Grisold W.,KFJ Hospital |
Oberndorfer S.,KFJ Hospital |
Oberndorfer S.,Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology
Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders | Year: 2011
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNSs) cover a wide range of diseases and involve both the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system. Paraneoplastic encephalitis comprises several diseases such as paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD), limbic encephalitis (LE), paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis (PEM), brainstem encephalitis, opsomyoclonus syndrome, in addition to other even less frequently occurring entities. LE was the first historically identified CNS PNS, and similarities between other temporal lobe diseases such as herpes encephalitis have been elucidated. In the past few decades several autoantibodies have been described in association with LE. These encompass the classical 'onconeuronal' antibodies (abs) such as Hu, Yo, Ri and others, and now additionally abs towards either ion channels or surface antigens. The clinical core findings in LE are various mental changes such as amnesia or confusion, often associated with seizures. Careful characterization of psychiatric manifestations and/or associated neurological signs can help to characterize the syndrome and type of ab. The treatment options in LE depend on the aetiology. In LE caused by onconeuronal abs, the treatment options are poor. In two types of abs associated with LE, abs against ion channels and surface antigens (e.g. NMDA), immunomodulatory treatments seem effective, making these types of LE treatable conditions. However, LE can also occur without being associated with cancer, in which case only immunomodulation is required. Despite effective treatments, some patients' residual deficits remain, and recurrences have also been described. © The Author(s), 2011.
Titulaer M.J.,Leiden University |
Soffietti R.,University of Turin |
Dalmau J.,University of Pennsylvania |
Gilhus N.E.,University of Bergen |
And 10 more authors.
European Journal of Neurology | Year: 2011
Background: Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) almost invariably predate detection of the malignancy. Screening for tumours is important in PNS as the tumour directly affects prognosis and treatment and should be performed as soon as possible.Objectives: An overview of the screening of tumours related to classical PNS is given. Small cell lung cancer, thymoma, breast cancer, ovarian carcinoma and teratoma and testicular tumours are described in relation to paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis, subacute sensory neuronopathy, subacute autonomic neuropathy, paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), myasthenia gravis and paraneoplastic peripheral nerve hyperexcitability.Methods: Many studies with class IV evidence were available; one study reached level III evidence. No evidence-based recommendations grade A-C were possible, but good practice points were agreed by consensus.Recommendations: The nature of antibody, and to a lesser extent the clinical syndrome, determines the risk and type of an underlying malignancy. For screening of the thoracic region, a CT-thorax is recommended, which if negative is followed by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Breast cancer is screened for by mammography, followed by MRI. For the pelvic region, ultrasound (US) is the investigation of first choice followed by CT. Dermatomyositis patients should have CT-thorax/abdomen, US of the pelvic region and mammography in women, US of testes in men under 50 years and colonoscopy in men and women over 50. If primary screening is negative, repeat screening after 3-6 months and screen every 6 months up till 4 years. In LEMS, screening for 2 years is sufficient. In syndromes where only a subgroup of patients have a malignancy, tumour markers have additional value to predict a probable malignancy. Click for the corresponding questions to this CME article. © 2010 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2010 EFNS.
Meng S.,KFJ Hospital |
Meng S.,Medical University of Vienna |
Tinhofer I.,Medical University of Vienna |
Weninger W.J.,Medical University of Vienna |
Grisold W.,KFJ Hospital
Muscle and Nerve | Year: 2014
Introduction: This anatomical study evaluates the role and correlation of ultrasound (US) with anatomy in depicting the superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) and to evaluate the feasibility of US guided perineural infiltration as a potential therapeutic option in Wartenberg syndrome. Methods: Twenty-one arms from 11 non-embalmed cadavers were examined with US. Under US guidance perineural injection with ink was performed proximal to the site where the SBRN perforates the forearm fascia. The distribution of ink around the nerve was evaluated with dissection. Results: US allowed the distinction of the SBRN segments and their relation to the fascia. In all cases, the subfascial segment was stained. In only 57% the subfascially applied ink also reached the subcutaneous compartment. Conclusions: With US it is possible to examine and differentiate all segments of the SBRN. US guidance can be used for perineural injection of all relevant segments. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Grisold W.,KFJ Hospital |
Grisold A.,Medical University of Vienna
Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports | Year: 2015
The neuromuscular system can be involved in several systemic conditions. Clinical manifestations can appear at onset or throughout the course of the disease process. New investigational methods, including imaging of peripheral nerves, new laboratory tests, and antibodies, are available. In addition to symptomatic therapies, specific treatment options, such as for familial amyloid neuropathy and Fabry’s disease, are becoming increasingly available. Pathomechanisms vary depending on the underlying disease process. In addition to metabolic, hormonal, immune, and antibody-mediated mechanisms, in some generalized diseases, genetic causes need to be considered. This review focuses on different aspects of the peripheral nervous system including the nerve roots, plexuses, mononeuropathies and generalized neuropathies, neuromuscular junction disorders, muscle, and autonomic nervous system. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
PubMed | KFJ Hospital and Medical University of Vienna
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Muscle & nerve | Year: 2015
In this anatomical study we evaluated the feasibility of ultrasound (US) guided perineural injection of the deep branch of the radial nerve (DBRN) at the arcade of Frohse as potential therapy for nerve entrapment at this site.We examined 21 arms from 11 nonembalmed cadavers with US. Under US guidance, we injected ink into the DBRN perineural sheath beneath the arcade of Frohse. In subsequent anatomical dissection we evaluated the distribution of the ink.It was possible to apply ink at the DBRN in 95%. In 80% the ink remained within the supinator and did not reach the DBRN segment proximal to the arcade.With US guidance, it is possible to apply injection fluid safely around the DBRN inside the supinator tunnel. Due to the limited extent of the fluid, a second injection proximal to the arcade should be considered in the clinical setting.
PubMed | KFJ Hospital and Medical University of Vienna
Type: | Journal: Muscle & nerve | Year: 2016
Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE) is a common peripheral compression neuropathy and in most cases occurs at 2 sites, the retroepicondylar groove or the cubital tunnel. With regard to a potential therapeutic approach with perineural corticosteroid injection the aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of injection fluid applied at a standard site.We performed ultrasound-guided (US-guided) perineural injections to the ulnar nerve halfway between the olecranon and the medial epicondyle in 21 upper limbs from 11 non-embalmed cadavers. In anatomical dissection we investigated the spread of injected ink.Ink was successfully injected into the perineural sheath of the ulnar nerve in all 21 cases (cubital tunnel 21 of 21, retroepicondylar groove 19 of 21).US-guided injection between the olecranon and the medial epicondyle is a feasible and safe method to reach the most common sites of ulnar nerve entrapment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PubMed | KFJ Hospital and Medical University of Vienna
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pain physician | Year: 2016
Low back pain is a disabling and common condition, whose etiology often remains unknown. A suggested, however rarely considered, cause is neuropathy of the medial branch of the superior cluneal nerves (mSCN)-either at the level of the originating roots or at the point where it crosses the iliac crest, where it is ensheathed by an osseo-ligamentous tunnel. Diagnosis and treatment have, to date, been restricted to clinical assessment and blind infiltration with local anesthetics.To determine whether visualization and assessment of the mSCN with high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) is feasible.Interventional cadaver study and case series.Visualization of the mSCN was assessed in 7 anatomic specimens, and findings were confirmed by HRUS-guided ink marking of the nerve and consecutive dissection. Further, a patient chart and image review was performed of patients assessed at our department with the diagnosis of mSCN neuropathy.The mSCN could be visualized in 12 of 14 cases in anatomical specimens, as confirmed by dissection. Nine patients were diagnosed with mSCN syndrome of idiopathic or traumatic origin. Diagnosis was confirmed in all of them, with complete resolution of symptoms after HRUS-guided selective nerve block.These findings are first results that need to be evaluated in a systematic, prospective and controlled manner.We hereby confirm that it is possible to visualize the mSCN in the majority of anatomical specimens. The patients described may indicate a higher incidence of mSCN syndrome than has been recognized. mSCN syndrome should be considered in patients with low back pain of unknown origin, and HRUS may be able to facilitate nerve detection and US-guided nerve block.
PubMed | L.F.R., Ear, Medical University of Vienna, KFJ Hospital and Center For Anatomy And Cell Biology Sm
Type: Journal Article | Journal: AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology | Year: 2016
The hypoglossal nerve, providing motor innervation for the tongue, can be affected in many diseases of the neck and skull base, leading to dysarthria, dysphagia, and ultimately atrophy of the tongue. We determined the feasibility of direct visualization of the hypoglossal nerve in the neck with ultrasound, testing this technique on healthy volunteers and evaluating it in clinical practice.The study consisted of 4 parts: first, ultrasound-guided perineural ink injections along the course of the hypoglossal nerve at 24 sides of 12 fresh, nonembalmed cadaver necks. Subsequently, the specimens were dissected to confirm the correct identification of the nerve. The second part was examination of healthy volunteers with ultrasound and measurement of cross-sectional areas for generating reference data. The third part was scanning of healthy volunteers by 2 resident physicians with little and intermediate experience in ultrasound. Fourth was examination with ultrasound of patients with motor symptoms of the tongue.The hypoglossal nerve was correctly identified bilaterally in all cadaveric specimens (24/24) and all volunteers (33/33). The cross-sectional area ranged from 1.9 to 2.1 mm(2). The resident physicians were able to locate the nerve in 19 of 22 cases, demonstrating that locating the nerve is reproducible and feasible even with intermediate experience in ultrasound. Finally, alterations of the hypoglossal nerve in disease states could be depicted.Direct, reliable, and reproducible visualization of the extracranial hypoglossal nerve with ultrasound is feasible.
PubMed | University of Bergen, University of Barcelona, KFJ Hospital, Ospedale CaFoncello and French Reference Center on Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndrome
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of neurology | Year: 2016
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among American and European men. Nervous system affection caused by local tumor growth or osseous metastases are the main causes of neurological symptoms in prostate cancer patients. Prostate cancer is rarely reported in association with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS). We have, therefore, studied clinical and paraclinical findings of a series of patients with prostate cancer and PNS, and reviewed cases reported in the literature. Case histories of 14 patients with definite PNS from the PNS Euronetwork database and from the authors databases were reviewed. A PubMed literature search identified 23 patients with prostate cancer and PNS. Thus, a total of 37 case histories were reviewed with respect to syndrome type, cancer evolution, paraclinical investigations, antibody status, treatment and outcome. The three most frequent isolated PNS were paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis (PEM)/limbic encephalitis and subacute sensory neuronopathy (SSN). Onconeural antibodies were detected in 23 patients, in most cases the Hu antibody (17 patients, 74% of all antibody-positive cases). Other well-characterized onconeural antibodies (Yo, CV2/CRMP5, amphiphysin, VGCC antibodies) were found in a minority. PNS was diagnosed prior to prostate cancer diagnosis in 50% of the cases. The association of PNS with prostate cancer is quite infrequent, but clinically important. PNS often heralds prostate cancer diagnosis. Syndromes associated with Hu antibodies predominate. Another tumor more prone to associate with PNS should always be excluded.
PubMed | KFJ Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Current neurology and neuroscience reports | Year: 2015
The neuromuscular system can be involved in several systemic conditions. Clinical manifestations can appear at onset or throughout the course of the disease process. New investigational methods, including imaging of peripheral nerves, new laboratory tests, and antibodies, are available. In addition to symptomatic therapies, specific treatment options, such as for familial amyloid neuropathy and Fabrys disease, are becoming increasingly available. Pathomechanisms vary depending on the underlying disease process. In addition to metabolic, hormonal, immune, and antibody-mediated mechanisms, in some generalized diseases, genetic causes need to be considered. This review focuses on different aspects of the peripheral nervous system including the nerve roots, plexuses, mononeuropathies and generalized neuropathies, neuromuscular junction disorders, muscle, and autonomic nervous system.