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Song K.C.,South Korean National Fisheries Research and Development Institute | Lee K.-J.,NFRDI | Yu H.-S.,NFRDI | Mok J.-S.,Southeast Sea Fisheries Institute | And 4 more authors.
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

AOAC Mouse Bioassay Analysis (MBA) has been the gold standard for the analysis of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin (PSP toxin) for more than 50 years. However, this method has inaccurate limit of quantification and cannot be used to determine toxic profiles. An HPLC method (PCOX) was optimized for Korean shellfish to establish an alternative or supplementary method for PSP analysis and was intended to be used for the official monitoring and regulation of food. The recovery rate of the PCOX method was 83.5-112.1% and the limit of quantification for total toxin was about 8.6 μg/100 g. A long-term comparison study showed a good correlation of the PCOX results with the AOAC MBA results: the correlation factors were 0.9534 and 0.9109 for oyster and mussel matrices, respectively. The PCOX method may be used as an alternative or supplementary method for AOAC MBA to monitor the occurrence of PSP and to analyze PSP toxin profile in oysters and mussels.


Yoo H.-D.,Chonnam National University | Kim M.-S.,Chonnam National University | Cho H.-Y.,KFDA | Lee Y.-B.,Chonnam National University
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2011

Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model of glimepiride and to investigate the influence of genetic polymorphisms in CYP2C9 on the PPK of glimepiride in healthy Korean subjects. Methods Serum data after a single oral dose of 2 mg of glimepiride in 177 healthy male Korean subjects (CYP2C911: 163 subjects, 1/3: 14 subjects) were used. We estimated the PPK of glimepiride using a nonlinear mixed effects modeling (NONMEM) method and explored the possible influence of genetic polymorphisms in CYP2C9 on the PPK of glimepiride. Results The disposition of glimepiride was best described with a two-compartment model with a Weibull-type absorption and first-order elimination. The visual predictive check indicated that the pharmacokinetic profile of glimepiride was adequately described by the proposed PPK model. The CYP2C9 genotypes as covariate significantly (P<0.001) influenced the apparent oral clearance (CL/F) of glimepiride. The estimated CL/F of glimepiride was higher (1.60-fold) in CYP2C91/1 subjects than in CYP2C9z.ast;1/3 subjects. Conclusions This study indicates that genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9 influence the substantial interindividual variability in the disposition of glimepiride, and these polymorphisms may affect the clinical response to glimepiride therapy. © Springer-Verlag 2011.


Kwak Y.-S.,Korea Ginseng Corporation | Kyung J.-S.,Korea Ginseng Corporation | Kim J.S.,KFDA | Cho J.Y.,Kangwon National University | Rhee M.-H.,Kyungpook National University
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin | Year: 2010

It has been reported that red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP), isolated from Korean red ginseng, displays immunostimulatory and anti-tumor activities. In a follow-up study, we have carried out a study on the antihyperlipidemic effects of RGAP using hyperlipidemic rats acutely induced by Triton WR1339 or corn oil intravenously injected. Oral administration of RGAP (100 to 1000 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced the serum levels of triglyceride (TG) up-regulated by Triton WR1339, an inducer of endogenous model hyperlipidemia. Moreover, RGAP treatment was shown to significantly decrease the levels of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concomitant with TG reduction. However, such reduction effects were not observed in cases of total cholesterol (TC) and phospholipid levels increased under the same conditions, although there was an inhibitory tendency. Similar suppressive patterns were also seen in hepatic parameters (total lipids and TG) under the same conditions. The exogenous hyperlipidemic rat condition triggered by corn oil also supported the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of RGAP in serum and hepatic parameters of TG and NEFA. Interestingly, RGAP significantly enhanced the serum activity of lipoprotein lipase, a key hydrolytic enzyme of lipid molecules in lipoprotein, in a dose-dependent manner up to 80%, implying potential involvement of this enzyme in lowering TG and NEFA by RGAP. Therefore, our data suggest that RGAP may play an additional role in reducing hyperlipidemic conditions, which can be used as a valuable neutraceutical application for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. © 2010 Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.


Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Global Orphan Drug Clinical Pipeline Insight 2022" drug pipelines to their offering. Global Orphan Drug Clinical Pipeline Insight 2022 report gives comprehensive insight on various clinical and non-clinical aspects associated with ongoing clinical trials of 808 orphan designated drugs across the globe. The in-depth clinical insight presented in the report helps the reader to analyze and identify the various stakeholders involved in the clinical development and commercialization of orphan designated drugs in the global market. Currently there are more than 300 orphan designated drugs commercially available in the global market and around 800 drugs in clinical development phase. As of 2016, almost 30 million people in the U.S. and 350 million people worldwide suffer from rare ailments known as Orphan Diseases. The name comes from the treatment meted out for such diseases, wherein the pharma industry was reluctant to develop drugs for such illnesses due to their economic unviability. Elaborating the concept, a rare disease or orphan diseases are the one's which affects only a small population. As per the official definition, rare diseases are classified as those that affect fewer than 200,000 in the United States and less than 5 in 10,000 in the EU. Consequently, in earlier times such truncated prevailed diseases were least attractive to the researchers and the investors. Previously, the market for orphan drugs was not as lucrative as it is today. Nevertheless, the Scenario has changed after the Orphan Drug Act (ODA), 1983 was passed in United States and later various countries enacted similar laws. The number of requests for orphan drug designation received by FDA's Office of Orphan Products Development (OOPD) has grown dramatically in recent years and is prompting FDA to adjust its timeframes for reviewing orphan drug designations in order to meet the demand. 2. Global Orphan Drug Designation Criteria 2.1 US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) 2.2 European Medicines Agency (EMA) 2.3 Japan 2.4 Taiwan 2.5 Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) 2.6 Australia 16. Discontinued & Suspended Orphan Drugs in Clinical Pipeline by Company, Indication & Phase 16.1 No Development Reported 16.2 Discontinued 16.3 Preregistration Submission Withdrawal 16.4 Marketed Withdrawal 16.5 Suspended For more information about this drug pipelines report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/25h929/global_orphan


Dublin, Dec. 15, 2016 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Global Orphan Drug Clinical Pipeline Insight 2022" drug pipelines to their offering. Global Orphan Drug Clinical Pipeline Insight 2022 report gives comprehensive insight on various clinical and non-clinical aspects associated with ongoing clinical trials of 808 orphan designated drugs across the globe. The in-depth clinical insight presented in the report helps the reader to analyze and identify the various stakeholders involved in the clinical development and commercialization of orphan designated drugs in the global market. Currently there are more than 300 orphan designated drugs commercially available in the global market and around 800 drugs in clinical development phase. As of 2016, almost 30 million people in the U.S. and 350 million people worldwide suffer from rare ailments known as Orphan Diseases. The name comes from the treatment meted out for such diseases, wherein the pharma industry was reluctant to develop drugs for such illnesses due to their economic unviability. Elaborating the concept, a rare disease or orphan diseases are the one's which affects only a small population. As per the official definition, rare diseases are classified as those that affect fewer than 200,000 in the United States and less than 5 in 10,000 in the EU. Consequently, in earlier times such truncated prevailed diseases were least attractive to the researchers and the investors. Previously, the market for orphan drugs was not as lucrative as it is today. Nevertheless, the Scenario has changed after the Orphan Drug Act (ODA), 1983 was passed in United States and later various countries enacted similar laws. The number of requests for orphan drug designation received by FDA's Office of Orphan Products Development (OOPD) has grown dramatically in recent years and is prompting FDA to adjust its timeframes for reviewing orphan drug designations in order to meet the demand. Key Topics Covered: 1. Global Orphan Drug Market Overview 1.1 Market Overview 1.2 Global Orphan Drug Clinical Pipeline Overview 2. Global Orphan Drug Designation Criteria 2.1 US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) 2.2 European Medicines Agency (EMA) 2.3 Japan 2.4 Taiwan 2.5 Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) 2.6 Australia Global Orphan Drug Clinical Pipeline by Company, Indication & Phase 3. Orphan Drug Development Phase: Unknown 4. Orphan Drug Development Phase: Research 5. Orphan Drug Development Phase: Preclinical 6. Orphan Drug Development Phase: Clinical 7. Orphan Drug Development Phase: Phase-0 8. Orphan Drug Development Phase: Phase - I 9. Orphan Drug Development Phase: Phase - I/II 10. Orphan Drug Development Phase: Phase - II 11. Orphan Drug Development Phase: Phase - II/III 12. Orphan Drug Development Phase: Phase - III 13. Orphan Drug Development Phase: Preregistration 14. Orphan Drug Development Phase: Registered 15. Marketed Orphan Drug Clinical Insight by Company, Indication & Phase 16. Discontinued & Suspended Orphan Drugs in Clinical Pipeline by Company, Indication & Phase 16.1 No Development Reported 16.2 Discontinued 16.3 Preregistration Submission Withdrawal 16.4 Marketed Withdrawal 16.5 Suspended 17. Competitive Landscape 17.1 AOP Orphan 17.2 Agenus 17.3 Alexion 17.4 Bristol Myers Squibb 17.5 Biogen Idec 17.6 Celgene 17.7 Eli Lilly 17.8 Genethon 17.9 Genzyme Corporation 17.10 Glaxosmithkline 17.11 Merck 17.12 Novartis Pharmaceuticals 17.13 Orphan Europe 17.14 Pfizer 17.15 Prosensa 17.16 Rare Disease Therapeutics 17.17 Roche 17.18 Sanofi 17.19 Shire 17.20 Teva Pharmaceutical For more information about this drug pipelines report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/tk94d7/global_orphan


Kim H.-Y.,Korea University | Lee N.-R.,Korea University | Lee J.-S.,FANSA Food and Nutrition Statistical Analysis | Choi Y.-S.,Daegu University | And 6 more authors.
Nutrition Research and Practice | Year: 2012

This study was performed to investigate the differences in food choice, nutrition labeling perceptions, and prevalence of obesity due to meal skipping in Korean elementary school children. A national survey was performed in 2010 to collect data on food intake frequency, understanding of nutrition labeling, and body mass index from 2,335 fifth grade students in 118 elementary schools selected from 16 metropolitan local governments by stratified cluster sampling. The data were analyzed using the SAS 9.1 and SUDAAN 10.0 packages. Students who consumed three meals for 6-7 days during the past week were classified into the regular meal eating (RM) group (n = 1,476) and those who did not were placed into the meal skipping (MS) group (n = 859). The daily intake frequency of fruits, vegetables, kimchi, and milk was significantly lower in the MS group compared to that in the RM group (P < 0.001), whereas the daily intake frequency of soft drinks and instant noodles (ramyeon) was significantly higher in the MS group than that in the RM group (P < 0.05). The MS group demonstrated a significantly lower degree of understanding with regard to nutrition labeling and high calorie foods containing low nutritional value than that in the RM group. The distribution of obesity based on the percentile criteria using the Korean growth chart was different between the MS and RM groups. The MS group (8.97%) had a higher percentage of obese subjects than that in the RM group (5.38%). In conclusion, meal skipping was related to poor food choice, low perception of nutrition labeling, and a high prevalence of obesity in Korean fifth grade children. © 2012 The Korean Nutrition Society and the Korean Society of Community Nutrition.


David Stegall Elected President of the Society of Risk Management Consultants The Society of Risk Management Consultants recently held their annual conference in Montreal, Quebec, Canada and elected new Officers and Directors. Birmingham, AL, November 01, 2016 --( Other Newly Elected Officers: President-Elect: Mr. Benjamin C. Few III, ARM, ARM-P, AAI, of Ben Few & Company, Fort Myers, FL; Secretary: Mr. Christopher J. Franki, CPCU, ARM, Vice President and Principal Consultant with Insurance Buyers’ Council, Inc. in Cockeysville, MD; Treasurer: Mr. Joe C. Underwood, ARM-E, CPCU, ACI, MBA, Principal at Albert Risk Management Consultants in Needham, MA and Immediate-Past President: Mr. Michael Norek, Principal Consultant and Partner at KFDA in Boston, MA. Newly Elected Directors: Ms. Joy M. Gänder, CPCU, ARM, Principal, Gänder Consulting, LLC in Madison, WI; Mr. Robert R. Duty, ARM, Senior Risk Consultant, Charles Taylor, PLC in Dallas, TX; Mr. Robert L. Bernens, ARM, President, Core Risk Services in Oldenburg, IN; and Mr. James R. Mahurin, CPCU, ARM, Principal, James R. Mahurin Risk Management & Insurance Consulting in Franklin, TN. Other Directors: Mr. Michael W. Gurval, ARM, of ICA Risk Management Associates in Stirling, NJ; Mr. Glenn Linville, CPCU, ARM, of CORE Risk Services in Cincinnati, OH; Ms. Noel Orsak of Sigma Risk Management Consulting of Houston, TX and Ms. Kelly Wierzchowski of Crain, Langer & Co. in Ritchfield, OH. The Society of Risk Management Consultants is an international organization of professionals engaged in risk management and insurance consulting. SRMC Members serve their clients and the public through research, education, exchange of information and the promotion of professional and ethical guidelines. SRMC Members are compensated exclusively by their clients on a fee-for-service basis and are held to rigid standards of education, experience, professionalism and code of ethics. For more information, contact: Chris Moss, Public Relations Chair - Society of Risk Management Consultants, christopher.moss@ctplc.com Birmingham, AL, November 01, 2016 --( PR.com )-- The Society of Risk Management Consultants ( srmcsociety.org ) is pleased to announce the election of Mr. David L. Stegall, CPCU, ARM, ARe, RPA to the position of President. Mr. Stegall is Principal Consultant at Risk Consulting & Expert Services ( www.rces.us ), a risk management and insurance consulting firm in Birmingham, AL. Mr. Stegall founded his firm in 2007 and holds a B.A. Degree in Communications from Auburn University.Other Newly Elected Officers: President-Elect: Mr. Benjamin C. Few III, ARM, ARM-P, AAI, of Ben Few & Company, Fort Myers, FL; Secretary: Mr. Christopher J. Franki, CPCU, ARM, Vice President and Principal Consultant with Insurance Buyers’ Council, Inc. in Cockeysville, MD; Treasurer: Mr. Joe C. Underwood, ARM-E, CPCU, ACI, MBA, Principal at Albert Risk Management Consultants in Needham, MA and Immediate-Past President: Mr. Michael Norek, Principal Consultant and Partner at KFDA in Boston, MA.Newly Elected Directors:Ms. Joy M. Gänder, CPCU, ARM, Principal, Gänder Consulting, LLC in Madison, WI; Mr. Robert R. Duty, ARM, Senior Risk Consultant, Charles Taylor, PLC in Dallas, TX; Mr. Robert L. Bernens, ARM, President, Core Risk Services in Oldenburg, IN; and Mr. James R. Mahurin, CPCU, ARM, Principal, James R. Mahurin Risk Management & Insurance Consulting in Franklin, TN.Other Directors:Mr. Michael W. Gurval, ARM, of ICA Risk Management Associates in Stirling, NJ; Mr. Glenn Linville, CPCU, ARM, of CORE Risk Services in Cincinnati, OH; Ms. Noel Orsak of Sigma Risk Management Consulting of Houston, TX and Ms. Kelly Wierzchowski of Crain, Langer & Co. in Ritchfield, OH.The Society of Risk Management Consultants is an international organization of professionals engaged in risk management and insurance consulting. SRMC Members serve their clients and the public through research, education, exchange of information and the promotion of professional and ethical guidelines. SRMC Members are compensated exclusively by their clients on a fee-for-service basis and are held to rigid standards of education, experience, professionalism and code of ethics.For more information, contact:Chris Moss, Public Relations Chair - Society of Risk Management Consultants, christopher.moss@ctplc.com David Stegall Elected President of the Society of Risk Management Consultants The Society of Risk Management Consultants (srmcsociety.org) is pleased to announce the election of Mr. David L. Stegall, CPCU, ARM, ARe, RPA to the position of President. Filename: SRMC-Press-Release-10-28-16Re.pdf Click here to view the list of recent Press Releases from Risk Consulting & Expert Services


News Article | November 30, 2016
Site: marketersmedia.com

Since the landmark conclusion of the successful litigation defense to the imaginary patent infringement allegations filed by J&J, the company has focused its energies and resources towards the precise execution of its formal marketing plan. Several recent communications to its shareholders and the broader investment community were highlighted by the pursuit and completion of the initial phase of that Plan. Hundreds of on-line retail merchandising venues had been added and through which Gen family of test strip revenue had begun flowing. That successful tactical campaign continues to increase distribution point locations and expand individual location footprint. In anticipation of this accelerated demand, factory capacity has been increased by the Pennsylvania and the South Korea contract manufacturers to 620,000 GenUltimate! units per month. Concurrent to that on-line escalation, the company initiated the second chapter of its detailed Plan with the targeting and contracting of a global network of international distributors. That network remains in development and its conclusion is not shortly expected, however, initial progress has yielded short term positive accomplishments; two of which the company would like to share with its loyal shareholders: Both of these newly added international distributors will represent the company's GenUltimate!, GenSure! and GenChoice! product line in multiple nations. The agreement requires that each distributor maintain a local sub-distributor in each individual nation within their territorial exclusive. Keith Berman, PEO of Decision Diagnostics commented, "It is gratifying and highly appropriate that immediately following the Thanksgiving holiday we are in a position to update our shareholders and the entire investment community regarding the continuation of our efforts to execute our marketing plan, and to communicate the initial fruits of those tactical endeavors. We are all thankful for the loyalty of our investors and the support of our customers." The Company has contracted Uni-Care Corp to exclusively distribute the Gen family of test strips to the Republic of South Korea, China and the Philippines. Uni-Care has activated the arrangement with the submission of an initial stocking purchase order for approximately 40,000 pieces of GenUltimate! test strips to be shipped immediately following the product's registration with South Korea's KFDA regulatory agency, expected in early December. Additional stocking orders are expected from sub-distributors in China and the Philippines. The Uni-Care Exclusive Distribution Agreement requires the annual purchase of a minimum of 250,000 GenUltimate! units in the next 12 months. Macre Diagnostics S.R.L. has become the company's distributor to multiple countries in South America. Macre, located in Santa Cruz, Bolivia has secured its regulatory approvals and has placed an initial opening order for 10,800 pieces of GenUltimate! with a 12 month cumulative order for 2,850,000 pieces of GenUltimate! Mr. Berman continued, "Five years ago we committed to defeating J&J in the courts, regardless of the cost, in order to recapture our right to manufacture and sell our superior line of blood glucose test strips anywhere and to anyone without fear of interference or reprisal. That battle has ended and we were overwhelmingly victorious. We are now well into our new campaign targeting the global markets that supply the diabetic test strip to their ever-growing diabetic populations. The two newly contracted international distributor accounts that we have recently added to our network, and about which we are now communicating, is an impressive beginning. Our investors can expect to hear more similar conquests as we proceed into 2017." Forward-Looking Statements: This release contains the Company's forward-looking statements which are based on management's current expectations and assumptions as of November 29, 2016, regarding the Company's business and performance, its prospects, current factors, the economy and other future conditions and forecasts of future events, circumstances and results.


News Article | April 21, 2016
Site: phys.org

Made by KIT: The microfluidic bioreactor technically reproduces plant tissue. The researchers now start a new project to make the next step. Credit: KIT Plants produce a number of substances that can be used to treat cancer, Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. Frequently, however, metabolic pathways to obtain the target substance are so complex that its biotechnological production is hardly effective and very expensive. Scientists of KIT now combine their expertise with the technical know-how of Phyton Biotech GmbH, the biggest producer of pharmaceutical ingredients with plant cells. With the help of a microfluidic bioreactor consisting of coupled modules, the scientists technically reproduce complex plant tissue to produce active substances against cancer or Alzheimer's disease more effectively and at lower costs. According to latest estimates, plants form about a million chemical substances, so-called secondary metabolites. Unlike amino acids or sugar, these secondary metabolites are not of vital importance. However, this vast pool of plant products contains a true treasure of pharmaceutically active substances that inhibit the growth of cancer cells or reduce the formation of Alzheimer-typical plaques in the brain. Many of these valuable ingredients cannot be produced synthetically. Often, they have to be extracted directly from wild plants and processed at high costs. Moreover, many of these plants are rare and endangered: For instance, the discovery of Taxol inhibiting cancer cells brought the Pacific yew to the brink of extermination. "For this reason, biotechnological approaches to producing the respective active substances are of high interest," Peter Nick, Professor for Molecular Cell Biology of KIT's Botanical Institute, says. Often, underlying metabolic pathways are highly complex. In the natural plant, the substance of interest mostly is the product of a long chain of steps with many converted interim products. The chemical processes required for this purpose do not necessarily take place in a single plant cell, but in several specialized cell types found in the plant tissue from the root to the leaf. Many years ago, Phyton demonstrated that plant-based medical substances, such as Taxol, can also be produced with minimum resources and sustainably by the cultivation of plant cells in the lab. "Certain substances, however, can be produced neither in a simple cell culture nor in microorganisms manipulated by genetic engineering, because metabolic pathways are too complex," Peter Nick says. "Within the framework of a new research project, we now want to technically reproduce plant tissue with various cell types using a so-called microfluidic bioreactor. It consists of several modules, in which one cell type each is cultivated. The modules are connected via channels. Metabolic products of one cell type then enter the next module for further processing without the different cell types being mixed. In the end, the target substance can be extracted from the flow and, hence, "harvested". The project is managed by the Jülich Project Management Agency (PtJ) and funded with EUR 750,000 by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research for a period of two years. The project partners are the Botanical Institute and the Institute of Microstructure Technology (both of KIT) and the company Phyton Biotech GmbH. Together, the three partners possess the expertise required for the project. The Botanical Institute contributes its knowledge of molecular cellular biology of plant cell cultures. Professor Andreas Guber and Dr. Ralf Ahrens of the Institute of Microstructure Technology are responsible for the development and fabrication of partial components of microfluidic bioreactors, their microassembly, and interconnection to a functioning system. The industry partner Phyton Biotech GmbH is a worldwide leading company in the area of plant cell fermentation and supplies the expertise and infrastructure needed to analyze potential applications on the industrial scale. "Cooperation with the experts of KIT will allow us to reach a new level of use of plant cells produced by controlled cultivation," Dr. Gilbert Gorr, Research and Development Director of Phyton, says. "Our joint objective is to make further natural substances accessible, which so far have been produced with large difficulties and high costs only." Phyton Biotech produces high-quality active pharmaceutical ingredients by plant cell fermentation (PCF) and is worldwide supplier of Paclitaxel and Docetaxel. The company has been inspected successfully by authorities, such as EDQM, EMA, FDA, KFDA, and TGA. Apart from production, Phyton also offers development services for customers. These cover the development of plant cell lines and fermentation processes for plant ingredients as well as the development of synthesis processes of complex substances. Explore further: Plant growth without light control: Synthetic photoreceptor stimulates germination and development


Jung H.-R.,Gyeonggi do Institute of Health and Environment | Lee M.-J.,Gyeonggi do Institute of Health and Environment | Kim K.-C.,Gyeonggi do Institute of Health and Environment | Kim J.-B.,Gyeonggi do Institute of Health and Environment | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2010

The prevalence rate for chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension etc. caused by the increment of national income and the change of food life according to the globalization in Korea have been increased. Especially excess sodium intake may contribute to the development of hypertension, increasing cardiovascular disease risk. The objective of this study was to investigate sodium intake of nursery school meals in Gyeonggi-Do, and to construct database for lesser sodium intake policy. Survey consisted of 601 sample intakes of sodium in summer and in winter. A food weighed record method was used for measuring food intakes. Average intakes of ten children per nursery school were measured. The sodium contents of meals were analyzed by ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer) after acid digestion by microwave. The sodium contents on food groups showed that sources (693 mg/100 g), grilled foods (689 mg/100 g) and kimchies (643 mg/100 g) had respectively higher sodium contents and the average sodium intake per meal was 582±204 mg. The sodium contents of soups & hot soups and kimchies had 37.5% and 15.8% of total sodium intakes per meal, respectively. Sodium intakes per meal in summer and winter showed 572.3 mg and 592.3 mg, respectively. Regional ranking of sodium intakes showed the ascending order of apartment (514.3 mg/meal), rural region (540.5 mg/meal), multiplex house (635.9 mg/meal) and industrial complex (696.4 mg/ meal). A habit of excessive sodium intakes in childhood will threaten their health when they grow up to be adults; thus lesser intake of sodium per meal is needed for children in nursery school.

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