Khulna, Bangladesh

Khulna University
Khulna, Bangladesh

Khulna University is a public university in Bangladesh. It is situated at Gollamari, Khulna, Bangladesh, by the river Moyur, beside the Khulna-Satkhira highway. The academic programs of Khulna University started on 31 August 1991 with only 80 students in four disciplines. Khulna University has 22 disciplines under five schools and one institute. It is the only university in Bangladesh where student politics is not allowed.There is also no session jam which has created a stable facility of study. Students passing Higher Secondary Certificate examination are very much interested in their admission in Khulna University for this politics-free, session-jam free environment. Khulna is an administrative Division as well as the third largest metropolitan city in Bangladesh. The Mongla Sea Port, the Shipyard, the Bangladesh Naval Base are in Khulna. Khulna is well known as industrial city and famous for the Sundarbans. Wikipedia.

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This article documents the results of an empirical investigation on the complex interplay between diverse coping mechanisms and the socioeconomic asset profiles of coastal households at risk. Focusing on household-level perceptions and responses to cyclone hazards, a case study was carried out in a poor area in Bangladesh that is prone to natural hazards. We developed and tested our own analytical models based on the asset approach. We conducted a face-to-face household survey in southwestern coastal Bangladesh, in the Koyra sub-district, in late 2009. We asked 360 households affected by the May 2009 tropical Cyclone Aila about their hazard perceptions, preparedness, coping practices, and socioeconomic assets. The results suggest that the majority of households at risk perceive an increasing trend of different climate hazards, with a distinct dominance of tropical cyclones, storm surges, and flash floods in the study area, which resulted in a yearly average economic damage of USD 144 for each household in the first year after Aila. However, such damage is significantly and inversely correlated with the number of adopted coping practices. Significant and systematic differences exist between upstream and downstream households in the study area with respect to hazard perception, hazard induced damages, asset accessibility, and adopted diversified coping practices. The empirical findings suggest that the degree of adoption of coping practices depends primarily on elements of socioeconomic asset profile and the duration of the consequences of cyclone hazards. Disaster preparedness training seems to improve at-risk households’ degree of information access and eventually leads them to adopt more coping practices to reduce adverse impacts of climate hazards. Area-specific practical modules on coping practices should be incorporated in curricula of disaster preparedness training to make people at risk more resilient to hazard shocks. © 2017, The Author(s).

Shahid I.Z.,Macquarie University | Shahid I.Z.,Khulna University | Rahman A.A.,Macquarie University | Rahman A.A.,Khulna University | Pilowsky P.M.,Macquarie University
British Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) maintains sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), and integrates adaptive reflexes. Orexin A-immunoreactive neurones in the lateral hypothalamus project to the RVLM. Microinjection of orexin A into RVLM increases blood pressure and heart rate. However, the expression of orexin receptors, and effects of orexin A in the RVLM on splanchnic SNA (sSNA), respiration and adaptive reflexes are unknown. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effect of orexin A on baseline cardio-respiratory variables as well as the somato-sympathetic, baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes in RVLM were investigated in urethane-anaesthetized, vagotomized and artificially ventilated male Sprague-Dawley rats (n= 50). orexin A and its receptors were detected with fluorescence immunohistochemistry. KEY RESULTS Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurones in the RVLM were frequently co-localized with orexin 1 (OX 1) and orexin 2 (OX 2) receptors and closely apposed to orexin A-immunoreactive terminals. Orexin A injected into the RVLM was pressor and sympatho-excitatory. Peak effects were observed at 50 pmol with increased mean arterial pressure (42 mmHg) and SNA (45%). Responses to orexin A (50 pmol) were attenuated by the OX 1 receptor antagonist, SB334867, and reproduced by the OX 2 receptor agonist, [Ala 11, D-Leu 15]orexin B. Orexin A attenuated the somato-sympathetic reflex but increased baroreflex sensitivity. Orexin A increased or reduced sympatho-excitation following hypoxia or hypercapnia respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Although central cardio-respiratory control mechanisms at rest do not rely on orexin, responses to adaptive stimuli are dramatically affected by the functional state of orexin receptors. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology.

Khan E.A.,Khulna University
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy | Year: 2017

Purpose: Marketing capabilities of large- and medium-sized enterprise is well understood and focused, but little research has been done on microenterprise, especially in informal sector microenterprise. The purpose of this paper is to investigate what are the marketing capabilities of informal microenterprises (IMs) that could be sources of competitive performance. Design/methodology/approach: At first, a literature review and pilot study was used to develop a list of marketing capabilities of IM street food vending. Then a quantitative approach was undertaken where questionnaire was developed and distributed to 42 street food vendors and 52 customers in Bangkok, Thailand. The collected data were analyzed using a descriptive statistic, principle component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and k-mean clustering technique. Findings: Analysis revealed that IM street food vending has some unique marketing capabilities compared to formal restaurant. From the vendors’ point of view, it was found that cheaper pricing and quicker food delivery were the major contributors. On the other hand, from the customer point of view, convenient location, flexible business hours, fulfill customer food requirements, and cooking demonstration were noted significant. Social implications: Policy makers and development agencies could be developed using various policy strategies such as business development support services as a tool to support IM operators. Originality/value: This study provides a first step toward marketing capabilities of IM and makes several contributions to the literature. © 2017, © Emerald Publishing Limited.

Shill M.C.,Square Hospitals Ltd | Das A.K.,Khulna University
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2011

Principal objectives of the National Drug Policy, 1982 were to make available essential drugs, ensure good quality drugs, control drug prices, ensure rational use of drugs, develop an effective drug monitoring system, improve the standard of hospital and retail pharmacies and ensure good manufacturing practices. Though we have earned lots of things but still we are far from achieving these entire goals. Unsafe and irrational use of drugs not only increasing financial burden but also causing death and engender our quality of lives. Studies have shown that pharmacists can reduce medication errors and also play vital role in rational use of medication thus reducing financial load as well as can cut down national budget on drugs procurement. Pharmacists are also a good source of drug informations for healthcare professionals and counseling patients regarding medication and other social issues. To achieve the goals of National Health policy 2010, more involvement of pharmacists in the healthcare system especially in the hospital and community pharmacies is inevitable.

Islam M.K.,Khulna University
Journal of integrative medicine | Year: 2013

To elucidate potential antioxidant, antidiarrheal, cytotoxic, and antibacterial activities of the ethanol extract of Alocasia indica Schott tuber in different experimental models established in vitro and in vivo. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. Phenolic content was estimated by using Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent while reducing ability was measured by ferric reducing power assay. In vivo antidiarrheal studies were carried out in mice, and the activity was evaluated in castor oil and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea. Disk diffusion assay was utilized to determine antibacterial activity against a number of pathogenic bacterial strains. Acute toxicity test was carried out to measure the safe doses for the extract. In DPPH radical-scavenging assay, the extract exhibited strong radical-scavenging activity with the 50% inhibitory concentration value of 42.66 μg/mL. Total phenolic content was found to be 542.26 mg gallic acid equivalent per 100 g of dried tuber extract, whereas flavonoid content was found to be 4.30 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried tuber extract. In reducing power assay, the extract showed strong reducing power in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced the latent period and decreased defecation in both castor oil- and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea. The extract also lessened gastrointestinal motility in mice. Potential antibacterial activity was exhibited by the extract against all the tested bacterial strains in disk diffusion assay. The 50% lethal concentration against brine shrimp nauplii was 81.09 μg/mL. The results demonstrated that the ethanol extract of A. indica has potential antioxidant, antidiarrheal, cytotoxic, and antibacterial activity.

Haider M.Z.,Khulna University
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2013

This study determines the factors that influence rice residue burning in the field. We consider the southwest region of Bangladesh as the study site. Our results indicate that while straw length, low-elevation land, and distance of the plot from homestead positively and significantly influence the rice residue burning decision, residue price negatively and significantly influences the residue burning decision of farmers. Our study proposes subsidies for the purchase of new varieties of seeds and/or education in order to persuade farmers to move to short-straw varieties on high/medium-elevation lands as policy interventions for handling the residue burning issue. Another option might be to switch from residue burning to incorporation. Research and development efforts into shortening straw length and shortening the time period between planting and harvesting time are among other options that would mitigate the problem under consideration. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Rahman M.S.,Tissue Banking and Biomaterial Research Unit | Akhtar N.,Tissue Banking and Biomaterial Research Unit | Jamil H.M.,Tissue Banking and Biomaterial Research Unit | Banik R.S.,Khulna University | Asaduzzaman S.M.,Tissue Banking and Biomaterial Research Unit
Bone Research | Year: 2015

Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) plays a fundamental role in the regulation of bone organogenesis through the activation of receptor serine/threonine kinases. Perturbations of TGF-β/BMP activity are almost invariably linked to a wide variety of clinical outcomes, i.e., skeletal, extra skeletal anomalies, autoimmune, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Phosphorylation of TGF-β (I/II) or BMP receptors activates intracellular downstream Smads, the transducer of TGF-β/BMP signals. This signaling is modulated by various factors and pathways, including transcription factor Runx2. The signaling network in skeletal development and bone formation is overwhelmingly complex and highly time and space specific. Additive, positive, negative, or synergistic effects are observed when TGF-β/BMP interacts with the pathways of MAPK, Wnt, Hedgehog (Hh), Notch, Akt/mTOR, and miRNA to regulate the effects of BMP-induced signaling in bone dynamics. Accumulating evidence indicates that Runx2 is the key integrator, whereas Hh is a possible modulator, miRNAs are regulators, and β-catenin is a mediator/regulator within the extensive intracellular network. This review focuses on the activation of BMP signaling and interaction with other regulatory components and pathways highlighting the molecular mechanisms regarding TGF-β/BMP function and regulation that could allow understanding the complexity of bone tissue dynamics. © 2015 Sichuan University All rights reserved.

Uddin S.J.,Khulna University
BMC complementary and alternative medicine | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Alternanthera sessilis is a popular vegetable and used in traditional medicinal practice of Bangladesh and other parts of Asia to relive tiredness, laziness, and sleeps as well as pain and inflammation. However, no report was found on the neuropharmacological and analgesic activity of this plant to-date. Present study was undertaken to evaluate the neuropharmacological and analgesic activity of the ethanol extract of A. sessilis whole plant (ETAS) in mice models.METHODS: Central stimulating activity was investigated by pentobarbitone induced sleeping time, open field, and hole cross tests. Analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing and hot-plate methods. The tests were performed at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight dose levels.RESULTS: In sleeping time test, ETAS significantly (p < 0.001) increased the onset of sleep, and decreased the duration of sleep. In open field and hole cross tests, ETAS significantly (p < 0.001) increased the movements of mice which persisted throughout the study period. In writhing test, ETAS showed, significant (p < 0.001) inhibition of writhing reflex. In hot plate test, ETAS significantly (p < 0.001) raised the pain threshold. In HPLC analysis for polyphenols, (+)-catechin, rutin, ellagic acid, and quercetin were detected in ETAS (117.72, 490.74, 3007.26, and 13.85 mg/100 g of dry extract, respectively).CONCLUSION: Present study supported the traditional uses of A. sessilis and indicated that the plant can be a potential source of bioactive molecules.

Bahar M.M.,Khulna University | Reza M.S.,Khulna University
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2010

In this study, the hydrochemical characteristics of shallow groundwater in a coastal region (Khulna) of southwest Bangladesh have been evaluated based on different indices for drinking and irrigation uses. Water samples were collected from 26 boreholes and analyzed for major cations and anions. Other physico-chemical parameters like pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and total dissolved solids were also measured. Most groundwater is slightly alkaline and largely varies in chemical composition, e. g. EC ranges from 962 to 9,370 μs/cm. The abundance of the major ions is as follows: Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ = Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2- > NO3 -. Interpretation of analytical data shows two major hydrochemical facies (Na+-K+-Cl--SO4 2- and Na+-K+-HCO3 -) in the study area. Salinity, total hardness, and sodium percentage (Na%) indicate that most of the groundwater samples are not suitable for irrigation as well as for domestic purposes and far from drinking water standard. Results suggest that the brackish nature in most of the groundwaters is due to the seawater influence and hydrogeochemical processes. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Rahman M.M.,Khulna University
Journal of Multimedia | Year: 2012

A new histogram feature based natural image segmentation algorithm has been proposed. The proposed scheme uses histogram based new color texture extraction method which inherently combines color texture features rather then explicitly extracting it. A non parametric Bayesean clustering is employed to make the segmentation framework fully unsupervised where no a priori knowledge about the number and types of regions are required. The performance of the proposed method have been demonstrated by various experiments using images of natural scenes. The experimental results indicates that superior segmentation results can be obtained through the proposed unsupervised natural image segmentation algorithm. © 2012 ACADEMY PUBLISHER.

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