Khalda Petroleum Company

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Khalda Petroleum Company

Petroleum, United States
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Salah M.,Khalda Petroleum Company | Bereak A.,Khalda Petroleum Company | Gabry M.A.,Khalda Petroleum Company | Batmaz T.,Schlumberger | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the Annual Offshore Technology Conference | Year: 2016

Upper Baharyia formation is a common reservoir in the Western Desert of Egypt. It is characterized as a heterogeneous reservoir with low sand quality and shale interbeds that make hydraulic fracturing a mandatory technique to economically develop these marginal fields. The continuous economic field development requires an efficient application of hydraulic fracturing, understanding fracture propagation paths and the area of pay affected by the fracture treatment in order to optimize well spacing, placement and determine the best injection pattern for optimizing sweep efficiency. To optimize the fracture design, microseismic monitoring technique was implemented for the first time in Khalda concession, Western Desert of Egypt to diagnose the hydraulic fracture and improve field development strategies. Two hydraulic fractured wells were monitored in an attempt to assess the fracture propagation and perform fracture model calibration to develop a predictive tool for hydraulic fracture design and to indicate the fracture growth as they are being created by rock failure. The microseismic monitoring and fracturing mapping were applied to evaluate the hydraulic fracture propagation through the Upper Baharyia formation thus allowing the implementation of corrective actions for better field development and efficient completion strategies. The objectives of this fracture mapping were to (1) measure fracture geometry (height, length and azimuth) and (2) provide immediate information that could be used on offset spacing and azimuth strategy associated with future wells. The results of microseismic fracture mapping are being integrated with the planned stimulation model, mini-frac data, stress profile and geological information shall be combined to calibrate the fracturing model for future fracturing campaigns in Upper Baharyia formation. © 2016, Offshore Technology Conference.


Salah M.,Khalda Petroleum Company | El-Sebaee M.,Schlumberger | Raouf P.,Schlumberger | Keshishian A.,Schlumberger
SPE Eastern Regional Meeting | Year: 2015

The ultimate goal of increased production has led to exploring new techniques to stimulate unconventional reservoirs in an efficient and economical manner. Globally, the trend towards horizontal drilling is increasing to enhance production by increasing the contact area with the producing interval. Likewise, operators are looking to maximize the volume of reservoir rock that is fracture stimulated, using horizontal drilling to create lateral sections and combining this with the efficient placement of propped fracturing treatment. Nevertheless, individual fracturing of numerous zones with bridge plug isolation or the conventional perf-and-plug method poses several concerns regarding cost and operational efficiency in horizontal wells. A new multistage stimulation technique has been successfully deployed in the Western Desert, Egypt, for the first time allowing for multiple stages to be fracture stimulated in one continuous operation. The technique using cemented fracturing sliding sleeves and degradable-ball drop was successfully implemented. This technique utilizes valves with preset seats and matching degradable balls to achieve zonal isolation. The balls are dropped from the surface, to isolate the stimulated interval. Once the ball lands on the seat, applying surface pressure activates the sleeve and opens up the fracturing port at the next target zone of the formation to be stimulated. This completion system allows for maximum operational efficiency because it eliminates the need for and risks associated with the use of wireline for perforations or coiled tubing services to mill out a bridge plug or clean up a sand plug. Fewer needed services and personnel allows for reduced operating time and lower cost. In one well, implementation of the cemented sliding sleeves with degradable ball technique was successful in efficiently completing seven hydraulic fracturing stages efficiently. The subject well, 3H Pinot was drilled to a measured depth of 10,330 ft with a lateral length of over 3,300 ft. This well provides a model for the completion strategy, operational procedures, adeptness of the isolation, and time frame. Another benefit that was demonstrated during the execution was precise fracture placement in utilizing the innovative fracturing ports. Implementation of the fracturing sliding sleeves system resulted in achievement of completions and stimulation goals while significantly increasing operational efficiency by means of reduced time between fracture stages and effective isolation. Enumeration of operational setbacks encountered during the execution of the multistage fracturing treatment provides areas for future improvement and recommendations for future field operations. In the subject well, the technique impacted production because immediate and simultaneous flowback of all the stages was possible. Copyright 2015, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Negm N.A.,Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute | El-Tabl A.S.,Menoufia University | Aiad I.A.,Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute | Zakareya K.,Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute | Moustafa A.H.,Khalda Petroleum Company
Journal of Surfactants and Detergents | Year: 2013

Four nonionic surface active agents were synthesized using the fatty acids obtained from the hydrolysis of Jatropha oil. The fatty acids obtained contained different fatty acids including: palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids in different proportions. The chemical structures of the obtained surfactants were characterized using elemental analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. The surface activities of the different surfactants were determined using surface and interfacial tension measurements. The surfactants showed good surface and interfacial activities, which are dependent on their chemical structures. Thermodynamic parameters of adsorption and micellization confirmed these results. The biodegradation tests in river water showed that the surfactants are readily biodegradable, and reached the European standards after 24 days. Surfactants containing longer nonionic chains formed stable emulsions with paraffin oil, while shorter chains exhibit a lower emulsion stability performance. © 2013 AOCS.


Nassar I.M.,Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute | Noor El-Din M.R.,Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute | Morsi R.E.,Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute | El-Azeim A.A.,Khalda Petroleum Company | Hashem A.I.,Ain Shams University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

Hydrogen sulfide is a very dangerous, toxic and corrosive gas. It can diffuse into drilling fluid from formations during drilling of gas and oil wells. Hydrogen sulfide should be removed from this fluid to reduce the environmental pollution, protect the health of drilling workers and prevent corrosion of pipelines and equipment. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an environmentally hazardous, corrosive, and toxic gas, mostly generated in gas and oil industry. In this work, we aimed to introduce a novel and effective materials to scavenge this gas as we were looking to reduce their concentration below standard limit. Team of the work synthesized three co-polymers based on acrylamide (AM) and vinyl acetate (VA) with average molecular weight 3.05×105 by the reacting of free radical precipitation polymerization method, this co-polymer were used in a three different molar ratios (3:1, 1:1, 1:3 namely; AMVA1, AMVA2 and AMVA3, respectively). The other part of nanocomposite was CdO nanoparticle, which synthesized by chemical method with particle size 8.8 nm. The efficiency of four compounds based on CdO/AMVA2 was discussed here. Consequently, formation of CdS nanoparticles (9.7 nm) and CdS/sulfide poly (acryl amide - vinyl acetate) (CdO/SAMAV) nanocomposites as a result from our process to remove H2S gas, which using as natural source of sulfur metal were studied. The structures of the prepared adsorbents were elucidated using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scan electron microscopy (SEM), also the breakthrough behaviors of H2S gas adsorption in the prepared adsorbents (polymers, CdO and CdO/AMVA2 nanocomposites) fixed-bed reactor were studied. In the present work we were studied the effects of inlet H2S gas concentration in gas streams from 10 to 55 ppm, variable gas flow rates from 1 to 7 l/h on the sulfur loading, the impact of operating temperature from −10 to 70 °C on the efficiency of the polymer (AMAV2) bed, and the effect of the prepared adsorbents on uptake of H2S gas at constant operating conditions. The results obtained showed that our materials present an effectiveness, promising and relatively new candidate materials in the field of H2S scavengers. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Abd El Wanees S.,Zagazig University | Abd El Wanees S.,University of Tabuk | Alahmdi M.I.,University of Tabuk | Abd El Azzem M.,Menoufia University | Ahmed H.E.,Khalda Petroleum Company
International Journal of Electrochemical Science | Year: 2016

The effect of 4,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (DODHPCA) as a corrosion inhibitor for C-steel in acetic acid is examined by using hydrogen gas evolution, mass loss and potentiodynamic polarization techniques, as well as SEM investigation. Results showed that, the compound under study exhibits inhibitor properties. The inhibition efficiency was found to depend on the inhibitor concentration. The inhibition effect is based on the adsorption of DODHPCA molecules on the metal surface following Langmuir adsorption model. Tafel polarization curves indicated that this compound was of a mixed-type. The thermodynamic parameters are calculated and discussed. © 2016 The Authors. Published by ESG.


Abd El Monem A.A.,Khalda Petroleum Company | Azmy A.M.,Tanta University | Mahmoud S.A.,Menoufia University
Ain Shams Engineering Journal | Year: 2014

This paper presents a dynamic mathematical model for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane "PEM" fuel cell systems to be used for electric vehicle applications. The performance of the fuel cell, depending on the developed model and taking the double layer charging effect into account, is investigated with different process parameters to evaluate their effect on the unit behavior. Thus, it will be easy to develop suitable controllers to regulate the unit operation, which encourages the use of fuel cells especially with electric vehicles applications. The steady-state performance of the fuel cell is verified using a comparison with datasheet data and curves provided by the manufacturer. The results and conclusions introduced in this paper provide a base for further investigation of fuel cells-driven dc motors for electric vehicle. © 2013 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Ain Shams University.


El-Monem A.A.A.,Khalda Petroleum Company | Azmy A.M.,Tanta University | Mahmoud S.A.,Menoufia University
2013 IEEE Grenoble Conference PowerTech, POWERTECH 2013 | Year: 2013

This paper presents a dynamic simulation of a Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle 'FCEV' system with regenerative braking, based on a separately excited DC electric motor. A description of the model, with the associated developed controllers, for the fuel cell and the vehicle system is also introduced. The dynamic model of the Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell 'PEMFC' and the selected controller parameters are used based on a validated model and a parametric study introduced in a previous research. The main task of the controllers is to improve the dynamic response of the FCEV system under different conditions. The model is implemented using the MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation package and is tested by simulating the characteristics of different drive cycles of the vehicle. The results show the fast response of the electric vehicle in following the changes in the pedal position. In addition, it is indicated that the fuel cell stack has the ability to provide the power demand for the vehicle during different modes of operation. This model will be useful for analyzing the performance of FCEV under different operating conditions. © 2013 IEEE.


Algarhy A.A.,Texas Tech University | Bateman R.M.,Texas Tech University | Soliman M.Y.,Texas Tech University | Afify W.,Khalda Petroleum Company
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE North Africa Technical Conference and Exhibition 2015, NATC 2015 | Year: 2015

The Sweetspot Quality Index (SSQI) is a single index that represents the quality of a shale sweetspot. Four indices are used to calculate the SSQI: the Reservoir Quality Index (RQI), Completion Quality Index (CQI), Conventional Behavior Index (CBI), and Operation Index (OI). The RQI is calculated from porosities (rock porosity, organic porosity, and natural fractures), saturation, TOC, Ro, and reservoir pressure, and the CQI is calculated from shale brittleness, and the existence of micro fractures and laminations. The CBI is calculated from porosity, permeability, saturations, reservoir pressure, viscosity, and residual oil, and the OI is estimated from hydrocarbon market price, source rock depth, and cost of operations. These four indices include all the approaches that compare and evaluate shale plays and together offer a more complete view of grading and scaling shale sweetspots. The proposed technique has been applied to different data sets from North American shale plays, and the final results are very consistent with best practices. Due to this consistency, this approach has the potential to become a standard evaluation technique for E&P and service companies. Copyright © 2015 Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Fouda A.S.,Mansoura University | Rashwan S.M.,Suez Canal University | Farag M.E.,Khalda Petroleum Company
Protection of Metals and Physical Chemistry of Surfaces | Year: 2015

The corrosion behavior of 1018 carbon steel in 0.5 M HCl solution in the absence and presence some benzothazol-2-cyanomethyl derivatives was investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) techniques. The results obtained from these techniques show that, the inhibition efficiency of these inhibitors increased with increase in inhibitor concentration but deceased with rise in temperature. Adsorption of these derivatives follows the Temkin adsorption isotherm. The polarization measurement showed that these inhibitors are acting as mixed-type inhibitors for both anodic and cathodic reactions. Some activated thermodynamic parameters were computed and discussed. The results obtained from the four different techniques were in good agreement. Quantum structure-activity relationships have been used to study the effect of molecular structure on inhibition efficiency of the inhibitors. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Mohamed M.S.,Khalda Petroleum Company | Meguid A.A.,Halliburton Co. | Wang Q.,Halliburton Co. | El-Maghraby O.,Halliburton Co.
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Asia Pacific Hydraulic Fracturing Conference | Year: 2016

Egypt's Western Desert contains a series of basins underlain by organic-rich shales that provide the source for conventional hydrocarbon. The primary objectives for exploring the gas-rich shale plays and unconventional reservoirs in the Western Desert were to evaluate the Middle Jurassic Khatatba source rock reservoir qualities, demonstrate the availability of reserves, and identify optimal technology to maximize productivity of unconventional low-permeability reservoirs, stimulation, and testing strategies. In 2014, a vertical exploratory data well was drilled and completed in the appraisal program before the completion of horizontals in this formation. Logs, core testing, and analysis service data were performed on or collected from this well. A stimulation model was built, which integrated petrophysical and geomechanical data. This model was used to aid the completion and stimulation design, including fracturing fluids and proppant selections. One-stage hydraulic fracturing was implemented, and the well was then flowed back and produced. The Khatatba Shale was systematically studied in this work. Various methods were used to understand this source rock. A geological study identified the lithostratigraphic section of the Khatatba Shale formations by collecting core samples. Core tests measured total organic carbon (TOC), brittleness, and sensitivity to fluid. These understandings helped reduce uncertainty during hydraulic fracturing operations. A successful hydraulic fracturing treatment was performed for this formation, which showed that low-viscosity fracture fluid can be used as the treatment fluid to carry proppant into the formation. During fracturing, near-wellbore (NWB) multiple fractures can be an issue. From an operational point of view, there might be options better than performing high-rate fracturing treatments. The lessons learned from this work and presented in this paper helped define completion and stimulation technologies for horizontal wells. This paper presents hydraulic fracturing treatment of the first shale gas well in Egypt for the Khatatba formation. Lessons learned about geochemical, rock mechanical, and petrophysical properties of this shale formation and their effects on hydraulic fracturing and production formed the basis for subsequent development of various shale plays in Egypt and worldwide. Copyright 2016, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

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