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Marodi L.,Debrecen University | Cypowyj S.,Rockefeller University | Toth B.,Debrecen University | Chernyshova L.,Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2012

Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins are key components of the innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogenic microorganisms. Recent research on primary immunodeficiency disorders and the identification of patients carrying germline mutations in STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5B have highlighted the role of human STATs in host defense against various viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Mutations in STAT1 and STAT3 disrupt various cytokine pathways that control mucocutaneous immunity against Candida species, especially Candida albicans, and Staphylococcus species, especially Staphylococcus aureus. Here we consider inborn errors of immunity arising from mutations in either STAT1 or STAT3 that affect mucocutaneous immunity to Candida and Staphylococcus species. © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Source

Lakhno I.V.,Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education
New Armenian Medical Journal | Year: 2015

Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy that leads to maternal multiple organ failure and fetal growth retardation. The objective of the study was to investigate the parameters of cardiac activity of mother and fetus affected by antihypertensive therapy for pregnant women with preeclampsia. Types of central maternal hemodynamics based on bioimpedance cardiography, parameters of maternal heart rate variability and fetal electrocardiogram in 72 preeclampsia patients with 32-38 weeks of gestation were examined. The control group was comprised of 30 women with factors associated with physiological pregnancy. In the presence of mild preeclampsia, an increased capacity of the central and peripheral sympathetic regulation of the hemodynamics and almost constant power of the vagal tone were observed. These changes were essential for the hyperkinetic type of central maternal hemodynamics. In the presence of moderate and severe PE, relative hypersympathicotonia associated with reduced heart rate variability was observed. It was accompanied by generalized vascular spasm and decreased cardiac index. The use of carvedilol has contributed to the correction of hypersympatheticotonia with decreased autonomic balance in pregnant women with mild preeclampsia. The use of methyldopa and nifedipine has not had any normalizing effect on total spectrum and separate branches of maternal heart rate variability in pregnant women with moderate and severe preeclampsia. The effect of antihypertensive drugs on the fetal cardiac activity was also not determined. © 2015, Yerevan State Medical University. All rights reserved. Source

Lakhno I.V.,Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education
New Armenian Medical Journal | Year: 2014

The spectral characteristics of maternal and fetal heart rate variability and umbilical vein hemodynamics were investigated in 63 pregnant women with preeclampsia that was associated with the suppression of the vagal tone. Sympatovagal value above 2.0 was a marker of pregnancy complication. It was determined that fetal compromise in preeclamptic patients was accompanied with decreased total spectrum power and fractal components of heart rate variability and the relative predominance of central sympathetic control. The resulting state influenced negatively on fetal myocardial metabolic response and was characterized with T/QRS ratio above 1.5. The autonomic nervous regulation reduction of the fetus demonstrated the loss of independence from the maternal hemodynamics that had synchronized the maternal and fetal heart rate by increased vagal tone power. The fetal distress development marked an increased regulatory role of maternal origin slow-wave processes and depletion of the proper myogenic umbilical cord arrangements which reinforced the penetrating of umbilical vein pulsative waves. Source

Shalimova A.S.,Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education
New Armenian Medical Journal | Year: 2014

run a pathophysiological cascade leading to endothelial dysfunction, cardiac remodeling and vascular immunoinflammatory activation and apoptotic processes. The research, which aimed to assess the contribution of type 2 diabetes to the development of cardiac and vascular remodeling in patients with essential hypertension, was carried out. The study involved 180 examined patients: 107 patients with essential hypertension in combination with type 2 diabetes and 73 patients with essential hypertension without type 2 diabetes. Our findings showed that patients with essential hypertension and type 2 diabetes were characterized by preserved systolic function of the left ventricle and, compared to patients without type 2 diabetes, more pronounced predominance of concentric (67.3%) and eccentric (17.8%) hypertrophy of the left ventricle, which are the worst cases of remodeling. In patients with essential hypertension in combination with type 2 diabetes, the degree of left ventricle diastolic dysfunction was more pronounced than in nondiabetic patients. Diastolic dysfunction type violations of the left ventricle relaxation were present in 100% of patients with essential hypertension without type 2 diabetes, while in 13.1% of patients with type 2 diabetes heavier pseudonormal type of the left ventricle diastolic dysfunction was diagnosed. The distinctive feature in the group of patients with a combination of essential hypertension and type 2 diabetes compared with a group of patients with essential hypertension without type 2 diabetes were significantly higher values of intima-media thickness, pulse wave velocity in carotid arteries and abdominal aorta, as well as a significantly lower value of endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Source

Gibbs T.,Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education
Medical Teacher | Year: 2011

As new developments in medical education move inexorably forward, medical schools are being encouraged to revisit their curricula to ensure quality graduates and match their outcomes against defined standards. These standards may eventually be transferred into global accreditation standards, which allow "safe passage" of graduates from one country to another [Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) 2010. Requiring medical school accreditation for ECFMG certification-moving accreditation forward. Available from: http://www.ecfmg.org/accreditation/rationale.pdf]. Gaining much attention is the important standard of social accountability ensuring that graduates" competencies are shaped by the health and social needs of the local, national and even international communities in which they will serve. But, in today's "global village", if medical schools address the needs of their immediate community, who should address the needs of the wider global community? Should medical educators and their associations be looking beyond national borders into a world of very unequal opportunities in terms of human and financial resources; a world in which distant countries and populations are very quickly affected by medical and social disasters; a world in which the global playing field of medical education is far from level? With medical schools striving to produce fit-for-purpose graduates who will hopefully address the health needs of their country, is it now time for the medical education fraternity to extend their roles of social accountability to level this unlevel playing field? We believe so: the time has come for the profession to embrace a global accountability model and those responsible for all aspects of healthcare professional development to recognise their place within the wider global community. © 2011 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved. Source

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