Peshāwar, Pakistan
Peshāwar, Pakistan

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Shahab F.,Lady Reading Hospital | Ali M.A.,Khyber Medical College | Hussain H.,Khyber Medical College
Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute | Year: 2013

Objectives: To find the involvement in research amongst students of Khyber Medical College and to identify reasons for not doing research. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was performed in which medical students (n=160) from different years of study were asked to fill a questionnaire. Stratified random sampling was done as 20 male students and 20 female students from each year answered the 10-question. Total positive score was calculated. Results: One-hundred and sixty students completed the survey. There were equal male and female respondents (80 each). The students were from 2nd, 3rd, 4th and final year. Among the respondents, only fifteen (9%) were involved in a research project; one hundred and thirty students (81.2%) believed that research is easy if proper guidance is given. One hundred and one students (63%) thought that research could enhance understanding of the subject. Most students disagreed with the idea that research could only be done by intelligent students (139, 86.8%). One hundred and forty students (87.5%) replied that they are interested in doing research, provided proper guidance is given. Conclusion: In this study, we found out that very few students of Khyber Medical College are involved in research. Lack of awareness regarding importance of research and lack of guidance for undertaking research were identified as main barriers for doing research. The concerned authorities need to take steps to encourage students and should involve teachers to streamline the process.


Parveen N.,Khyber Medical College | Zia Qureshi I.,Quaid-i-Azam University
Journal of Medical Sciences (Peshawar) | Year: 2013

Objectives: To determine the relationship of different stages of diabetic retinopathy with the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and leptin in the serum and vitreous fluid of type 2 diabetic patients. Material and Methods: In this cross sectional analytical study carried out during 2010-2011 in Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi and three tertiary hospital of Peshawar, 86 adult type 2 diabetic patients with different grades of retinopathy (no retinopathy, non-proliferative and proliferative retinopathy) and 40 non-diabetic non-retinopathic subjects of both sexes were recruited and evaluated for serum and vitreous levels of VEGF, IL-6 and leptin. Results: Serum VEGF, IL-6 and leptin concentrations and vitreous levels of VEGF and IL-6 were significantly and progressively greater in all grades of retinopathy as compared to normal controls. Females had comparatively more concentration of this factor than males. Conclusion: Significantly raised levels of VEGF and IL-6 in both serum and vitreous fluid and of leptin only in the serum are found in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Knowledge about these levels may be a helpful tool to a clinician in assessing the onset and progression of retinopathy for taking preventive and therapeutic measures.


Naeem M.,Khyber Medical College
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC | Year: 2011

Poliomyelitis mainly affects children under five years of age. Pakistan is one of the few countries where wild polio is still endemic. The purpose of this study was to find out the coverage rate and factors associated with the failure of OPV in urban and rural areas of Peshawar. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Peshawar. Data was collected through random sampling in Peshawar University, Peshawar Saddar, Hashtnagri, Naway Kalay and Pawaka from 9th to 19th June 2010. A questionnaire was used to interview parents of 548 children, aged four years and below, about demographics, OPV vaccination status, reasons for missed vaccination and views on immunization and EPI staff. Forty workers from immunization staff were also interviewed through a separate questionnaire to find out factors associated with low OPV coverage. Chi-square test was used for statistical testing and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Only 64.2% children were completely vaccinated, 13.3 % not vaccinated at all, and 22.4% were incompletely vaccinated. The reasons for not vaccinating were lack of awareness (23.8%), family problem/mother busy (20.8%), centre too far (21.3%), wrong ideas (10.2%), fear of reaction (7.6%), child ill (5.6%) and miscellaneous causes (10.6%). The problems faced by the EPI staff were lack of awareness among people (32.5%), load shedding (20.0%), poor transport facilities (10.0%), unavailability of vaccines (10.0%) and insecurity (10.0%). Low vaccination coverage in Peshawar is mainly due to low awareness among people, poor economic conditions and poor salaries, insecurity and transport problems faced by the immunization staff.


Marwat M.A.,Khyber Medical College
Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute | Year: 2013

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of depression and the use of antidepressants among undergraduate medical students. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study done in May, 2011 at Khyber Medical College, Peshawar on third year medical students using Zung self-rating depression scale. Results: 29 out of 166 students (17.5%) were revealed having depression. Two out of these 29 students (6.9%) were using antidepressants. Conclusion: Depression is an under-diagnosed and under-prescribed mental illness.


Marwat M.A.,Khyber Medical College
Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute | Year: 2013

Objective: To assess physicians' knowledge of cost of commonly used medications. Methodology: A cross-sectional study done in May 2012 on twenty six (26) physicians (11 Consultants working in Medical units of the three tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar and 15 General Practitioners working in Peshawar city and Cantonment area). They were asked about the cost of 10 commonly prescribed drugs. Estimates within 25% of the actual costs were considered accurate. Results: Out of 260 responses, 105 (40.4%) responses of the physicians came up with accurate estimates. No significant difference was found between the responses of GPs and the Consultants [64/150 vs. 41/110 (p > 0.05)]. Overall, costs of expensive drugs were more accurately estimated than the inexpensive ones [48/104 vs. 57/156 (p < 0.05)]. Physicians consistently overestimated the costs of inexpensive drugs and underestimated the costs of expensive ones (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Physicians have inadequate knowledge of cost of drugs which may lead to poor medication compliance. © 2011-12, All Rights Reserved. e Journal System.


Naeem M.,Khyber Medical College
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC | Year: 2011

Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Pakistan. Hib vaccine was introduced in 2009 in EPI programme. The purpose of this study was to find out the coverage and factors associated with non-immunization of Hib in urban and rural areas of Peshawar. Data was collected through random sampling in Peshawar University, Peshawar Saddar, Hashtnagri, Naway Kalay and Pawaka from 9th to 19th of June 2010. A questionnaire was used to interview parents of 600 children aged 1 year and below about demographics, Hib vaccination status, reasons for missed vaccination and views on immunization. Pearson's Chi-square test was used for statistical testing, and p<0.05 was considered significant. Completely vaccinated children were 64.2%, 25% not vaccinated at all, and 11% were incompletely vaccinated. The reasons for not vaccinating were lack of awareness (26%), family problem/mother busy (18%), centre too far (16.9%), wrong ideas (12.2%), fear of reaction (5.4%), child illness (8.1%) and miscellaneous causes (13.7%). Low Hib vaccination coverage in Peshawar is mainly due to low awareness among people, poor economic conditions and illiteracy.


Gul R.,Khyber Medical College
Journal of Medical Sciences (Peshawar) | Year: 2012

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the hand washing practices of the food handlers in the restaurants located in District of Peshawar. Material and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted across different restaurants of Peshawar that were selected using a simple random selection process. This study adapts the World Health Organization's (WHO) Five Keys to Safer Food check list that are implemented using face-to-face interview via open and close ended questions. The results presented are based on a total sample of 250 food handlers that are spread as follows: 83 lower tier restaurants; 83 middle tier restaurants; and 84 upper tier restaurants. Results: Results show that hand washing facilities are available as follows: 100% in upper, 94% in middle and 11% in lower restaurants. However, only 27.6% of the total population washes their hands regularly before the activity or after the activity, for the reason that the food handlers are not given training on food safety. Conclusion: It is concluded that majority of the food handlers do not wash their hands before or after handling food because of a lack of training on food safety leading to contamination of food and sporadic food borne illnesses.


Naeem M.,Khyber Medical College
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC | Year: 2010

Pakistan has one of the highest maternal mortality rates in the world, with widely prevalent maternal and neonatal tetanus. The purpose of this study was to estimate the coverage and determine the factors associated with tetanus toxoid vaccination status among females of reproductive age in Peshawar. A Cross-sectional study was conducted in Peshawar, Pakistan, from 9 June to 19 June 2010. A total of 304 females of reproductive age (17 45) years were selected from both urban and rural areas of Peshawar through random sampling. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was administered to females. Questions about demographics, income, education of husband, occupation, accessibility to health centres and frequency of visits from health workers was inquired. Knowledge and views on immunization were also asked. Overall 55.6% were vaccinated. Urban population was 54.3% while rural population was 45.7%. Reasons for not vaccinating were: No awareness (38.4%), being busy (18.1%), centre too far (18.1%), misconceptions (10.86%), and fear of reactions (4.3%). Most of the females thought immunization was effective (89.5%). Husband education, females' knowledge and views on immunization, income, distance, frequency of health visits were the main factors associated with immunization status. Majority of females are not vaccinated. Effective media campaigns on maternal tetanus vaccination should be carried. Lady health workers should be mobilised effectively to increase the vaccination coverage.


Rahman S.,Khyber Medical College
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC | Year: 2011

There is considerable variation in the percentage of isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are several mechanisms for methicillin resistance. The most important is low affinity of penicillin binding proteins for beta-lactam antibiotics. The objectives of this study were to establish the pattern of MRSA incidence in Peshawar in recent years, and to identify high risk groups for acquiring infection amongst the city population. All positive MRSA cases reported at city laboratory were employed in the study. These were recorded over the time period elapsing from 2009 to 2011. For each patient, records were looked at for age, sex, specimen tested positive, hospital/community acquired and if hospital acquired then which particular hospital within the city was infection contracted at. Also patient records were addressed for any immune system abnormalities, any operation conducted, presence or absence of diabetes and any history of intravenous drug use. There were a total of 929 MRSA cases in our study, of which 538 were males and 391 were females. MRSA frequency for the year 2009 was 207, for 2010 it was 284 and for 2011 it was 438. The frequency of MRSA increased by 54% from the year 2009 to 2011. A potentially alarming increase in MRSA incidence within the city has been observed in recent years threatening to rise further judging the current trend. Those at a high risk of contracting infection include males aged between 20-29 years, hospitalised, diabetics, immune system compromised, and individuals with a history of IV drug use.


Naeem M.,Khyber Medical College
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC | Year: 2011

Purpose of this study was to find coverage of vaccines in EPI and compare the factors related to vaccine failure or missed vaccination in urban and rural areas of Peshawar. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in Urban and rural of Peshawar from 20th to 31st of June 2010. A questionnaire was used to interview parents of 548 children, aged 1 year and below, about demographics, vaccination status, reasons for missed vaccination and views on immunization. Results from both urban and rural areas were compared to find the impact of different factors on immunization failure. The immunization coverage in urban areas was 76.5% while in rural areas it was 48.8%. Causes for non immunization were different in urban and rural areas. In urban areas, lack of awareness and care takers/parents being busy were the main reason for non immunization. In rural areas, in addition to formers, lack of accessibility to health centres and misconceptions about vaccination were major reasons for non-immunization. Parents were more educated in urban areas than rural areas. Rural areas had a lower immunization rates due to lack of awareness, low accessibility and much lower education of parents.

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