Time filter

Source Type

Li W.-J.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Li W.-J.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Chen Y.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Chen Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis | Year: 2015

ICP-AES was used to determine the elemental composition of solutions in different conservation steps for understanding the impact of cleaning agents on ceramics from Huaguangjiao I shipwreck. The results showed that high content in solution of Al, Fe, Mg ions, which can be indexes to reflect the damage in conservation of ceramics. According to these indexes, we discovered that agents of strong cleaning ability bring more damage to ceramic samples. Meanwhile, the state of preservation of the ceramics was closely related to the damage in conservation. Ceramics in an excellent state of preservation endure less damage than that in bad state. We also found that each cleaning agent cause certain degree of damage on porcelains, even neutral reagent, like deionized water. Moreover, moderate cleaning reagent, when using a long time, bring the same degree of damage as the strong acid. Therefore, in actual protection procedure, for conservation ceramics safe and effective, damage of each cleaning agents and cumulative damage should be considered. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.


Ni H.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | Ni H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Han Y.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | Cao J.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | And 15 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2015

Open burning of crop residue is an important source of carbonaceous pollutants, and has a large impact on the regional environment and global climate change. Laboratory burn tests were conducted using a custom-made combustion chamber to determine pollutants (i.e. CO2, CO, PM2.5, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC)) emission factors (EFs) of wheat straw, rice straw and corn stalk; the three major agricultural crop residues in China. The average EFs were estimated to be 1351±147gkg-1 for CO2, 52.0±18.9gkg-1 for CO, 10.6±5.6gkg-1 for PM2.5, 4.8±3.1gkg-1 for OC and 0.24±0.12gkg-1 for EC. In addition, the effect of fuel moisture was investigated through the controlled burning of wheat straw. Increasing the moisture content decreased the CO2 EF, and increased the EFs of CO, PM2.5 and OC. Based on measurements from this study and nationwide statistics in crop type and area, pollutants emission inventories for crop residue combustion with 1°×1° resolution were compiled for 2008. Total emissions were 120Tg CO2, 4.6Tg CO, 0.88Tg PM2.5, 0.39Tg OC and 0.02TgEC. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Pan A.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | He L.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Wang L.,Key Scientific Research Base of Ancient Polychrome Pottery Conservation | Xi N.,Key Scientific Research Base of Ancient Polychrome Pottery Conservation
Materials Today: Proceedings | Year: 2016

Linear/star-shaped polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)-based fluorinated diblock copolymers are synthesized by octakis(dibromoethyl)-POSS (POSS-(Br)16) and aminopropylisobutyl-POSS (ap-POSS) initiating methylmethacrylate (MMA) and dodecafluoroheptylmethacrylate (DFHM), respectively. The effect of solvents on their self-assembled micelles, surface wetability and viscoelasticity of casted films, and the hydrophobic application are characterized. In THF, CHCl3 and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) solutions, the self-assembled micelles of star-shaped s-POSS-(PMMA-b-PDFHM)16 are larger than linear-shaped ap-POSS-PMMA-b-PDFHM. CHCl3-casted surface gains the highest roughness, fluoride content, water contact angles, but the lowest water adsorption and viscoelasticity. CHCl3-micelles exhibit superhydrophobicity to stone and cotton fiber substrates. Therefore, POSS-based fluoropolymer is hoped to act as hydrophobic coatings. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Wang N.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Liu J.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | He L.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Zhou T.,Key Scientific Research Base of Ancient Polychrome Pottery Conservation | And 3 more authors.
Analytical Letters | Year: 2014

An effective method for characterizing Chinese lacquer as binding medium in historical artwork has been developed by on-line methylation pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (pyrolysis GC-MS). The characteristic pyrolytic components of Chinese lacquer were identified in artificially aged pure and pigmented lacquer. Methylation of urushiol (mainly composed of catechol derivatives) was performed by adding tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide to convert phenolic hydroxyl groups into methylated derivatives to improve the resolution of catechol derivatives and urushiol monomers. The mechanism of formation of small molecular components was proposed, and the influence of different mineral pigments (azurite, malachite, ochre, and cinnabar) on the determination of characteristic components was discussed. Aliphatic hydrocarbon components, benzene derivatives, catechol derivatives, and urushiol monomers were proposed as characteristic pyrolytic components. In addition to 3-pentadecene-catechol, 3-pentadecane-catechol, and 3-heptadecene-catechol, 3-pentadecene-phenol was also identified as an urushiol monomer in Chinese lacquer. Four pigments slightly reduced the detection of aliphatic hydrocarbon components, but were unconspicuous for the detection of benzene derivatives. Azurite, malachite, and cinnabar decreased the measurement of urushiol monomers, but ochre significantly increased their relative abundance. The established on-line methylation pyrolysis GC-MS procedure and summarized data were successfully applied to the identification of samples collected from Terra-Cotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Dynasty (221-207 BC), Han Yang Mausoleum of Han Dynasty (206 BC-24 AD), and Dazu Grotto of Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD). © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Hu T.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | Jia W.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | Jia W.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Cao J.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | And 9 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2015

The Yangtze River civilization, dating back to more than 7 thousand years ago, is one of the most historic culture aggregates in China. For long-term conservation of archaeological artifacts and historical ruins along the Yangtze River, indoor air quality at five site museums were investigated during summer and winter. Unstable microclimate conditions were observed at all five museums. The maximal seasonal variations in temperature and relative humidity were 25.7 °C and 40.0%, respectively. The mass concentration of PM2.5 inside the museums remained at high levels, ranging from 33.9 to 79.6 μg/m3 in winter and from 52.8 to 113.0 μg/m3 in summer. Organic matter (OM) constituted a major fraction (39.3%-53.9% in summer, 22.1%-27.8% in winter) of total PM2.5. The results showed that besides short-term fluctuation and seasonal variation in microclimate conditions, infiltration of gaseous and particulate air pollutants should be of increasing concern at museums in Southern China. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Li H.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | Li H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li H.,Key Scientific Research Base of Ancient Polychrome Pottery Conservation | Hu T.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | And 7 more authors.
Atmosphere | Year: 2015

Long-term measurement results of indoor air quality (IAQ) from 1989 to 2013 inside Pit No. 1, the largest display hall in Emperor Qin's Terra-cotta Museum (QTM), were used to evaluate the effectiveness of measures for conservation environment improvement of antiques. By comparing the results of sampling campaigns in 2013 with databases in 1989, 2004-2005, 2006-2007 and 2011, seasonal and inter-annual variation in microclimate, aerosol chemical compositions and gaseous pollutant concentrations were incorporated in estimating the probable influences of the management of the surroundings, tourist flow, excavation and restoration tasks and renovation and/or new construction work on IAQ in the QTM. After the implementation of the environmental policies in 1990s, a significant decrease of indoor particulate matter mass for the QTM was quantified. The mass concentrations of summer TSP decreased from 540.0 μg·m-3 in 1994 to 172.4 μg·m-3 in 2004, as well as the winter TSP decreased from 380.0 μg·m-3 in 1994 to 312.5 μg·m-3 in 2005. The mass concentrations of summer PM2.5 decreased from 108.4 μg·m-3 in 2004 to 65.7 μg·m-3 in 2013, as well as the winter PM2.5 decreased from 242.3 μg·m-3 in 2005 to 98.6 μg·m-3 in 2013. However, it is noted that potential hazards due to the fluctuant microclimate conditions, gaseous and secondary particulate acidic species in indoor air should still be considered to ensure the long-term preservation and conservation of the museum's artifact collection. © 2015 by the authors.


Ni H.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | Ni H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Han Y.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | Cao J.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | And 16 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2015

Open burning of crop residue is an important source of carbonaceous pollutants, and has a large impact on the regional environment and global climate change. Laboratory burn tests were conducted using a custom-made combustion chamber to determine pollutants (i.e. CO2, CO, PM2.5, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC)) emission factors (EFs) of wheat straw, rice straw and corn stalk; the three major agricultural crop residues in China. The average EFs were estimated to be 1351 ± 147 g kg-1 for CO2, 52.0 ± 18.9 g kg-1 for CO, 10.6 ± 5.6 g kg-1 for PM2.5, 4.8 ± 3.1 g kg-1 for OC and 0.24 ± 0.12 g kg-1 for EC. In addition, the effect of fuel moisture was investigated through the controlled burning of wheat straw. Increasing the moisture content decreased the CO2 EF, and increased the EFs of CO, PM2.5 and OC. Based on measurements from this study and nationwide statistics in crop type and area, pollutants emission inventories for crop residue combustion with 1° × 1° resolution were compiled for 2008. Total emissions were 120 Tg CO2, 4.6 Tg CO, 0.88 Tg PM2.5, 0.39 Tg OC and 0.02 Tg EC. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Li M.,Northwest University, China | Wang L.-Q.,Northwest University, China | Xia Y.,Key Scientific Research Base of Ancient Polychrome Pottery Conservation | Yang Q.-Y.,Research Institute of Shaanxi Cultural Relics Conservation
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis | Year: 2013

In the history of Chinese pigment, copper green, a pigment, was used in vast territory and for a long time. In the present paper, the nature, spectral characteristics, thermodynamic stability of the four isomers of the basic copper chlorides and also their application in the polychrome relics were discussed. The four isomers can be identified quickly by Raman spectral analysis which is a micro-damage or even a nondestructive technique. The order of their thermodynamic stability is as follows: clinoatacamite>paratacamite>atacamite>botallackite. It was showed that in the relics samples copper green was mostly botallackite and atacamite which were less stable isomers. According to the Ostwald step rule, the environmental monitoring should be strengthened to prevent the change in their physical and chemical structures.

Loading Key Scientific Research Base of Ancient Polychrome Pottery Conservation collaborators
Loading Key Scientific Research Base of Ancient Polychrome Pottery Conservation collaborators