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Pan A.,Xian Jiaotong University | He L.,Xian Jiaotong University | Wang L.,Key Scientific Research Base of Ancient Polychrome Pottery Conservation | Xi N.,Key Scientific Research Base of Ancient Polychrome Pottery Conservation
Materials Today: Proceedings | Year: 2016

Linear/star-shaped polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)-based fluorinated diblock copolymers are synthesized by octakis(dibromoethyl)-POSS (POSS-(Br)16) and aminopropylisobutyl-POSS (ap-POSS) initiating methylmethacrylate (MMA) and dodecafluoroheptylmethacrylate (DFHM), respectively. The effect of solvents on their self-assembled micelles, surface wetability and viscoelasticity of casted films, and the hydrophobic application are characterized. In THF, CHCl3 and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) solutions, the self-assembled micelles of star-shaped s-POSS-(PMMA-b-PDFHM)16 are larger than linear-shaped ap-POSS-PMMA-b-PDFHM. CHCl3-casted surface gains the highest roughness, fluoride content, water contact angles, but the lowest water adsorption and viscoelasticity. CHCl3-micelles exhibit superhydrophobicity to stone and cotton fiber substrates. Therefore, POSS-based fluoropolymer is hoped to act as hydrophobic coatings. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Ni H.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | Ni H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Han Y.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | Cao J.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | And 15 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2015

Open burning of crop residue is an important source of carbonaceous pollutants, and has a large impact on the regional environment and global climate change. Laboratory burn tests were conducted using a custom-made combustion chamber to determine pollutants (i.e. CO2, CO, PM2.5, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC)) emission factors (EFs) of wheat straw, rice straw and corn stalk; the three major agricultural crop residues in China. The average EFs were estimated to be 1351±147gkg-1 for CO2, 52.0±18.9gkg-1 for CO, 10.6±5.6gkg-1 for PM2.5, 4.8±3.1gkg-1 for OC and 0.24±0.12gkg-1 for EC. In addition, the effect of fuel moisture was investigated through the controlled burning of wheat straw. Increasing the moisture content decreased the CO2 EF, and increased the EFs of CO, PM2.5 and OC. Based on measurements from this study and nationwide statistics in crop type and area, pollutants emission inventories for crop residue combustion with 1°×1° resolution were compiled for 2008. Total emissions were 120Tg CO2, 4.6Tg CO, 0.88Tg PM2.5, 0.39Tg OC and 0.02TgEC. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Li M.,Northwest University, China | Wang L.-Q.,Northwest University, China | Xia Y.,Key Scientific Research Base of Ancient Polychrome Pottery Conservation | Yang Q.-Y.,Research Institute of Shaanxi Cultural Relics Conservation
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis | Year: 2013

In the history of Chinese pigment, copper green, a pigment, was used in vast territory and for a long time. In the present paper, the nature, spectral characteristics, thermodynamic stability of the four isomers of the basic copper chlorides and also their application in the polychrome relics were discussed. The four isomers can be identified quickly by Raman spectral analysis which is a micro-damage or even a nondestructive technique. The order of their thermodynamic stability is as follows: clinoatacamite>paratacamite>atacamite>botallackite. It was showed that in the relics samples copper green was mostly botallackite and atacamite which were less stable isomers. According to the Ostwald step rule, the environmental monitoring should be strengthened to prevent the change in their physical and chemical structures. Source


Hu T.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | Jia W.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | Jia W.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Cao J.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | And 9 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2015

The Yangtze River civilization, dating back to more than 7 thousand years ago, is one of the most historic culture aggregates in China. For long-term conservation of archaeological artifacts and historical ruins along the Yangtze River, indoor air quality at five site museums were investigated during summer and winter. Unstable microclimate conditions were observed at all five museums. The maximal seasonal variations in temperature and relative humidity were 25.7 °C and 40.0%, respectively. The mass concentration of PM2.5 inside the museums remained at high levels, ranging from 33.9 to 79.6 μg/m3 in winter and from 52.8 to 113.0 μg/m3 in summer. Organic matter (OM) constituted a major fraction (39.3%-53.9% in summer, 22.1%-27.8% in winter) of total PM2.5. The results showed that besides short-term fluctuation and seasonal variation in microclimate conditions, infiltration of gaseous and particulate air pollutants should be of increasing concern at museums in Southern China. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Ni H.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | Ni H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Han Y.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | Cao J.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | And 16 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2015

Open burning of crop residue is an important source of carbonaceous pollutants, and has a large impact on the regional environment and global climate change. Laboratory burn tests were conducted using a custom-made combustion chamber to determine pollutants (i.e. CO2, CO, PM2.5, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC)) emission factors (EFs) of wheat straw, rice straw and corn stalk; the three major agricultural crop residues in China. The average EFs were estimated to be 1351 ± 147 g kg-1 for CO2, 52.0 ± 18.9 g kg-1 for CO, 10.6 ± 5.6 g kg-1 for PM2.5, 4.8 ± 3.1 g kg-1 for OC and 0.24 ± 0.12 g kg-1 for EC. In addition, the effect of fuel moisture was investigated through the controlled burning of wheat straw. Increasing the moisture content decreased the CO2 EF, and increased the EFs of CO, PM2.5 and OC. Based on measurements from this study and nationwide statistics in crop type and area, pollutants emission inventories for crop residue combustion with 1° × 1° resolution were compiled for 2008. Total emissions were 120 Tg CO2, 4.6 Tg CO, 0.88 Tg PM2.5, 0.39 Tg OC and 0.02 Tg EC. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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