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Fouda A.S.,Mansoura University | Rashwan S.M.,Suez Canal University | Farag M.E.,Khalda Petroleum Company
Protection of Metals and Physical Chemistry of Surfaces | Year: 2015

The corrosion behavior of 1018 carbon steel in 0.5 M HCl solution in the absence and presence some benzothazol-2-cyanomethyl derivatives was investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) techniques. The results obtained from these techniques show that, the inhibition efficiency of these inhibitors increased with increase in inhibitor concentration but deceased with rise in temperature. Adsorption of these derivatives follows the Temkin adsorption isotherm. The polarization measurement showed that these inhibitors are acting as mixed-type inhibitors for both anodic and cathodic reactions. Some activated thermodynamic parameters were computed and discussed. The results obtained from the four different techniques were in good agreement. Quantum structure-activity relationships have been used to study the effect of molecular structure on inhibition efficiency of the inhibitors. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

Negm N.A.,Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute | El-Farargy A.F.M.,Zagazig University | Halim E.A.A.,Zagazig University | El-Lboudy S.,Khalda Petroleum Company | Ahmed A.E.-S.I.,Zagazig University
Journal of Surfactants and Detergents | Year: 2014

Four nonionic surfactants were prepared from the reaction of propylene oxide with oleic acid, linoleic acid, and the free fatty acid mixture from hydrolysis of jatropha oil. The chemical structures of the prepared surfactants were confirmed using IR and NMR spectroscopy. The surface activities of the prepared surfactants were dependent on the polypropylene oxide chain length and also on the nature of the alkyl chains. The nonionic surfactants were evaluated at different concentrations as corrosion inhibitors against the corrosion of Al 6061 aluminum in 2 M HCl solution. The corrosion inhibition tendencies of the surfactants were completely dependent on the fatty acid ratio in the jatropha oil and also on the polypropylene oxide chain length. The corrosion inhibition efficiencies of the surfactants were correlated to their chemical structure and their surface activities. © AOCS 2014. Source

Nassar I.M.,Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute | Noor El-Din M.R.,Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute | Morsi R.E.,Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute | El-Azeim A.A.,Khalda Petroleum Company | Hashem A.I.,Ain Shams University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

Hydrogen sulfide is a very dangerous, toxic and corrosive gas. It can diffuse into drilling fluid from formations during drilling of gas and oil wells. Hydrogen sulfide should be removed from this fluid to reduce the environmental pollution, protect the health of drilling workers and prevent corrosion of pipelines and equipment. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an environmentally hazardous, corrosive, and toxic gas, mostly generated in gas and oil industry. In this work, we aimed to introduce a novel and effective materials to scavenge this gas as we were looking to reduce their concentration below standard limit. Team of the work synthesized three co-polymers based on acrylamide (AM) and vinyl acetate (VA) with average molecular weight 3.05×105 by the reacting of free radical precipitation polymerization method, this co-polymer were used in a three different molar ratios (3:1, 1:1, 1:3 namely; AMVA1, AMVA2 and AMVA3, respectively). The other part of nanocomposite was CdO nanoparticle, which synthesized by chemical method with particle size 8.8 nm. The efficiency of four compounds based on CdO/AMVA2 was discussed here. Consequently, formation of CdS nanoparticles (9.7 nm) and CdS/sulfide poly (acryl amide - vinyl acetate) (CdO/SAMAV) nanocomposites as a result from our process to remove H2S gas, which using as natural source of sulfur metal were studied. The structures of the prepared adsorbents were elucidated using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scan electron microscopy (SEM), also the breakthrough behaviors of H2S gas adsorption in the prepared adsorbents (polymers, CdO and CdO/AMVA2 nanocomposites) fixed-bed reactor were studied. In the present work we were studied the effects of inlet H2S gas concentration in gas streams from 10 to 55 ppm, variable gas flow rates from 1 to 7 l/h on the sulfur loading, the impact of operating temperature from −10 to 70 °C on the efficiency of the polymer (AMAV2) bed, and the effect of the prepared adsorbents on uptake of H2S gas at constant operating conditions. The results obtained showed that our materials present an effectiveness, promising and relatively new candidate materials in the field of H2S scavengers. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd Source

Negm N.A.,Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute | El-Tabl A.S.,Menoufia University | Aiad I.A.,Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute | Zakareya K.,Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute | Moustafa A.H.,Khalda Petroleum Company
Journal of Surfactants and Detergents | Year: 2013

Four nonionic surface active agents were synthesized using the fatty acids obtained from the hydrolysis of Jatropha oil. The fatty acids obtained contained different fatty acids including: palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids in different proportions. The chemical structures of the obtained surfactants were characterized using elemental analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. The surface activities of the different surfactants were determined using surface and interfacial tension measurements. The surfactants showed good surface and interfacial activities, which are dependent on their chemical structures. Thermodynamic parameters of adsorption and micellization confirmed these results. The biodegradation tests in river water showed that the surfactants are readily biodegradable, and reached the European standards after 24 days. Surfactants containing longer nonionic chains formed stable emulsions with paraffin oil, while shorter chains exhibit a lower emulsion stability performance. © 2013 AOCS. Source

Abd El Monem A.A.,Khalda Petroleum Company | Azmy A.M.,Tanta University | Mahmoud S.A.,Menoufia University
Ain Shams Engineering Journal | Year: 2014

This paper presents a dynamic mathematical model for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane "PEM" fuel cell systems to be used for electric vehicle applications. The performance of the fuel cell, depending on the developed model and taking the double layer charging effect into account, is investigated with different process parameters to evaluate their effect on the unit behavior. Thus, it will be easy to develop suitable controllers to regulate the unit operation, which encourages the use of fuel cells especially with electric vehicles applications. The steady-state performance of the fuel cell is verified using a comparison with datasheet data and curves provided by the manufacturer. The results and conclusions introduced in this paper provide a base for further investigation of fuel cells-driven dc motors for electric vehicle. © 2013 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Ain Shams University. Source

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