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Siddiqui S.,Khoo Teck Puat Hospital
International Archives of Medicine | Year: 2013

Readmission to the surgical intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital has traditionally been tracked as a quality indicator and many studies have suggested various figures as to the acceptable rate of such. ICU beds being a precious resource readmitting a patient could imply hasty discharge or inadequate care. Patients readmitted generally have a higher mortality and length of stay due to the worsening of their illness. The definition of 'ICU readmission' varies from either in the first 24 hours, to over the next 2 days or even whether the patient comes back during the entire period of admission. The association between increasing severity of illness and the risk of readmission to ICU has not been systematically summarized and one can speculate as to the various predictive signs of possible readmission. We looked at our data over the past 5 months of all adult surgical ICU patients who were readmitted during the same admission after ICU discharge. Fourteen patients were readmitted with the monthly rate varying from 3-11% per month. The age ranged from 33 to 90 years and the gender was mostly male. The patients' initial admission diagnosis varied as they belonged to General surgery, ENT, Neurosurgery and Orthopedic disciplines and the time from initial discharge to readmission ranged from 40 to 4 days. The majority of the readmission causes were respiratory and these included desaturation, PE, pneumonia and mucus plugging. Other causes included hypotension, sepsis, dysrhythmias, recurrent drop in GCS and GI re-bleed. When compared to the first admission most patients had a longer length of stay during the readmission. The outcomes were mostly good with only one patient expiring after readmission. © 2013 Siddiqui; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Tham A.C.,Khoo Teck Puat Hospital
Clinical & experimental ophthalmology | Year: 2012

The purpose of this paper was to analyse the causes, pathogenesis, diagnostic modalities and treatment outcomes of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis (MKC). Microsporidia are increasingly recognized as opportunistic infectious pathogens in immunocompromized patients causing keratoconjunctivitis. In the recent years, there has been a surge in reports of MKC in immunocompetent individuals presenting with stromal keratitis. A detailed literature search was done using Medline, OVID, Cochrane Library, UptoDate and Google Scholar databases with the terms microsporidia, keratitis, conjunctivitis, immunocompromized and immunocompetent. The articles were reviewed to determine the spectrum of clinical presentation, disease course, investigations, treatment modalities and outcome. Thirty-six publications were reviewed, and 151 cases of MKC were included for this review. The main presenting features included pain, redness, photophobia, epiphora and blurring of vision. Duration of the symptoms lasted between 4 days and 18 months. Light microscopy with modified trichrome stain was most commonly used to diagnose MKC. Resolution of symptoms was most commonly achieved with oral albendazole and/or topical fumidil B. Topical fluoroquinolones are also effective as a monotherapy as suggested by recent studies. Clinical outcome was good (visual acuity ≤ 6/12) for the patients who presented earlier (≤1 month) (75% of cases with documented final best-corrected visual acuity). MKC occurs more commonly in immunocompetent individuals than expected and can be diagnosed in earlier stages. From our review, we conclude that the patients, who were diagnosed early and treated, had complete resolution of symptoms with a better clinical outcome. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

Lee F.,Khoo Teck Puat Hospital
Singapore Medical Journal | Year: 2011

Defibrillation may be needed in witnessed and unwitnessed cardiac arrests. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) must be initiated and defibrillation administered without delay. Every shock cycle includes 1-2 minutes of CPR followed by rhythm analysis. The energy level for biphasic defibrillation of ventricular fibrillation is 150 J with possible step-wise escalation to 360 J. All healthcare workers need to learn and be authorised to use an automated external defibrillator (AED). In addition, all ambulances must be equipped with AEDs when transporting patients. Self-adhesive pads /paddles must be applied firmly to the skin for best effect. Monitoring electrodes and pacemaker locations should be considered during paddle/pad placement. AED skills should be imparted to a wide variety of community groups. More efforts will be made to increase the availability of AEDs in public, residential, commercial and industrial facilities.

Wee A.T.,Khoo Teck Puat Hospital | Morrey B.F.,Mayo Medical School | Sanchez-Sotelo J.,Mayo Medical School
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series A | Year: 2013

Background: An intraoperative culture sample obtained during revision elbow arthroplasty that is unexpectedly positive poses a dilemma for the surgeon. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence of positive cultures during revision elbow arthroplasty when infection is not suspected preoperatively, and the long-term implications of these positive cultures. Methods: Two hundred and thirteen consecutive revision elbow arthroplasties were performed at our institution between 2000 and 2007. Of these, sixteen patients had unexpected positive intraoperative cultures. Results: The majority of cultures grew either Staphylococcus epidermidis or Propionibacterium acnes. Twelve patients had more than two years of follow-up. One of the twelve patients was treated as for an infection because of unexplained early implant loosening and the isolation of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Ten of the twelve elbows were treated as "contaminants" and did not receive long-term antibiotic treatment. Nine of these ten remained infection-free at the time of the final follow-up, while the remaining one developed an infection with a different organism. Conclusions: In our series, there was a 7.5% chance of encountering an unexpected positive result on intraoperative culture at the time of revision elbow arthroplasty. Themajority of patients were successfully treated without antibiotics with a low rate of failure. A minority were considered as infections, typically presenting with unexplained early loosening and isolation of an organism on solid culture medium. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2013 by the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

This study aims to determine the prevalence, profile, and severity of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) across the dementia continuum and their relative impact on caregiver distress and quality of life (QoL) in persons with dementia (PWD). Six hundred and sixty-seven PWD and their family caregivers presented to a memory clinic in a tertiary hospital across a 60-month period. Clinicians determined the dementia diagnosis and severity using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition and the Clinical Dementia Rating scale, respectively. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire was administered to assess NPS in PWD and the corresponding distress experienced by the caregiver. QoL for PWD (PWD-QoL) was assessed by the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease scale. Ninety-six percent of PWD presented with at least one NPS, 18% experiencing mild, 31% moderate, and 47% severe symptoms, respectively. While agitation (63.1%), apathy (61.8%), depression (55.5%), and irritability (55.5%) were the most common NPS; disinhibition (35.2%), hallucination (25.5%), and elation (14.2%) were the least common. NPS increased generally but differentially as dementia progressed and significantly predicted caregiver distress (ηp 2 = 0.732, p < 0.0001) and PWD-QoL (ηp 2 = 0.066, p < 0.0001). Factor analysis revealed two NPS clusters, disruptive and affective; the former exerting greater impact on caregiver distress and the latter on PWD-QoL. The results show a high prevalence of NPS which increase caregiver distress and negatively impact PWD-QoL. The differential profile of NPS across the dementia stages warrants stage-specific interventions and due consideration in resource planning and service design for PWD and their caregivers.

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