KhethImpilo

Cape Town, South Africa

KhethImpilo

Cape Town, South Africa

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Dewing S.,Health Systems Research Unit | Mathews C.,Health Systems Research Unit | Mathews C.,University of Cape Town | Fatti G.,KhethImpilo | And 2 more authors.
Current HIV/AIDS Reports | Year: 2014

There is concern that the expansion of ART (antiretroviral treatment) programmes to incorporate the use of treatment as prevention (TasP) may be associated with low levels of adherence and retention in care, resulting in the increased spread of drug-resistant HIV. We review research published over the past year that reports on interventions to improve adherence and retention in care in Southern Africa, and discuss these in terms of their potential to support the expansion of ART programmes for TasP. We found eight articles published since January 2012, seven of which were from South Africa. The papers describe innovative models for ART care and adherence support, some of which have the potential to facilitate the ongoing scale- up of treatment programmes for increased coverage and TasP. The extent to which interventions from South Africa can be effectively implemented in other, lower-resource Southern African countries is unclear. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.


Fatti G.,Kheth'Impilo | Mothibi E.,Kheth'Impilo | Shaikh N.,Kheth'Impilo | Grimwood A.,Kheth'Impilo
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2016

Retaining high levels of patients in care who are virally suppressed over long treatment periods has been an important challenge for antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes in sub-Saharan Africa, the region having the highest HIV burden globally. Clinic-linked community-based adherence support (CBAS) programmes provide home-based adherence and psychosocial support for ART patients. However, there is little evidence of their longer-term impact. This study assessed the effectiveness of CBAS after eight years of ART. CBAS workers are lay healthcare personnel providing regular adherence and psychosocial support for ART patients and their households through home visits addressing household challenges affecting adherence. A multicentre cohort study using routinely collected data was undertaken at six public ART sites in a high HIV-prevalence South African district. Patient retention, loss to follow-up (LTFU), viral suppression and CD4 cell restoration were compared between patients with and without CBAS, using competing-risks regression, linear mixed models and log-binomial regression. 3861 patients were included, of whom 1616 (41.9%) received CBAS. Over 14,792 patient-years of observation, the cumulative incidence of LTFU was 37.3% and 46.2% amongst patients with and without CBAS, respectively, following 8 years of ART; adjusted subhazard ratio (CBAS vs. no CBAS) = 0.74 (95% CI: 0.66–0.84; P < .0001). Amongst patients on ART for 6.5–8 years, proportions not achieving viral suppression were 11.4% and 19.4% in patients with and without CBAS, respectively; adjusted risk ratio = 0.47 (95% CI: 0.26–0.86; P = .015). Annual CD4 cell increases from baseline were 62.8 cells/µL/year and 51.5 cells/µL/year amongst patients with and without CBAS, respectively, after 6.5 years or more (P = .034). After adjustment, annual CD4 cell recovery was 15.1 cells/µL/year (95% CI: 2.7–27.6) greater in CBAS patients (P = .017). ART patients who received CBAS had improved long-term patient retention, viral suppression and immunological restoration. CBAS is an intervention that can improve longer-term ART programme outcomes in resource-limited settings. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Fatti G.,KhethImpilo | Shaikh N.,KhethImpilo | Eley B.,University of Cape Town | Grimwood A.,KhethImpilo
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2014

Adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) is a challenge in childhood, and children on ART have reduced virological suppression compared to adults. This study evaluated the effect of community-based adherence support (CBAS) on virological outcomes amongst children receiving ART in four South African provinces. Patient Advocates are lay CBAS workers who provide adherence and psychosocial support for patients, undertaking home visits to address household challenges affecting adherence. Patient Advocates provide counselling for children's carers regarding adherence and psychosocial problems. A multicentre cohort study using routinely collected data was conducted at 57 public ART sites including ART-naive children (<16 years) starting ART. Virological suppression until four years of ART was compared between children who received and did not receive CBAS. Analyses were by intention-to-treat, controlling for confounding using multivariable generalised estimating equations. A total of 4853 children were included, of whom 982 (20.2%) received CBAS. The median baseline age was 6.3 years and the baseline CD4 cell percentage was 12.0%; both were equivalent between the two groups. CBAS children had more advanced baseline clinical disease (62.1% vs. 52.6% World Health Organisation stages III or IV; P < 0.0001). A total of 5908 viral load results were analysed. Virological suppression was 65.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 62.7-68.4%) vs. 55.5% (95% CI: 54.1-57.0%) in CBAS and non-CBAS children, respectively, at any time-point on treatment (P < 0.0001). In analyses controlling for baseline clinical, demographic, site-related variables and time on ART, children receiving CBAS were more likely to achieve virological suppression, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.60 (95% CI: 1.35-1.89; P < 0.0001). The effect of CBAS increased in magnitude with increasing durations of ART, and CBAS particularly improved virological suppression in a higher-risk subgroup (children younger than two years, aOR 2.47 [95% CI: 1.59-3.84]). CBAS was associated with improved virological suppression in children receiving ART. Expanded implementation of this low-cost intervention should be considered in resource-poor settings. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Fatti G.,KhethImpilo | Meintjes G.,GF Jooste Hospital | Meintjes G.,University of Cape Town | Meintjes G.,Imperial College London | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2012

INTRODUCTION: A large increase in lay health care workers has occurred in response to shortages of professional health care staff in sub-Saharan African antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs. However, little effectiveness data of the large-scale implementation of these programs is available. We evaluated the effect of a community-based adherence-support (CBAS) program on ART outcomes across 57 South African sites. METHODS: CBAS workers provide adherence and psychosocial support for patients and undertake home visits to address household challenges affecting adherence. An observational multicohort study of adults enrolling for ART between 2004 and 2010 was performed. Mortality, loss to follow-up, and virological suppression were compared by intention to treat between patients who received and did not receive CBAS until 5 years of ART, using multiple imputation of missing covariate values. RESULTS: Of the 66,953 patients who were included, 19,668 (29.4%) patients received CBAS and 47,285 (70.6%) patients did not. Complete-case covariate data were available for 54.3% patients. After 5 years, patient retention was 79.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 77.7% to 80.4%] in CBAS patients versus 73.6% (95% CI: 72.6% to 74.5%) in non-CBAS patients; crude hazard ratio (HR) for attrition was 0.68 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.72). Mortality and loss to follow-up were independently lower in CBAS patients, adjusted HR (aHR) was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.59 to 0.72) and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.59 to 0.68), respectively. After 6 months of ART, virological suppression was 76.6% (95% CI: 75.8% to 77.5%) in CBAS patients versus 72% (95% CI: 71.3% to 72.5%) in non-CBAS patients (P < 0.0001), adjusted odds ratio was 1.22 (95% CI: 1.14 to 1.30). Improvement in virological suppression occurred progressively for longer durations of ART [adjusted odds ratio was 2.66 (95% CI: 1.61 to 4.40) by 5 years]. CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving CBAS had considerably better ART outcomes. Further scale-up of these programs should be considered in low-income settings. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Current WHO guidelines for developing countries recommend efavirenz (EFV) and nevirapine (NVP) for first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART). This paper compares the effectiveness of EFV and NVP among ART-naive patients initiating treatment at 56 public health facilities in South Africa between January 2004 and December 2007. Participants were assigned to the EFV or NVP cohorts depending on their baseline ART regimen. Mortality, viral load suppression after 6 months and ART regimen change were compared between the cohorts using Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression. At initiation, 19 441 (71.1%) patients started EFV and 7909 (28.9%) started NVP treatment. The median follow-up period was 9.5 months (IQR 4.6-17.7). After adjustment, mortality was similar in the two cohorts, (adjusted HR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.89-1.28). Viral load suppression at 6 months was higher in the EFV cohort overall (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.59) and in women aged 16-40 years (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.11-1.63) and women with CD4 counts <25 cells/μL (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.01-3.76). Patients starting on EFV were 47% less likely to change regimen (AOR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.48-0.59). These findings suggest the superior effectiveness of EFV for first-line ART compared with NVP and should be considered during development of future ART guidelines for high-burden regions.


Fatti G.,KhethImpilo | Fatti G.,University of Cape Town | Grimwood A.,KhethImpilo | Bock P.,KhethImpilo | Bock P.,University of Cape Town
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: There are conflicting reports of antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectiveness comparisons between primary healthcare (PHC) facilities and hospitals in low-income settings. This comparison has not been evaluated on a broad scale in South Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings: A retrospective cohort study was conducted including ART-naïve adults from 59 facilities in four provinces in South Africa, enrolled between 2004 and 2007. Kaplan-Meier estimates, competing-risks Cox regression, generalised estimating equation population-averaged models and logistic regression were used to compare death, loss to follow-up (LTFU) and virological suppression (VS) between PHC, district and regional hospitals. 29 203 adults from 47 PHC facilities, nine district hospitals and three regional hospitals were included. Patients at PHC facilities had more advanced WHO stage disease when starting ART. Retention in care was 80.1% (95% CI: 79.3%-80.8%), 71.5% (95% CI: 69.1%-73.8%) and 68.7% (95% CI: 67.0%-69.7%) at PHC, district and regional hospitals respectively, after 24 months of treatment (P<0.0001). In adjusted regression analyses, LTFU was independently increased at regional hospitals (aHR 2.19; 95% CI: 1.94-2.47) and mortality was independently elevated at district hospitals (aHR 1.60; 95% CI: 1.30-1.99) compared to PHC facilities after 12 months of ART. District and regional hospital patients had independently reduced probabilities of VS, aOR 0.76 (95% CI: 0.59-0.97) and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.56-0.75) respectively compared to PHC facilities over 24 months of treatment. Conclusions/Significance: ART outcomes were superior at PHC facilities, despite PHC patients having more advanced clinical stage disease when starting ART, suggesting that ART can be adequately provided at this level and supporting the South African government's call for rapid up-scaling of ART at the primary level of care. Further prospective research is required to determine the degree to which outcome differences are attributable to either facility level characteristics or patient co-morbidity at hospital level. © 2010 Fatti et al.


There are conflicting reports of antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectiveness comparisons between primary healthcare (PHC) facilities and hospitals in low-income settings. This comparison has not been evaluated on a broad scale in South Africa. A retrospective cohort study was conducted including ART-naïve adults from 59 facilities in four provinces in South Africa, enrolled between 2004 and 2007. Kaplan-Meier estimates, competing-risks Cox regression, generalised estimating equation population-averaged models and logistic regression were used to compare death, loss to follow-up (LTFU) and virological suppression (VS) between PHC, district and regional hospitals. 29 203 adults from 47 PHC facilities, nine district hospitals and three regional hospitals were included. Patients at PHC facilities had more advanced WHO stage disease when starting ART. Retention in care was 80.1% (95% CI: 79.3%-80.8%), 71.5% (95% CI: 69.1%-73.8%) and 68.7% (95% CI: 67.0%-69.7%) at PHC, district and regional hospitals respectively, after 24 months of treatment (P<0.0001). In adjusted regression analyses, LTFU was independently increased at regional hospitals (aHR 2.19; 95% CI: 1.94-2.47) and mortality was independently elevated at district hospitals (aHR 1.60; 95% CI: 1.30-1.99) compared to PHC facilities after 12 months of ART. District and regional hospital patients had independently reduced probabilities of VS, aOR 0.76 (95% CI: 0.59-0.97) and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.56-0.75) respectively compared to PHC facilities over 24 months of treatment. ART outcomes were superior at PHC facilities, despite PHC patients having more advanced clinical stage disease when starting ART, suggesting that ART can be adequately provided at this level and supporting the South African government's call for rapid up-scaling of ART at the primary level of care. Further prospective research is required to determine the degree to which outcome differences are attributable to either facility level characteristics or patient co-morbidity at hospital level.


Fatti G.,KhethImpilo | Bock P.,KhethImpilo | Bock P.,University of Cape Town | Eley B.,University of Cape Town | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2011

Background: Few studies describe temporal trends in pediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Adult studies show deteriorating patient retention in recent years. We describe temporal trends in baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes amongst ART-naive children between 2004 and 2009 at 30 facilities in 4 South African provinces. Methods: Linear trend in baseline parameters between annual enrolment cohorts was assessed. Corrected mortality estimates were calculated, correcting for deaths amongst those lost to follow-up using probability-weighted Kaplan-Meier functions. On-treatment immunologic changes were modelled using generalized estimating equations. Results: Three thousand and seven children (median age 6.4 years) were included. Monthly enrollment increased from 1.9 children in 2004 to 106 in 2009. Proportions with severe baseline immunodeficiency decreased from 85.5% to 64.5% between 2004/2005 and 2009, P < 0.0005. Proportions with baseline World Health Organization clinical stages III and IV reduced from 72.9% to 49.0% between 2006 and 2009, P < 0.0005. Later calendar cohorts had independently and progressively reduced on-treatment probabilities of severe immunodeficiency despite adjusting for baseline immunological status, adjusted odds ratio: 0.38 [confidence interval (CI): 0.26 to 0.55; P < 0.0005; 2008/2009 compared with 2004/2005]. After 24 months, corrected mortality was 6.1% (CI: 5.1% to 7.3%) and loss to follow-up was 6.8% (CI: 5.7% to 8.2%), with no deterioration amongst more recently enrolled cohorts (P = 0.50 and P = 0.55, respectively). After 4 years, program retention was 84.1% (CI: 80.9% to 86.7%). Conclusions: Childrens' baseline condition when starting ART has improved considerably. Improving immunological treatment outcomes, the high medium-term patient retention with lack of temporal deterioration despite rapid patient number increases, provide evidence that pediatric ART programs are increasingly effective for those accessing them. However, children must start treatment when younger, following current international guidelines. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Fatti G.,KhethImpilo | Shaikh N.,KhethImpilo | Eley B.,University of Cape Town | Grimwood A.,KhethImpilo
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2016

Antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation in HIV-infected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains inadequate, and there is a severe shortage of professional healthcare workers in the region. The effectiveness of community support programmes for HIV-infected pregnant women and their infants in SSA is unclear. This study compared initiation of maternal antiretrovirals and infant outcomes amongst HIV-infected pregnant women and their infants who received and did not receive community-based support (CBS) in a high HIV-prevalence setting in South Africa. A cohort study, including HIV-infected pregnant women and their infants, was conducted at three sentinel surveillance facilities between January 2009 and June 2012, utilising enhanced routine clinical data. Through home visits, CBS workers encouraged uptake of interventions in the ART cascade, provided HIV-related education, ART initiation counselling and psychosocial support. Outcomes were compared using Kaplan-Meier analyses and multivariable Cox and log-binomial regression. Amongst 1105 mother-infant pairs included, 264 (23.9%) received CBS. Amongst women eligible to start ART antenatally, women who received CBS had a reduced risk of not initiating antenatal ART, 5.4% vs. 30.3%; adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 0.18 (95% CI: 0.08-0.44; P <.0001). Women who received CBS initiated antenatal ART with less delay after the first antenatal visit, median 26 days vs. 39 days; adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.57 (95% CI: 1.15-2.14; P =.004). Amongst women who initiated antenatal zidovudine (ZDV) to prevent vertical transmission, women who received CBS initiated ZDV with less delay, aHR = 1.52 (95% CI: 1.18-2.01; P =.001). Women who received CBS had a lower risk of stillbirth, 1.5% vs. 5.4%; aRR = 0.24 (95% CI: 0.07-1.00; P =.050). Pregnant women living with HIV who received CBS had improved antenatal triple ART initiation in eligible women, women initiated ART and ZDV with shorter delays, and had a lower risk of stillbirth. CBS is an intervention that shows promise in improving maternal and infant health in high HIV-prevalence settings. © 2016 The Author(s).


Grimwood A.,KhethImpilo | Fatti G.,KhethImpilo | Mothibi E.,KhethImpilo | Malahlela M.,KhethImpilo | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2013

Background: HIV-positive children in low-income settings face many challenges to adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) and have increased mortality on treatment compared to children in developed countries. Adult ART programmes have demonstrated benefit from community support to improve treatment outcomes; however, there are no empirical data on the effectiveness of this intervention in children. This study compared clinical, virological and immunological outcomes between children who received and who did not receive community-based adherence support from patient advocates (PAs) in four South African provinces. Methods: A multicentre cohort study of ART-naïve children was conducted at 47 public ART facilities. Outcome measures were mortality, patient retention, virological suppression and CD4 percentage changes on ART. PAs are lay community health workers who provide adherence and psychosocial support for children's caregivers, and they undertake home visits to ascertain household challenges potentially impacting on adherence in the child. Corrected mortality estimates were calculated, correcting for deaths amongst those lost to follow-up (LTFU) using probability-weighted Kaplan-Meier and Cox functions. Results: Three thousand five hundred and sixty three children were included with a median baseline age of 6.3 years and a median baseline CD4 cell percentage of 12.0%. PA-supported children numbered 323 (9.1%). Baseline clinical status variables were equivalent between the two groups. Amongst children LTFU, 38.7% were known to have died. Patient retention after 3 years of ART was 91.5% (95% CI: 86.8% to 94.7%) vs. 85.6% (95% CI: 83.3% to 87.6%) amongst children with and without PAs, respectively (p = 0.027). Amongst children aged below 2 years at baseline, retention after 3 years was 92.2% (95% CI: 76.7% to 97.6%) vs. 74.2% (95% CI: 65.4% to 81.0%) in children with and without PAs, respectively (p = 0.053). Corrected mortality after 3 years of ART was 3.7% (95% CI: 1.9% to 7.4%) vs. 8.0% (95% CI: 6.5% to 9.8%) amongst children with and without PAs, respectively (p = 0.060). In multivariable analyses, children with PAs had reduced probabilities of both attrition and mortality, adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 0.57 (95% CI: 0.35 to 0.94) and 0.39 (95% CI: 0.15 to 1.04), respectively. Conclusion: Community-based adherence support is an effective way to improve patient retention amongst children on ART. Expanded implementation of this intervention should be considered in order to reach ART programmatic goals in low-income settings as more children access treatment. © 2012 Grimwood A et al; licensee International AIDS Society.

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