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Vienna, Austria

Meng S.,Center for Anatomy and Cell Biology | Reissig L.F.,Center for Anatomy and Cell Biology | Tzou C.-H.,Medical University of Vienna | Meng K.,Nose and Throat Diseases | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Neuroradiology

Background and Purpose: The hypoglossal nerve, providing motor innervation for the tongue, can be affected in many diseases of the neck and skull base, leading to dysarthria, dysphagia, and ultimately atrophy of the tongue. We determined the feasibility of direct visualization of the hypoglossal nerve in the neck with ultrasound, testing this technique on healthy volunteers and evaluating it in clinical practice. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 4 parts: first, ultrasound-guided perineural ink injections along the course of the hypoglossal nerve at 24 sides of 12 fresh, nonembalmed cadaver necks. Subsequently, the specimens were dissected to confirm the correct identifi-cation of the nerve. The second part was examination of healthy volunteers with ultrasound and measurement of cross-sectional areas for generating reference data. The third part was scanning of healthy volunteers by 2 resident physicians with little and intermediate experience in ultrasound. Fourth was examination with ultrasound of patients with motor symptoms of the tongue. RESULTS: The hypoglossal nerve was correctly identified bilaterally in all cadaveric specimens (24/24) and all volunteers (33/33). The cross-sectional area ranged from 1.9 to 2.1mm2. The resident physicians were able to locate the nerve in 19 of 22 cases, demonstrating that locating the nerve is reproducible and feasible even with intermediate experience in ultrasound. Finally, alterations of the hypoglossal nerve in disease states could be depicted. Conclusions: Direct, reliable, and reproducible visualization of the extracranial hypoglossal nerve with ultrasound is feasible. Source

Grisold W.,KFJ Hospital | Oberndorfer S.,KFJ Hospital | Oberndorfer S.,Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology
Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders

Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNSs) cover a wide range of diseases and involve both the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system. Paraneoplastic encephalitis comprises several diseases such as paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD), limbic encephalitis (LE), paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis (PEM), brainstem encephalitis, opsomyoclonus syndrome, in addition to other even less frequently occurring entities. LE was the first historically identified CNS PNS, and similarities between other temporal lobe diseases such as herpes encephalitis have been elucidated. In the past few decades several autoantibodies have been described in association with LE. These encompass the classical 'onconeuronal' antibodies (abs) such as Hu, Yo, Ri and others, and now additionally abs towards either ion channels or surface antigens. The clinical core findings in LE are various mental changes such as amnesia or confusion, often associated with seizures. Careful characterization of psychiatric manifestations and/or associated neurological signs can help to characterize the syndrome and type of ab. The treatment options in LE depend on the aetiology. In LE caused by onconeuronal abs, the treatment options are poor. In two types of abs associated with LE, abs against ion channels and surface antigens (e.g. NMDA), immunomodulatory treatments seem effective, making these types of LE treatable conditions. However, LE can also occur without being associated with cancer, in which case only immunomodulation is required. Despite effective treatments, some patients' residual deficits remain, and recurrences have also been described. © The Author(s), 2011. Source

Storstein A.,University of Bergen | Raspotnig M.,University of Bergen | Vitaliani R.,Ospedale CaFoncello | Giometto B.,Ospedale CaFoncello | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Neurology

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among American and European men. Nervous system affection caused by local tumor growth or osseous metastases are the main causes of neurological symptoms in prostate cancer patients. Prostate cancer is rarely reported in association with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS). We have, therefore, studied clinical and paraclinical findings of a series of patients with prostate cancer and PNS, and reviewed cases reported in the literature. Case histories of 14 patients with definite PNS from the PNS Euronetwork database and from the authors’ databases were reviewed. A PubMed literature search identified 23 patients with prostate cancer and PNS. Thus, a total of 37 case histories were reviewed with respect to syndrome type, cancer evolution, paraclinical investigations, antibody status, treatment and outcome. The three most frequent isolated PNS were paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis (PEM)/limbic encephalitis and subacute sensory neuronopathy (SSN). Onconeural antibodies were detected in 23 patients, in most cases the Hu antibody (17 patients, 74 % of all antibody-positive cases). Other well-characterized onconeural antibodies (Yo, CV2/CRMP5, amphiphysin, VGCC antibodies) were found in a minority. PNS was diagnosed prior to prostate cancer diagnosis in 50 % of the cases. The association of PNS with prostate cancer is quite infrequent, but clinically important. PNS often heralds prostate cancer diagnosis. Syndromes associated with Hu antibodies predominate. Another tumor more prone to associate with PNS should always be excluded. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Titulaer M.J.,Leiden University | Soffietti R.,University of Turin | Dalmau J.,University of Pennsylvania | Gilhus N.E.,University of Bergen | And 10 more authors.
European Journal of Neurology

Background: Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) almost invariably predate detection of the malignancy. Screening for tumours is important in PNS as the tumour directly affects prognosis and treatment and should be performed as soon as possible.Objectives: An overview of the screening of tumours related to classical PNS is given. Small cell lung cancer, thymoma, breast cancer, ovarian carcinoma and teratoma and testicular tumours are described in relation to paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis, subacute sensory neuronopathy, subacute autonomic neuropathy, paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), myasthenia gravis and paraneoplastic peripheral nerve hyperexcitability.Methods: Many studies with class IV evidence were available; one study reached level III evidence. No evidence-based recommendations grade A-C were possible, but good practice points were agreed by consensus.Recommendations: The nature of antibody, and to a lesser extent the clinical syndrome, determines the risk and type of an underlying malignancy. For screening of the thoracic region, a CT-thorax is recommended, which if negative is followed by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Breast cancer is screened for by mammography, followed by MRI. For the pelvic region, ultrasound (US) is the investigation of first choice followed by CT. Dermatomyositis patients should have CT-thorax/abdomen, US of the pelvic region and mammography in women, US of testes in men under 50 years and colonoscopy in men and women over 50. If primary screening is negative, repeat screening after 3-6 months and screen every 6 months up till 4 years. In LEMS, screening for 2 years is sufficient. In syndromes where only a subgroup of patients have a malignancy, tumour markers have additional value to predict a probable malignancy. Click for the corresponding questions to this CME article. © 2010 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2010 EFNS. Source

Grisold W.,KFJ Hospital | Grisold A.,Medical University of Vienna
Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports

The neuromuscular system can be involved in several systemic conditions. Clinical manifestations can appear at onset or throughout the course of the disease process. New investigational methods, including imaging of peripheral nerves, new laboratory tests, and antibodies, are available. In addition to symptomatic therapies, specific treatment options, such as for familial amyloid neuropathy and Fabry’s disease, are becoming increasingly available. Pathomechanisms vary depending on the underlying disease process. In addition to metabolic, hormonal, immune, and antibody-mediated mechanisms, in some generalized diseases, genetic causes need to be considered. This review focuses on different aspects of the peripheral nervous system including the nerve roots, plexuses, mononeuropathies and generalized neuropathies, neuromuscular junction disorders, muscle, and autonomic nervous system. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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