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Wu W.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Wu W.,Key Laboratory on Technology for Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control | Wang W.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Wang W.,Key Laboratory on Technology for Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2011

Praziquantel, due to high efficacy, excellent tolerability, few and transient side effects, simple administration, and competitive cost, is virtually the only drug of choice for treatment of human schistosomiasis. Treatment of schistosomiasis has shown great advances with the introduction of the drug into the therapeutic arsenal in areas that are endemic for the parasite. However, the drug presents various efficacies against different developmental stages of schistosomes, appearing an oddity intermitted mode. The present review article reviews the effects and mechanism of action of praziquantel against schistosomes briefly and suggests the research on this oddity phenomenon. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Li H.-J.,Weifang Medical University | Xu F.-L.,Weifang Medical University | Wang Y.-H.,Weifang Medical University | Yi Z.-J.,Weifang Medical University | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

Currently, praziquantel is the drug of choice for the treatment of human Schistosoma mansoni infections. It has not been proved until now that there is real praziquantel resistance, but there is decreased praziquantel sensitivity. A search for novel antischistosomal agents against the parasite has been given a high priority. Dihydroartemisinin, formerly identified as an antimalarial drug, has been shown to be active against both Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni in mice. Interestingly, dihydroartemisinin is found to be highly effective against the 14-28-day schistosomula of S. mansoni, and treatment with multiple low doses of the drug achieves a high efficacy with reduced toxicity to the host. The long time development from juveniles to adults allows adequate timing for treatment of this neglected tropical disease. It is supposed that dihydroartemisinin, a safe orally administered agent, may be used for the prevention and control of human S. mansoni infections, notably in areas with reduced praziquantel sensitivity or praziquantel resistance detected. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Zhang X.-G.,Weifang Medical University | Li G.-X.,Weifang Medical University | Zhao S.-S.,Weifang Medical University | Xu F.-L.,Weifang Medical University | And 3 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

Artemisinin, also known as qinghaosu, is a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide extracted from the plant Artemisia annua L, an herb employed in traditional Chinese medicine. Artemisinin and its two main derivatives artemether and artesunate have been shown to be effective against both malaria and schistosomiasis, and therefore, they were described by Liu et al (Parasitol Res 110:2071-2074, 2012b) as the gifts from traditional Chinese medicine not only for malaria control but also for schistosomiasis control. However, another artemisinin derivative dihydroartemisinin (DHA) cannot be neglected. Dihydroartemisinin, a derivative of artemisinin with the C-10 lactone group replaced by hemiacetal and the active metabolite of all artemisinin compounds, was firstly identified as an antimalarial agent, and the dihydroartemisinin- piperaquine combination has been recommended as a first-line treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria by the WHO. It has been recently found that administration of dihydroartemisinin at a single dose of 300 mg/kg 2 h or 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 18, 21, 28, or 35 days post-infection reduces total worm burdens by 1.1-64.8 % and female worm burden reductions by 11.9-90.5 %, and the in vivo activity of dihydroartemisinin against S. japonicum is enhanced by the use of multiple doses. However, a combination of praziquantel and dihydroartemisinin appears no more effective against S. japonicum schistosomulum than treatment with dihydroartemisinin alone. In mice experimentally infected with S. mansoni, administration with dihydroartemisinin at a single dose of 300 mg/kg on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, or 56 post-infection results in total worm burden reductions of 13.8-82.1 % and female worm burden reductions of 13-82.8 %, and a clear-cut dose-response relationship of dihydroartemisinin against the schistosomula and adult worms of S. mansoni is observed. In addition, dihydroartemisinin was found to cause damages to the reproductive system of female S. mansoni worms, reduce the oviposition of survival worms, and inhibit the formation of granulomas around tissue-trapped eggs. More interestingly, no reduced sensitivity to dihydroartemisinin is detected in praziquantel non-susceptible S. japonicum, which provides a new option for the treatment of S. japonicum and S. mansoni infections, notably in endemic foci with praziquantel resistance or insensitivity detected. It is therefore considered that dihydroartemisinin is another gift from the traditional Chinese medicine not only for malaria control but also for schistosomiasis control. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.


Wang W.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Wang W.,Key Laboratory on Technology for Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control | Wang W.,Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Parasites | Liang Y.-S.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | And 8 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2013

Schistosomiasis is a major disease of public health importance in humans occurring in 76 countries of the tropics and sub-tropics. In China, schistosomiasis japonica is one of the highest priorities in communicable disease control defined by the central government. Since 1970s, the habitats of Biomphalaria straminea, an intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in South America, have been identified in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Shenzhen city, Guangdong province of China. With the sharp growth in the China-aided projects in Africa and labor services export to Africa, a gradual rise in the cases infected with S. haematobium or S. mansoni is reported in those returning from Africa to China. The existence of intermediate snail hosts and import of infectious source of schistosomiasis results in concern about the transmission of African schistosomiasis in mainland China in the context of global climate change. This paper evaluates the risk of transmission of African schistosomiasis in China, and proposes countermeasures and research priorities to tackle the risk. © 2013 Wang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Liu Q.,Soochow University of China | Tao Y.-H.,Key Laboratory on Technology for Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control | Bai R.-Z.,Soochow University of China | Chang S.-J.,Soochow University of China | Hua D.,Soochow University of China
Chinese Medical Journal | Year: 2013

Background Growing preclinical evidence shows that zoledronic acid (ZOL) exhibits direct antitumor activity in various cancer cell lines. However, the cytotoxic effects of ZOL on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells have not been established. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ZOL on HCC both in vitro and in vivo. Methods Cytotoxicity and cell cycles were assessed with Sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay and flow cytometry. Expression levels of cell cycle phase-linked proteins were examined. The effect of ZOL on HCC in vivo was explored based on H22-subcutaneous injection (s.c.) and H22-intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) mice model. Results ZOL inhibited the growth of SK-HEP-1 and H22 cells and induced S-phase arrest through downregulating cdc2 protein and upregulating cyclin A. It inhibited the growth of s.c tumors, and increased the survival of both H22-s.c. and H22-i.p. mice in vivo. Conclusion ZOL inhibits growth of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo.


Wang W.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Wang W.,Key Laboratory on Technology for Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control | Wang L.,Wuxi Institute for Drug Control | Liang Y.-S.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Liang Y.-S.,Key Laboratory on Technology for Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control
Parasitology Research | Year: 2012

Since praziquantel was developed in 1970s, it has replaced other antischistosomal drugs to become the only drug of choice for treatment of human schistosomiases, due to high efficacy, excellent tolerability, few and transient side effects, simple administration, and competitive cost. Praziquantel-based chemotherapy has been involved in the global control strategy of the disease and led to the control strategy shifting from disease control to morbidity control, which has greatly reduced the prevalence and intensity of infections. Given that the drug has been widely used for morbidity control in endemic areas for more than three decades, the emergence of resistance of Schistosoma to praziquantel under drug selection pressure has been paid much attention. It is possible to induce resistance of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum to praziquantel in mice under laboratorial conditions, and a reduced susceptibility to praziquantel in the field isolates of S. mansoni has been found in many foci. In addition, there are several schistosomiasis cases caused by Schistosoma haematobium infections in which repeated standard treatment fails to clear the infection. However, in the absence of exact mechanisms of action of praziquantel, the mechanisms of drug resistance in schistosomes remain unclear. The present review mainly demonstrates the evidence of drug resistance in the laboratory and field and the mechanism of praziquantel resistance and proposes some strategies for control of praziquantel resistance in schistosomes. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Zhang Y.,Peoples Hospital of Jiangsu Province | Mi J.-Y.,Peoples Hospital of Jiangsu Province | Rui Y.-J.,Peoples Hospital of Jiangsu Province | Xu Y.-L.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases 117 Yangxiang | And 3 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

Stem cell therapy is an interventional treatment that introduces new cells into damaged tissues, which help in treating many diseases and injuries. It has been proved that stem cell therapy is effective for the treatment of cancers, diabetes mellitus, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and many other diseases. Recently, stem cell therapy has been introduced to treat parasitic infections. The culture supernatant of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is found to inhibit activation and proliferation of macrophages induced by the soluble egg antigen of Schistosoma japonicum, and MSC treatment relieves S. japonicum-induced liver injury and fibrosis in mouse models. In addition, transplantation of MSCs into naïve mice is able to confer host resistance against malaria, and MSCs are reported to play an important role in host protective immune responses against malaria by modulating regulatory T cells. In mouse models of Chagas disease, bone marrow mononuclear cell has been shown effective in reducing inflammation and fibrosis in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, and transplantation of the bone marrow mononuclear cells prevents and reverses the right ventricular dilatation induced by T. cruzi infection in mice. Preliminary clinical trials demonstrate that transplantation of bone marrow derived-cells may become an important therapeutic modality in the management of end-stage heart diseases associated with Chagas disease. Based on these exciting results, it is considered by stating that it is firmly believed that, within the next few years, we will be able to find the best animal models and the appropriate stem cell type, stem cell number, injection route, and disease state that will result in possible benefits for the patients with parasitic infections, and stem cell therapy, although at an initial stage currently, will become a real therapeutic option for parasitic diseases. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Li L.,Soochow University of China | Li L.,Key Laboratory on Technology for Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control | Guo Z.,Soochow University of China | Wang J.,Wuxi Infectious Diseases Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences | Year: 2012

Background: Alpha-fetoprotein detection is currently mainly used in clinic for diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its sensitivity and specificity are not satisfying. Approximately 60-80 % of patients with HCC have an established background of chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Aims: To investigate the potential of serum microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarkers for HBV-related HCC. Methods: This study was divided into two phases: firstly, marker (miR-95, miR-18a, miR-10b, miR125a, and miR-378) detection by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in sera from HBV patients with HCC (n = 15) and health subject (n = 15); and, secondly, marker validation by real-time qRT-PCR on HBV patients with HCC (n = 86) or hepatitis or cirrhosis (n = 30), and healthy subject (n = 45). Results: Serum miR-18a was significantly higher in HBV patients with HCC than healthy controls (p<0.01); serum miR-378 was significantly lower in HBV patients with HCC compared to healthy control (p<0.05). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses suggested that serum miR-18a had significant diagnostic value for HBV-related HCC. MiR-18a yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of ROC of 0.881 with 86.1 % sensitivity and 75.0 % specificity in discriminating HBV-related HCC from healthy controls, and an AUC of ROC of 0.775 with 77.2 % sensitivity and 70.0 % specificity in discriminating HBV-related HCC from chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis. Conclusions: Our results suggest that serum miR-18a might serve as a novel and potential noninvasive biomarker for HBV-related HCC screening. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.


Zhou L.-Y.,Jiangnan University | Deng Y.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Steinmann P.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Steinmann P.,University of Basel | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology International | Year: 2013

Schistosomiasis japonica continues to be an important zoonotic disease in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China), despite decades of dedicated control efforts. Different interventions for its control including chemotherapy of humans and animals, mollusciciding, environmental modification, and health education have been implemented at various stages of the control efforts and in different combinations, resulting in remarkable achievements. Here, we present a systematic review and meta-analysis of the documented effectiveness of health education to reduce schistosomiasis japonica transmission in P.R. China. A total of 10 relevant publications were identified and included in the meta-analysis. The reported results indicate that the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection in humans and schistosomiasis-related knowledge are significantly influenced by health education. The implementation of health education over more than 2. years was associated with an overall schistosomiasis japonica prevalence decrease of 6% (95% CI: 2%, 11%) and an overall increase of 51% (95% CI: 41%, 61%) in schistosomiasis-related knowledge after controlling for confounding factors. Among control groups, the prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica and relevant knowledge levels were not significantly influenced. The relative risk (RR) of an infection with S. japonicum following health education lasting more than 2. years was 0.43 (95% CI: 0.24, 0.78). In summary, a considerable effectiveness of health education with regard to preventing S. japonicum infections in P.R. China and increasing relevant knowledge is documented in the extant literature. This suggests that the effectiveness of health education may be considerable, particularly after its long-term implementation. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Wang W.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Wang W.,Key Laboratory on Technology for Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control | Dai J.-R.,Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Dai J.-R.,Key Laboratory on Technology for Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2012

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the susceptibility of Schistosoma japonicum to praziquantel in low endemic foci of China. During the non-transmission period of schistosomiasis, a total of 43 of 1,242 subjects were identified as being infected with the parasite using parasitological stool examinations in two low-endemicity areas of China, with a prevalence rate of 3.46%. All stool-egg-positive subjects were treated with praziquantel in a single oral dose of 40 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg for two successive days. Six weeks post-treatment, no S. japonicum eggs were detected in the 43 treated villagers. The results indicate that the current efficacy of praziquantel against S. japonicum seems satisfactory and has not changed over the past three decades in the low endemic areas of China. It is also suggested that no evidence of tolerance or resistance to praziquantel in S. japonicum is detected in areas with low endemicity in China. Copyright © 2012 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

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