Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Khan Research Laboratories

Rawalpindi, Pakistan

The Khan Research Laboratories, previously known at various times as Project-706, and Engineering Research Laboratories, is a Pakistan Government's multi-program national research institute, managed and operated under the scrutiny of Pakistan Armed Forces, located in Kahuta, Punjab Province. The laboratories are one of the largest science and technology institutions in Pakistan, and conducts multidisciplinary research and development in fields such as national security, space exploration, and supercomputing.While the laboratories remain highly classified, the KRL is most famous for its research, development, and production of Highly-Enriched Uranium , using gas-centrifuge technological methods roughly based on the model of the Urenco Group—the technology brought by Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, who worked there as a senior scientist. Since its inception, this institutes employed large number of technical staff members with majority being physicists and mathematicians, assisted by engineers , chemists, and material scientists. Professional scientists and engineers are also delegated to visit this institute after going under close and strict screening and background check, to participates as visitors in scientific projects.During the midst of the 1970s, the laboratories were the cornerstone of the first stage of Pakistan' atomic bomb project, being one of the various sites where the classified scientific research on atomic bombs were undertaken. Wikipedia.

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Schenk J.J.,Florida State University | Rowe K.C.,Khan Research Laboratories | Steppan S.J.,Florida State University
Systematic Biology | Year: 2013

Why some clades are more species-rich than others is a central question in macroevolution. Most hypotheses explaining exceptionally diverse clades involve the emergence of an ecological opportunity caused by a major biogeographic transition or evolution of a key innovation. The radiation of muroid rodents is an ideal model for testing theories of diversification rates in relation to biogeography and ecological opportunity because the group is exceptionally species-rich (comprising nearly one-third of all mammal species), it is ecologically diverse, and it has colonized every major landmass except New Zealand and Antarctica, thus providing multiple replicate radiations. We present an extension of the conventional ecological opportunity model to include a geographic incumbency effect, develop the largest muroid phylogeny to date, and use this phylogeny to test the new model. The nearly 300-species phylogeny based on four nuclear genes is robustly resolved throughout. Consistent with the fossil record, we identified Eurasia as the most likely origin of the group and reconstructed five to seven colonizations of Africa, five of North America, four of Southeast Asia, two of South America, two of Sahul, one of Madagascar, and eight to ten recolonizations of Eurasia. We accounted for incomplete taxon sampling by using multiple statistical methods and identified three corroborated regions of the tree with significant shifts in diversification rates. In several cases, higher rates were associated with the first colonization of a continental area, but most colonizations were not followed by bursts of speciation. We found strong evidence for diversification consistent with the ecological opportunity model (initial burst followed by density-dependent slowdown) in the first colonization of South America and partial support for this model in the first colonization of Sahul. Primary colonizers appear to inhibit the ultimate diversity of secondary colonizers, a pattern of incumbency that is consistent with ecological opportunity, but they did not inhibit initial diversification rates of secondary colonizers. These results indicate that ecological opportunity may be a general but weak process in muroids and one that requires specific circumstances to lead to an adaptive radiation. The total land area, length of time between colonizations, and rank of colonizations did not influence the diversification rates of primary colonizers. Models currently employed to test ecological opportunity do a poor job of explaining muroid diversity. In addition, the various rate-shift metrics identified different clades, suggesting that caution should be used when only one is applied, and we discuss which methods are most appropriate to address different questions of diversification. © The Author(s) 2013.

Treadgold C.L.,Khan Research Laboratories | Kuperberg A.,Childrens Hospital Los Angeles
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2010

The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the provision of support groups for adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer with a focus on the challenges that are faced by these initiatives. The value of group support to patients with cancer and particularly to this age group has been well documented. However, with the advent and increase in popularity of online support options, it is an opportune time to examine the options available to the AYA group and highlight areas that would benefit from further investigation. This article will review the literature on the need to provide support groups to this age group, the available options, and the challenges they face. © 2010 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

Gramotnev D.K.,Khan Research Laboratories | Bozhevolnyi S.I.,University of Southern Denmark
Nature Photonics | Year: 2010

Recent years have seen a rapid expansion of research into nanophotonics based on surface plasmon-polaritons. These electromagnetic waves propagate along metal-dielectric interfaces and can be guided by metallic nanostructures beyond the diffraction limit. This remarkable capability has unique prospects for the design of highly integrated photonic signal-processing systems, nanoresolution optical imaging techniques and sensors. This Review summarizes the basic principles and major achievements of plasmon guiding, and details the current state-of-the-art in subwavelength plasmonic waveguides, passive and active nanoplasmonic components for the generation, manipulation and detection of radiation, and configurations for the nanofocusing of light. Potential future developments and applications of nanophotonic devices and circuits are also discussed, such as in optical signals processing, nanoscale optical devices and near-field microscopy with nanoscale resolution. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Jakob D.,Khan Research Laboratories
Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal | Year: 2010

One of the main drivers for this project is the requirement to complement other high-quality surface data-sets with surface wind data for use in climate change detection and attribution studies. The high-quality data may also be used to analyse trends in storminess. Investigations highlighted the following three issues: Over the last two decades Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) have been installed at a large number of locations over the Australian region. The majority of newly installed wind instruments are rotating cup anemometers (Synchrotac), in many cases replacing older types, such as pressure tube anemometers (Dines). The corresponding changes in instrumentation alone can significantly change the characteristics of observed wind speed. Daylight Saving Time (DST) is in effect in the majority of Australian States, typically for a period from late October to late March. During this period, observations are taken according to DST rather than Local Standard Time (LST). Observations taken one hour earlier (compared with LST) can significantly affect the measured wind speed relative to climatology at a particular time. Estimates of daily mean wind speed depend on the frequency of synoptic observations. The frequency of these observations typically increases towards the latter part of the record, in some cases from two observations (at 0900 and 1500) to eight observations a day (at three-hourly intervals). Depending on the number of synoptic observations used to derive the daily mean wind speed, the true value may be significantly over- or underestimated.

Symonds M.R.E.,University of Melbourne | Moussalli A.,Khan Research Laboratories
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology | Year: 2011

Akaike's information criterion (AIC) is increasingly being used in analyses in the field of ecology. This measure allows one to compare and rank multiple competing models and to estimate which of them best approximates the "true" process underlying the biological phenomenon under study. Behavioural ecologists have been slow to adopt this statistical tool, perhaps because of unfounded fears regarding the complexity of the technique. Here, we provide, using recent examples from the behavioural ecology literature, a simple introductory guide to AIC: what it is, how and when to apply it and what it achieves. We discuss multimodel inference using AIC-a procedure which should be used where no one model is strongly supported. Finally, we highlight a few of the pitfalls and problems that can be encountered by novice practitioners. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Olver I.N.,Khan Research Laboratories
Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care | Year: 2012

Purpose of review: This review updates the literature on hope and oncology following a prior review of studies up until 2009. It particularly focusses on the evolution of the definition of hope in the light of the clinical experience of patients with cancer, their carers and health professionals. Recent findings: Hope creates meaning for patients and is an important coping mechanism. Clinicians are wary of communicating bad news because it may deprive patients of hope, but work with decision aids suggests that this communication can be managed successfully. Hope and optimism negatively correlate with anxiety and depression. Maintaining hope may result in patients with incurable cancer accepting treatments or trials with little chance of benefit. Hope also needs to be maintained by palliative care nurses who harmonize their hopes with the different degrees and constructs of hope around them. Hope interventions can be successful in increasing hope and decreasing psychological distress. Summary: More research is required into how to communicate about active anticancer treatment withdrawal and prognosis without depriving patients with cancer of hope, given how important hope is in alleviating psychological distress. The optimal intervention to increase levels of hope needs further investigation. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Webb M.A.,Khan Research Laboratories
Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal | Year: 2012

Atmospheric and oceanic conditions in the southern hemisphere are reviewed for the austral summer 2011-12, with emphasis given to the Pacific Basin climate indicators and Australian rainfall and temperature patterns. In the Pacific Basin, the La Niña pattern that developed during spring 2011 strengthened in early summer before gradually decaying. It was the weaker of two consecutive, yet quite different, La Niña events following an extremely strong La Niña in 2010-11. A record strong positive Southern Annular Mode was present during December 2011 and January 2012 and an active Madden-Julian Oscillation affected the tropics for much of summer 2011-12, especially in February. Averaged across the country, Australia was wetter and cooler than usual, but there were large regional variations. Parts of the south and tropical north were drier and warmer than average, to some extent due to a less active than normal North Australian Monsoon. While New South Wales was exceptionally cool during the day and wetter than usual, Tasmania was exceptionally warm and drier than usual.

Rasul G.,Khan Research Laboratories
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2014

With limited land resources, inadequate energy supply, and growing water stress, South Asia faces the challenge of providing enough water and energy to grow enough food for the burgeoning population. Using secondary data from diverse sources, this paper explores the food, water, and energy nexus from a regional dimension, emphasizing the role of Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) ecosystem services in sustaining food, water, and energy security downstream. The analysis reveals that the issues and challenges in the food, water, and energy sectors are interwoven in many complex ways and cannot be managed effectively without cross-sectoral integration. The most distinctive feature of the nexus in South Asia is the high degree of dependency of downstream communities on upstream ecosystem services for dry-season water for irrigation and hydropower, drinking water, and soil fertility and nutrients. This finding suggests that along with cross-sectoral integration to improve the resource-use efficiency and productivity of the three sectors, regional integration between upstream and downstream areas is critical in food, water, and energy security. Within the nexus approach in South Asia, equal attention should be paid to management of HKH ecosystems-especially the watersheds, catchments, and headwaters of river systems-and to tapping the potential of collaborative gains in water, hydropower, and other ecosystem services through coordination across HKH countries. © 2014 The Authors.

Dane Panetta F.,Khan Research Laboratories
Diversity and Distributions | Year: 2012

Aim: To develop approaches to the evaluation of programmes whose strategic objectives are to halt or slow weed spread. Location: Australia. Methods: Key aspects in the evaluation of weed containment programmes are considered. These include the relevance of models that predict the effects of management intervention on spread, the detection of spread, evidence for containment failure and metrics for absolute or partial containment. Case studies documenting either near-absolute (Orobanche ramosa L., branched broomrape) or partial (Parthenium hysterophorus (L.) King and Robinson, parthenium) containment are presented. Results: While useful for informing containment strategies, predictive models cannot be employed in containment programme evaluation owing to the highly stochastic nature of realized weed spread. The quality of observations is critical to the timely detection of weed spread. Effectiveness of surveillance and monitoring activities will be improved by utilizing information on habitat suitability and identification of sites from which spread could most compromise containment. Proof of containment failure may be difficult to obtain. The default option of assuming that a new detection represents containment failure could lead to an underestimate of containment success, the magnitude of which will depend on how often this assumption is made. Main conclusions: Evaluation of weed containment programmes will be relatively straightforward if containment is either absolute or near-absolute and may be based on total containment area and direct measures of containment failure, for example, levels of dispersal, establishment and reproduction beyond (but proximal to) the containment line. Where containment is only partial, other measures of containment effectiveness will be required. These may include changes in the rates of detection of new infestations following the institution of interventions designed to reduce dispersal, the degree of compliance with such interventions, and the effectiveness of tactics intended to reduce fecundity or other demographic drivers of spread. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Rasul G.,Khan Research Laboratories
Water Policy | Year: 2014

Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, and Nepal in the Eastern Himalayas are interconnected by the common river systems of the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna (GBM). The GBM basin is home to approximately 700 million people, comprising over 10% of the world's population. The economy and environment of the region depend on water, but while the need for water is increasing, poor management and climate-related effects are making water supplies erratic. Upstream-downstream interdependencies necessitate developing a shared river system in an integrated manner through collaboration of the riparian countries. This paper examines the opportunities for, and potential benefits of, regional cooperation in water resource management. It suggests that the benefits can increase considerably when a regional (river basin) perspective is adopted that promotes optimum use of water resources for consumptive and non-consumptive use. Regional cooperation can bring additional economic, environmental, social, and political benefits through multi-purpose river projects, which help by storing monsoon water, mitigating the effects of floods and droughts, augmenting dry season river flows, expanding irrigation and navigation facilities, generating hydropower, and enhancing energy and environmental security. A broader framework to facilitate regional cooperation in transboundary rivers in the Eastern Himalayan region is suggested. © IWA Publishing 2014.

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