pharmacologically active compound(s) that contribute for its antispasmodic activity.Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening for crude methanol extract of Tylophora hirsuta (Th.Cr) is performed. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of crude methanol extract is performed. Column chromatography was used for isolation of compounds. Mass spectroscopy, H1 NMR and C13 NMR were used for structural determination of compounds. α-amyrin acetate was tried for possible spasmolytic activity in rabbit's jejunal preparations and KCl-induced contractions.Results: Th.Cr tested positive for saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids. Compound 1 was isolated as α-amyrin acetate. Compound 2 was heptaeicosanol. Crude methanol extract tested positive for brine shrimp cytotoxicity with LC50 492.33± 8.08 mg/ml. Compound 1 tested positive for antispasmodic activity on spontaneous rabbits' jejunum preparations with EC50 (60 ± 2) × 10-5M. The compound also tested positive on KCl induced contractions with EC50 (72 ± 3) × 10-5M.Conclusions: The present work confirms that α-amyrin acetate is has antispasmodic profile and the relaxant effect may be attributed to α-amyrin acetate which is a major compound. © 2013 Ali; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Wahab F.,Quaid-i-Azam University |
Wahab F.,Khyber Medical University |
Atika B.,Quaid-i-Azam University |
Shahab M.,Quaid-i-Azam University
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental | Year: 2013
Changes in metabolic status gate reproductive activity by still incompletely deciphered mechanisms. Many neuropeptides have been shown to be involved in restraining hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) release under conditions of negative energy balance. Broadly, on the basis of their effect on feeding, these can be grouped as orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides. Reciprocally correlated, in response to changes in systemic concentrations of metabolic hormones, the secretion of orexigenic neuropeptides increases while that of anorexigenic neuropeptides decreases during conditions of food restriction. Recently, kisspeptin signaling in hypothalamus has appeared as a pivotal regulator of the GnRH pulse generator. Kisspeptin apparently does not affect feeding, but in light of accumulating data, it has emerged as one of the major conduits in relaying body metabolic status information to GnRH neurons. The present review examines such data obtained from rodent and primate models, which suggest kisspeptin-Kiss1r signaling as a possible pathway providing a link between metabolism and reproduction. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ul-Haq Z.,University of Glasgow |
Ul-Haq Z.,Khyber Medical University |
Mackay D.F.,University of Glasgow |
Fenwick E.,University of Glasgow |
Pell J.P.,University of Glasgow
Obesity | Year: 2013
Objective: Obesity is associated with impaired overall health-related quality of life but individual studies suggest the relationship may differ for mental and physical quality of life. A systematic review using Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and ISI Web of Knowledge, and random effects meta-analysis was undertaken. Design and Methods: Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they were conducted on adults (defined as age >16 years), reported an overall physical and mental component score of the SF-36, and, or both. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistics and publication and small study biases using funnel plots and Egger's test. Between-study heterogeneity was explored using meta-regression. Results: Eight eligible studies provided 42 estimates of effect size, based on 43,086 study participants. Adults with higher than normal body mass index had significantly reduced physical quality of life with a clear dose-response relationship across all categories. Among class III obese adults, the score was reduced by 9.72 points (95% Confidence Interval 7.24, 12.20, P < 0.001). Mental quality of life was also significantly reduced among class III obese (-1.75, 95% confidence interval -3.33, -0.16, P = 0.031), but was not significantly different among obese (class I and class II) individuals, and was significantly increased among overweight adults (0.42, 95% confidence interval 0.17, 0.67, P = 0.001), compared to normal weight individuals. Heterogeneity was high in some categories, but there was no significant publication or small study bias. Conclusions: Different patterns were observed for physical and mental HRQoL, but both were impaired in obese individuals. This meta-analysis provides further evidence on the impact of obesity on both aspects of health-related quality of life. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Ramzan F.,Gomal University |
Ramzan F.,Quaid-i-Azam University |
Qureshi I.Z.,Quaid-i-Azam University |
Ramzan M.,Peshawar Medical College |
Ramzan M.H.,Khyber Medical University
Prostate | Year: 2013
BACKGROUND Kisspeptin peptides mediate their actions through the GnRH loop system. How kisspeptins affect prostate gland in prepubertal male mammals remains elusive. METHODS To address this kisspeptin was administered as subchronic (12 days) twice daily i.p. dose at three different dosage regimens: 10 pg, 1 ng and 1 μg, to prepubertal male Sprague-Dawley rats (PND 35). Control rats were maintained in parallel. At the end of the experiment prostate gland was dissected out and processed for light and electron microscopy. DNA damage was also estimated by DNA ladder assay and DNA fragmentation assay. RESULTS Prostate weights decreased significantly (P < 0.05) at 1 μg treatment dose of kisspeptin. The epithelial height of secretory acini of prostate decreased at 10 pg (P < 0.05), 1 ng, and 1 μg doses (P < 0.001). Histomorphology and ultrastructure demonstrated, decrease in epithelial cell height, epithelial folding and dilatation of the organelles with kisspeptin treatment. Percent DNA damage to the prostatic tissue was 20.74 ± 2.18, 43.60 ± 2.39, and 58.18 ± 2.59 at 10 pg, 1 ng and 1 μg doses, respectively. CONCLUSION The study reveals that continuous administration of kisspeptin does not lead to an early maturation but instead severe degeneration of prepubertal prostate gland. Prostate 73: 690-699, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.