Adirampattinam, India
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Ayeshamariam A.,Khadir Mohideen College | Ramalingam S.,Avc College | Bououdina M.,University of Bahrain | Jayachandran M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2014

In this work, pure and singe phase SnO2 Nano powder is successfully prepared by simple sol-gel combustion route. The photo luminescence and XRD measurements are made and compared the geometrical parameters with calculated values. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra are recorded and the fundamental frequencies are assigned. The optimized parameters and the frequencies are calculated using HF and DFT (LSDA, B3LYP and B3PW91) theory in bulk phase of SnO2 and are compared with its Nano phase. The vibrational frequency pattern in nano phase gets realigned and the frequencies are shifted up to higher region of spectra when compared with bulk phase. The NMR and UV-Visible spectra are simulated and analyzed. Transmittance studies showed that the HOMO-LUMO band gap (Kubo gap) is reduced from 3.47 eV to 3.04 eV while it is heated up to 800 C. The Photoluminescence spectra of SnO 2 powder showed a peak shift towards lower energy side with the change of Kubo gap from 3.73 eV to 3.229 eV for as-prepared and heated up to 800 C. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Ayeshamariam A.,Khadir Mohideen College | Bououdina M.,University of Bahrain | Sanjeeviraja C.,Alagappa University
Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing | Year: 2013

In this work, various techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetric analysis (DSC-TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-vis-NIR), photoluminescence (PL), >as well as electrical and sensor techniques have been used for the characterization of indium oxide (In2O3) nanoparticles. Here, we also provide insight regarding the optical and electrical characteristics of In2O3 nanostructures. The impact of highly sensitive and fast responding gas sensors using In 2O3 nanostructures is also discussed. It is found that the as-prepared In2O3 powder is a pure single phase and is stable up to 800 °C. The size of the particles is in the range of 12 nm as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The band gap was found to vary linearly with the annealing temperature. A good sensitivity up to 400 ppm was obtained for ethanol and a mechanism is proposed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Govindarajan M.,Annamalai University | Sivakumar R.,Annamalai University | Amsath A.,Khadir Mohideen College | Niraimathi S.,Anna University
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2012

Objective: To determine the larvicidal efficacy of different solvent leaf extract of Ervatamia coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima against Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Materials and Methods: Twenty five early third instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. Results: Among three solvent extracts tested the maximum efficacy was observed in the methanol extract. The LC 50 (LC 90) values of Ervatamia coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima against early third instar of Anopheles subpictus were 86.47 (159.59) and 113.26 (207.73) ppm and Culex tritaeniorhynchus were 131.53 (245.37) and 165.28 (299.45) ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in controls. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of Ervatamia coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima were excellent potential for controlling Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquito larvae.


Govindarajan M.,Annamalai University | Sivakumar R.,Annamalai University | Amsath A.,Khadir Mohideen College | Niraimathi S.,Anna University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2011

Objective: To determine the larvicidal efficacy of different solvent leaf extract of Ficus benghalensis (F. benghalensis) against Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus) and Anopheles subpictus (An. subpictus). Methods: Twenty five early third instar larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO 2005. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. Results: Among three solvent extracts tested the maximum efficacy was observed in the methanol extract. The LC 50 and LC 90 values of F. benghalensis against early third instar of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus were 100.88, 159.76 ppm and 56.66, 85.84 ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in controls. The chi-square values were significant at P<0.05 level. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of F. benghalensis was an excellent potential for controlling Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus mosquito larvae. © 2011 Hainan Medical College.


Jyothi N.R.,Khadir Mohideen College | Farook N.A.M.,Khadir Mohideen College | Cho M.,Korea University | Shim J.,Yeungnam University
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2013

Chromium is a very important metal due to its use in various industries, such as dye, pigments and stainless steel. Hexavalent chromium is a carcinogen. Its determination in various environmental segments is always a challenging issue for environmental researchers. In this concern first section of this review article gives a brief history of chromium, such as its oxidation states, production information, uses, biological importance, exposure pathways and regulatory concentration levels. The second section explains about the sources of chromium and the next section gives the details of health effects and toxicity caused due to the presence of chromium in various environmental segments. Finally, this paper discusses the determination of chromium in different biological and environmental samples by various analytical techniques, such as atomic absorption spectrometer, Spectrophotometer, Voltammeter, Inductively coupled plasma techniques (ICP-AES, OES), potentiometer, spectrofluorometer, HPLC/GC-MS and chemiluminescence reported by the researchers worldwide since 2006. All the data collected during the literature survey is tabulated, which gives important information about the analytical methods and techniques used for the chromium determination.


Sathiq M.A.,Jamal Mohamed College Autonomous | Nasser A.J.A.,Jamal Mohamed College Autonomous | Sirajudeen P.M.,Khadir Mohideen College
E-Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2011

The influence of N-(l-morpholinobenzyl)urea (MBU) on corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1 M HCl was studied by weight loss, effect of temperature, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing of MBU concentrations but decreases with increasing temperatures. The adsorption of MBU on the mild steel surface obeyed the Temkin's adsorption isotherm. Potentiodynamic polarization curves showed that MBU acted as a cathodic inhibitor predominantly in hydrochloric acid. This was supported by the impedance measurements which showed a change in the charge transfer resistance and double layer capacitance indicating adsorption of MBU on the mild steel surface. Protective film formation against the acid attack is confirmed by SEM.


Maharajan A.,Khadir Mohideen College | Rajalakshmi S.,Kanchi Mamunivar Center for Post Graduate Studies | Vijayakumaran M.,National Institute of Ocean Technology | Kumarasamy P.,Khadir Mohideen College
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2012

The tissue damage induced by various organic pollutants in aquatic animals is well documented, but there is a dearth of information relating to the histological alterations induced by copper in the spiny lobster. In the present study, intermoult juveniles of the spiny lobster Panulirus homarus (average weight 150-200 g) were exposed to two sublethal concentrations of the copper (9.55 and 19.1 μg/l) for a period of 28 days. The muscle, hepatopancreas, midgut, gills, thoracic ganglion and heart of the lobsters were then dissected out and processed for light microscopic studies. Exposure to copper was found to result in several alterations in the histoarchitecture of the muscle, hepatopancreas, midgut, gills, thoracic ganglion and heart of P. homarus. The alterations included disruption and congestion of muscle bundle in muscle tissue; blackened haemocytes; distended lumen and F cell; necrosis of the tubules of the hepatopancreas; disarrangement of circular muscle of the midgut; accumulation of haemocytes in the haemocoelic space; swelling and fusion of lamellae; abnormal gill tips; hyperplastic, necrotic, and blackened secondary gill lamellae of the gills; damaged neurosecretory cell and sensory and motor fibre; necrotic of the thoracic ganglion; dispersedly arranged muscle bands; clumped satellite cells and nucleus of the heart. The results obtained suggest that the muscle, hepatopancreas, midgut, gills, thoracic ganglion and heart of lobsters exposed to copper were structurally altered. Such alterations could affect vital physiological functions, such as absorption, storage and secretion of the hepatopancreas, digestion of gut and respiration, osmotic and ionic regulations of the gills, which in turn could ultimately affect the survival and growth of P. homarus. Thus, all possible remedial measures should be adopted to prevent the occurrence of copper contamination in the aquatic environment. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Shim J.,Yeungnam University | Jyothi N.R.,Khadir Mohideen College | Farook N.A.M.,Khadir Mohideen College
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2013

In this paper, we reviewed antimalarial, antibacterial, antitrypanosomal and antiviral properties of thiosemicarbazones and their metal complexes reported since 2008.


Mohamed Farook N.A.,Khadir Mohideen College | Seyed Dameem G.A.,Khadir Mohideen College
E-Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2011

The kinetics of oxidation of 3-benzoylpropionic acid (KA) by N-chlorobenzamide (NCB) in aqueous acetic acid medium in the presence of perchloric acid have been investigated. The observed rate of oxidation is first order dependence each in [KA], [NCB] and [H+]. The main product of the oxidation is the corresponding carboxylic acid. The rate decreases with the addition of benzamide, one of the products of the reaction. Variation in ionic strength of the reaction medium has no significant effect on the rate of oxidation. But the rate of the reaction is enhanced by lowering the dielectric constant of the reaction medium. Hypochlorous acidium ion (H2O+Cl), has been postulated as the reactive oxidizing species. A mechanism consistent with observed results have been proposed and the related rate law deduced. The activation parameters have been computed with respect to slow step of the mechanism.


Mohamed Farook N.A.,Khadir Mohideen College | Manochitra S.,Khadir Mohideen College | Afroos Banu A.,Khadir Mohideen College
Journal of Solution Chemistry | Year: 2013

The kinetics of the oxidation of substituted 4-oxoacids by N-bromosaccharin (NBSac) has been studied in aqueous acetic acid medium at 30 C. The reactions follow first-order kinetics in the 4-oxoacids, NBSA and H+. Variation in the ionic strength has no effect on the reaction rate. The order of reactivity among the studied 4-oxoacids is: 4-methoxy > 4-methyl > 4-phenyl > 4-H > 4-Cl > 4-Br > 3-NO2. The effect of changes in the electronic nature of the substrate revealed that there is a development of positive charge in the transition state. The activation parameters were computed from an Arrhenius plot. Based on the kinetic results, a suitable mechanism has been proposed. The mechanism involves the attack of the oxidizing species hypobromous acidium ion, (H2O+Br). © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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