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Elamin F.,Queen Mary, University of London | Elamin F.,Khartoum Center for Research and Medical Training | Liversidge H.M.,Queen Mary, University of London
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The effect of nutrition on the timing of human tooth formation is poorly understood. Delays and advancements in dental maturation have all been reported as well as no effect. We investigated the effect of severe malnutrition on the timing of human tooth formation in a large representative sample of North Sudanese children. The sample (1102 males, 1013 females) consisted of stratified randomly selected healthy individuals in Khartoum, Sudan, aged 2-22 years using a cross-sectional design following the STROBE statement. Nutritional status was defined using WHO criteria of height and weight. Body mass index Z-scores and height for age Z-scores of ≤-2 (cut-off) were used to identify the malnourished group (N = 474) while the normal was defined by Z-scores of ≥0 (N = 799). Clinical and radiographic examination of individuals, with known ages of birth was performed including height and weight measurements. Mandibular left permanent teeth were assessed using eight crown and seven root established tooth formation stages. Mean age at entry and mean age within tooth stages were calculated for each available tooth stage in each group and compared using a t-test. Results show the mean age at entry and mean age within tooth stages were not significantly different between groups affected by severe malnutrition and normal children (p>0.05). This remarkable finding was evident across the span of dental development. We demonstrate that there is little measurable effect of sustained malnutrition on the average timing of tooth formation. This noteworthy finding supports the notion that teeth have substantial biological stability and are insulated from extreme nutritional conditions compared to other maturing body systems. © 2013 Elamin, Liversidge. Source


Dean M.C.,University College London | Elamin F.,Queen Mary, University of London | Elamin F.,Khartoum Center for Research and Medical Training
Annals of Human Biology | Year: 2014

Background: Parturition lines have been described in the teeth of a number of animals, including primates, but never in modern humans. These accentuated lines in dentine are comprised of characteristic dark and light component zones. Aim: The aim of this study was to review the physiology underlying these lines and to ask if parturition lines exist in the third molar tooth roots of mothers known to have had one or more children during their teenage years. Methods: Brief retrospective oral medical obstetric histories were taken from four mothers and compared with histological estimates for the timing of accentuated markings visible in longitudinal ground sections of their wisdom teeth. Results: Evidence of accentuated markings in M3 root dentine matched the age of the mother at the time their first child was born reasonably well. However, the dates calculated for inter-birth intervals did not match well. Conclusions: Parturition lines corresponding to childbirth during the teenage years can exist in human M3 roots, but may not always do so. Without a written medical history it would not be possible to say with confidence that an accentuated line in M3 root dentine was caused by stress, illness or was a parturition line. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. Source


Sforza C.,University of Milan | Dolci C.,University of Milan | Dellavia C.,University of Milan | Gibelli D.M.,University of Milan | And 3 more authors.
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal | Year: 2015

Objective: To provide quantitative information about the facial soft tissue of Italian and Northern Sudanese subjects with Down syndrome by using summary anthropometric measurements. Design, Setting, and Patients: The three-dimensional coordinates of soft tissue facial landmarks were obtained using a computerized digitizer in 54 Italian subjects with Down syndrome (20 females and 34 males, 13 to 52 years), in 64 Northern Sudanese subjects with Down syndrome (18 females and 46 males, 5 to 34 years), and in 578 Italian and 653 Northern Sudanese reference subjects, matched for sex and age. From the landmarks, 16 facial dimensions were calculated. Data from subjects with Down syndrome were compared with those collected from control individuals by computing z scores. Two summary anthropometric measurements for quantifying craniofacial variations were obtained: the mean z score (an index of overall facial size) and its standard deviation, the craniofacial variability index (an index of facial harmony). Results: In subjects with Down syndrome, facial size was significantly smaller and craniofacial variability was significantly greater than in typically developed individuals; 93% of Italian and 81% of Northern Sudanese subjects with Down syndrome had one or both values outside the normal interval. Overall, Italian subjects with Down syndrome differed more from the norm than did those from Northern Sudan. In the Northern Sudanese subjects, the mean z scores and the craniofacial variability index were significantly influenced by age: Older Northern Sudanese subjects with Down syndrome had smaller mean z scores and craniofacial variability index values than younger subjects. Conclusions: The two ethnic groups had different alterations in their soft tissue facial dimensions that were partially influenced by age. © Copyright 2015 American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association. Source


Sforza C.,University of Milan | Dolci C.,University of Milan | Tommasi D.G.,University of Milan | Pisoni L.,University of Milan | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2014

No current age- and gender-related normative data exist for the dimensions of facial structures in Northern Sudanese subjects. In the current study information about normal sex- and age-related linear distances is provided. The three-dimensional coordinates of 14 landmarks on the facial soft tissues were obtained using a hand-held laser scanner in 653 healthy Northern Sudanese subjects (326 males and 327 females) aged 4-30 years. From the landmarks, 13 linear distances were calculated, and averaged for age and sex. Comparisons were performed by factorial analysis of variance. All analyzed linear soft tissue facial dimensions were significantly larger in men than in women (p < 0.01), except mouth width (ch-ch), upper facial height (n-sn), mandibular body length (pg-go) and width (go-go). All measurements underwent significant modifications as a function of age (p < 0.01), with significant age × sex interactions (p < 0.01) for all linear dimensions except lower face height (sn-pg). Overall, when compared to literature data for African and Caucasoid subjects, several differences were found, pointing to the necessity of ethnic-specific data. Data collected in the present investigation could serve as a database for the quantitative description of human facial morphology during normal growth and development. Source


Sforza C.,University of Milan | Dolci C.,University of Milan | Rosati R.,University of Milan | De Menezes M.,University of the State of Amazonas | And 4 more authors.
Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology | Year: 2014

Objective: To investigate dimensions and ratios of soft-tissue facial volumes of adult Northern Sudanese subjects with Down syndrome by using computerized anthropometric measurements. Design, Setting, and Patients: The 3D coordinates of soft-tissue facial landmarks were obtained by a computerized digitizer in 26 Northern Sudanese adult subjects with Down syndrome (18 men, 8 women, aged 17-34 years), and in 99 healthy Northern Sudanese controls (48 women, 51 men) of the same age range. From the landmarks, several facial volumes and volume ratios were calculated. Data were compared to those collected in healthy individuals by computing z-scores. Results: In subjects with Down syndrome, facial volumes were significantly smaller than in control subjects (Student's t, p < 0.05). The patterns of deviation from the norm were similar in men and women. When compared to controls, subjects with Down syndrome had no differences in nose volume as a fraction of total facial volume and a larger total lip volume as a fraction of total facial volume; within the facial middle third, they had relatively larger upper lip volumes and relatively smaller nose volumes. Conclusions: The facial soft-tissue structures of subjects with Down syndrome differed from those of normal controls of the same age, sex and ethnic group: a reduced facial size was coupled with specific variations in the nasal and labial regions. © 2014 Firenze University Press. Source

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