Key Laboratory Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Cluster

Guangzhou, China

Key Laboratory Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Cluster

Guangzhou, China
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Liu Z.-H.,South China University of Technology | Liu Z.-H.,Key Laboratory Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Cluster | Lu G.-N.,South China University of Technology | Lu G.-N.,Key Laboratory Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Cluster | And 7 more authors.
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2015

Estrogen conjugates can be analyzed directly or indirectly using different sample-preparation methods. This review first summarizes the sample-preparation method for direct analysis; then indirect analysis by enzymatic-hydrolysis and chemical-deconjugation methods. We discuss progress and challenges for sample-preparation methods. Overall, sample preparation for direct analysis represents the latest development, while we describe the most widely employed method, enzymatic hydrolysis, as the limiting step in sample analysis due to long incubation times. Although the chemical deconjugation is currently the least used method, its potential is probably underestimated. A recently developed acid-solvolysis method may be widely applied to environmental samples for its high deconjugation efficiency and because it is more cost effective. This method can possibly extend to biological samples, although great efforts must be made to validate its feasibility. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Yuan S.-F.,South China University of Technology | Liu Z.-H.,South China University of Technology | Liu Z.-H.,Key Laboratory Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Cluster | Liu Z.-H.,Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling | And 8 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2016

A simple online headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of trace amounts of nine estrogenic odorant alkylphenols and chlorophenols and their derivatives in water samples. The extraction conditions of HS-SPME were optimized including fiber selection, extraction temperature, extraction time, and salt concentration. Results showed that divinylbenzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber was the most appropriate one among the three selected commercial fibers, and the optimal extraction temperature, time, and salt concentration were 70 °C, 30 min, and 0.25 g/mL, respectively. The developed method was validated and showed good linearity (R2 > 0.989), low limit of detection (LOD, 0.002–0.5 μg/L), and excellent recoveries (76–126 %) with low relative standard deviation (RSD, 0.7–12.9 %). The developed method was finally applied to two surface water samples and some of these target compounds were detected. All these detected compounds were below their odor thresholds, except for 2,4,6-TCAS and 2,4,6-TBAS wherein their concentrations were near their odor thresholds. However, in the two surface water samples, these detected compounds contributed to a certain amount of estrogenicity, which seemed to suggest that more attention should be paid to the issue of estrogenicity rather than to the odor problem. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Liu Z.-H.,South China University of Technology | Liu Z.-H.,Key Laboratory Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Cluster | Lu G.-N.,South China University of Technology | Lu G.-N.,Key Laboratory Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Cluster | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2015

This article reviews studies focusing on the removal performance of natural estrogens in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Key factors influencing removal include: sludge retention time (SRT), aeration, temperature, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), and substrate concentration. Batch studies show that natural estrogens should biodegrade well; however, batch observations do not always agree with observations from full-scale municipal WWTPs. To explain this discrepancy, deconjugation kinetics of estrogen conjugates in lab-scale studies were examined and compared. Most estrogen conjugates with slow deconjugation rates are unlikely to be easily removed; others could be cleaved in WWTP settings. Nevertheless, some estrogens cleaved from their conjugates may be found in treated effluent, because deconjugation requires several hours or longer, and there is insufficient rest time for the biodegradation of the cleaved natural estrogens in the WWTP. Therefore, WWTP removals of natural estrogens are likely to be underestimated when estrogen conjugates are present in raw wastewater. This review suggests that biodeconjugation of estrogen conjugates should be enhanced to more effectively remove natural estrogens in WWTPs. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

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