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Xu B.,Yunnan Normal University | Xu B.,Key Laboratory of Yunnan for Biomass Energy and Biotechnology of Environment | Xu W.,Yunnan Normal University | Xu W.,Key Laboratory of Yunnan for Biomass Energy and Biotechnology of Environment | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The animal gastrointestinal tract contains a complex community of microbes, whose composition ultimately reflects the co-evolution of microorganisms with their animal host. An analysis of 78,619 pyrosequencing reads generated from pygmy loris fecal DNA extracts was performed to help better understand the microbial diversity and functional capacity of the pygmy loris gut microbiome. The taxonomic analysis of the metagenomic reads indicated that pygmy loris fecal microbiomes were dominated by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla. The hierarchical clustering of several gastrointestinal metagenomes demonstrated the similarities of the microbial community structures of pygmy loris and mouse gut systems despite their differences in functional capacity. The comparative analysis of function classification revealed that the metagenome of the pygmy loris was characterized by an overrepresentation of those sequences involved in aromatic compound metabolism compared with humans and other animals. The key enzymes related to the benzoate degradation pathway were identified based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway assignment. These results would contribute to the limited body of primate metagenome studies and provide a framework for comparative metagenomic analysis between human and non-human primates, as well as a comparative understanding of the evolution of humans and their microbiome. However, future studies on the metagenome sequencing of pygmy loris and other prosimians regarding the effects of age, genetics, and environment on the composition and activity of the metagenomes are required. © 2013 Xu et al.


Xie Z.,Yunnan Normal University | Zhang X.,Yunnan Normal University | Ding J.,Yunnan Normal University | Ding J.,Key Laboratory of Yunnan for Biomass Energy and Biotechnology of Environment | And 6 more authors.
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

A lipase gene from sequencing genomic DNA of Bacillus subtilis strain I4 (I4-2) was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The deduced amino acid (aa) sequences for the lipase I4-2 was composed of 31-amino-acid signal sequence and a 181-amino-acid mature part, corresponding to a molecular mass (Mr) of 19.33 kDa. Based on the Mr and the protein sequence, the lipase I4-2 was belong to the lipase family1.4. The activity of the purified recombinant lipase I4-2 was apparently optimal at 45 °C and pH 7.0. The enzyme was stable at 25 °C, and more than 56% of the initial activity after incubation in buffer pH 7.0 for 120 min at 37 °C. In addition, lipase I4-2 was mixed with methanol (50, v/v) for 30 min and residual activity was 45%. lipase I4-2 can catalyzed biodiesel production from soybean oil at methanol: soybean (molar ratio of methanol to oil = 3:1), 10% n-hexane, 3.5% water. The results of GC-MS analysis demonstrated that a 3-stepwise process resulted in a 98% conversion yield after 8 h of reaction at 37 °C. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Yang F.,Yunnan Normal University | Xu B.,Yunnan Normal University | Xu B.,Key Laboratory of Yunnan for Biomass Energy and Biotechnology of Environment | Zhao S.,Yunnan Normal University | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering | Year: 2012

A one-eighth 454 sequencing run produced 82,386 high-quality reads. De novo assembly generated 6494 unique sequences. Based on the bioinformatic analysis, we found many the known enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpene saponin in Termitomyces albuminosus, including 6 cytochrome P450 and 22 glycosyltransferase unique genes. © 2012.


Wang X.-Q.,Yunnan Normal University | Wang G.-W.,Yunnan Normal University | Wang G.-W.,Key Laboratory of Yunnan for Biomass Energy and Biotechnology of Environment
Life Sciences | Year: 2016

Aims Moderate exercise promotes learning and memory. Most studies mainly focused on memory exercise effects of in the ageing and patients. There is lack of quantitative research about effect of regular exercise intensity on different memory types in normal subjects. Present study investigated the effects of different intensities of treadmill exercise on working memory and long-term memory. Main methods Fifty female Wistar rats were trained by T-maze delayed spatial alternation (DSA) task with 3 delays (10 s, 60 s and 300 s). Then they got a 30 min treadmill exercise for 30 days in 4 intensities (control, 0 m/min; lower, 15 m/min; middle, 20 m/min, and higher, 30 m/min). Then animals were tested in DSA, passive avoidance and Morris water maze tasks. Key findings 1. Exercise increased the neuronal density of hippocampal subregions (CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus) vs. naïve/control. 2. In DSA task, all groups have similar baseline, lower intensity improved 10 s delay accuracy vs. baseline/control; middle and higher intensities improved 300 s delay accuracy vs. baseline/control. 3. In water maze learning, all groups successfully found the platform, but middle intensity improved platform field crossing times vs. control in test phase. Significance Present results suggested that treadmill exercise can improve long-term spatial memory and working memory; lower intensity benefits to short-term delayed working memory, and middle or higher intensity benefits to long-term delayed working memory. There was an inverted U dose-effect relationship between exercise intensity and memory performance, but exercise -working memory effect was impacted by delay duration. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Zhou J.,Yunnan Normal University | Zhou J.,Key Laboratory of Yunnan for Biomass Energy and Biotechnology of Environment | Zhang R.,Yunnan Normal University | Zhang R.,Key Laboratory of Yunnan for Biomass Energy and Biotechnology of Environment | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering | Year: 2012

Sphingomonas sp. JB13, isolated from slag of a >20-year-old phosphate rock-stacking site, showed the highest 16S rDNA (1343bp) identity of 97.2% with Sphingomonas sp. ERB1-3 (FJ948169) and <97% identities with other identified Sphingomonas strains. A mannanase-coding gene (1191bp) was cloned and encodes a 396-residue polypeptide (ManAJB13) showing the highest amino acid sequence identities of 56.2% with the putative glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family 26 endo-1,4-β-mannanase from Rhodothermus marinus (YP_004824245), and 44.2% with the identified GH 26 endo-1,4-β-mannanase from Cellvibrio japonicus (2VX5_A). The recombinant ManAJB13 (rManAJB13) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Purified rManAJB13 displayed the typical characteristics of low-temperature-active enzymes: showing apparent optimal at 40°C, ~55% of the maximum activity at 20°C and ~20% at 10°C, and thermolability at 45°C (~15min half-life). The potential mechanism for low-temperature-activity of GH 26 endo-1,4-β-mannanases might be ascribed to the more hydrophobic residues (AILFWV) and less polar residues (NCQSTY) compared with typical thermophilic and mesophilic counterparts. The purified rManAJB13 exhibited >85% mannanase activity at the concentration of 0-4.0M NaCl. No loss of enzyme activity was observed after incubating the enzyme with 1M or 2M NaCl, or trypsin or proteinase K at 37°C and pH 6.5 for 1h. The Km, Vmax and kcat values were 5.0mgml-1, 277.8μmolmin-1mg-1, and 211.9s-1, respectively, using locust bean gum as the substrate. © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan.


Zhou J.,Yunnan Normal University | Zhou J.,Key Laboratory of Yunnan for Biomass Energy and Biotechnology of Environment | Peng M.,Yunnan Normal University | Zhang R.,Yunnan Normal University | And 13 more authors.
Extremophiles | Year: 2015

A glycoside hydrolase family 32 exo-inulinase gene was cloned from Sphingomonas sp. JB13 and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The purified recombinant enzyme (rInuAJB13) showed an apparently optimal activity at pH 5.5 and 55 °C and remained activity at 10–70 °C. The addition of most metal ions and chemical reagents showed little or no effect (retaining more than 76.5 % activity) on the enzyme activity, notably the addition of surfactants SDS, CTAB, Tween 80, and Triton X-100. Most local liquid detergents, including Balin, Walch, Ariel, Tide, Tupperware, and Bluemoon, also showed little or no effect (retaining more than 77.8 % activity) on the enzyme activity. rInuAJB13 exhibited 135.3–163.6 % activity at the NaCl concentration of 1.0–4.5 M. After incubation with up to 57.0 mg mL−1 trypsin and 90.0 mg mL−1 proteinase K at 37 °C for 60 min (pH 7.2), rInuAJB13 retained more than 80 % of its initial activity. The enzyme presents a high proportion (28.0 %) of amino acid residues G, A, and V. This paper is the first to report a detergent-, salt-, and protease-tolerant exo-inulinase. © 2015, Springer Japan.


Xu B.,Yunnan Normal University | Xu B.,Key Laboratory of Yunnan for Biomass Energy and Biotechnology of Environment | Xu W.,Yunnan Normal University | Xu W.,Key Laboratory of Yunnan for Biomass Energy and Biotechnology of Environment | And 18 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2015

The animal gastrointestinal tract contains a complex community of microbes, whose composition ultimately reflects the co-evolution of microorganisms with their animal host and the diet adopted by the host. Although the importance of gut microbiota of humans has been well demonstrated, there is a paucity of research regarding non-human primates (NHPs), especially herbivorous NHPs. Results: In this study, an analysis of 97,942 pyrosequencing reads generated from Rhinopithecus bieti fecal DNA extracts was performed to help better understanding of the microbial diversity and functional capacity of the R. bieti gut microbiome. The taxonomic analysis of the metagenomic reads indicated that R. bieti fecal microbiomes were dominated by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria phyla. The comparative analysis of taxonomic classification revealed that the metagenome of R. bieti was characterized by an overrepresentation of bacteria of phylum Fibrobacteres and Spirochaetes as compared with other animals. Primary functional categories were associated mainly with protein, carbohydrates, amino acids, DNA and RNA metabolism, cofactors, cell wall and capsule and membrane transport. Comparing glycoside hydrolase profiles of R. bieti with those of other animal revealed that the R. bieti microbiome was most closely related to cow rumen. Conclusions: Metagenomic and functional analysis demonstrated that R. bieti possesses a broad diversity of bacteria and numerous glycoside hydrolases responsible for lignocellulosic biomass degradation which might reflect the adaptations associated with a diet rich in fibrous matter. These results would contribute to the limited body of NHPs metagenome studies and provide a unique genetic resource of plant cell wall degrading microbial enzymes. However, future studies on the metagenome sequencing of R. bieti regarding the effects of age, genetics, diet and environment on the composition and activity of the metagenomes are required. © Xu et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Wu C.,Yunnan Normal University | Yang F.,Yunnan Normal University | Gao R.,Yunnan Normal University | Huang Z.,Yunnan Normal University | And 7 more authors.
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

The bacterial diversity in fecal samples from Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) was investigated by constructed 16S rRNA gene clone library and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. As a result, a total of 156 representative clones for each profile, comprising nearly full length sequences (with a mean length of 1.5 kb) were sequenced and submitted to an on-line similarity search and neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis. Using the criterion of 97%, these 16S rRNA gene sequences were binned in 129 OTUs. 11 sequences whose similarity is ≥ 97% were affiliated to the cultured bacteria and accounted for 7.05% of the total clones. For 23 sequences (14.74%), the similarity with the database was in the range of 89 - 97%. The remaining 122 sequences (78.21%) were uncultured and unidentified bacteria. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the fecal bacteria of R. bieti distributed mainly in 6 bacteriophyta of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Fibrobacteres, Spirochaetes and Actinobacteria, and belonged to 17 genera. Besides, there were a large number of uncultured and unidentified bacteria. These results illustrate the fecal bacteria diversity of R. bieti. © 2010 Academic Journals.


Zhou J.,Yunnan Normal University | Zhou J.,Key Laboratory of Yunnan for Biomass Energy and Biotechnology of Environment | Gao Y.,Yunnan Normal University | Dong Y.,Yunnan Normal University | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

A xylanase-coding gene (xynAHJ3, 1,104 bp) was cloned from Lechevalieria sp. HJ3 harbored in a saline soil sampled from Heijing town, aka the "town of salt", on the famous "Silk Route of the South". The gene encodes a 367-residue polypeptide (XynAHJ3) with the highest identity of 74.0 % with the endoxylanase from Streptomyces thermocarboxydus HY-15. The coding sequence of the mature protein (without the predicted signal peptide from M1 to S22) of xynAHJ3 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The activity of the purified recombinant XynAHJ3 (rXynAHJ3) was apparently optimal at 70 °C and pH 6.0, retained greater than 55 % xylanase activity at a concentration of 0.2-2.0 M Na+ and 26 % at 4.0 M Na+ (pH 7.5 20 °C), and showed 110.2 and 44.2 % xylanase activities in the presence of 100 mM SDS (pH 6.0 37 °C) and 10 % ethanol (pH 5.0 37 °C), respectively. rXynAHJ3 activity was stable at 50 °C and pH 4.0-11.0 for more than 60 min, in trypsin or proteinase K at 20 °C for 24 h (pH 7.5), in 10 % ethanol (v/v) (pH 5.0) at 30 or 37 °C for 72 h, in 80 % ethanol (v/v) for 1 h, and in 0.6 or 3 M NaCl (20 °C, pH 7.5) for 72 h. Compared with the majority of xylanases with tolerance to ethanol, salt, SDS, or protease (Km values of 1.42-15.1 mg ml-1), rXynAHJ3 showed a low Km value (0.8 mg ml-1) and showed only limited amino acid sequence identity with those other xylanases (less than 47 %). © Society for Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 2012.


Yu X.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Zhao P.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | He C.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Huang Z.,Key Laboratory of Yunnan for Biomass Energy and Biotechnology of Environment
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

A novel green microalgae strain from Lake Fuxian has been isolated and identified as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. The novel strain was named Monoraphidium sp. FXY-10 based on its morphological and genomic characterization. The lipid productivities, fatty acid profiles, and microalgae recovery efficiency (ηa) of FXY-10 were investigated and compared under autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions. FXY-10 under autotrophic conditions exhibited a higher cellular lipid content (56.8%) than those under heterotrophic conditions (37.56%). However, FXY-10 growing under heterotrophic conditions exhibited more than 20-fold increase in lipid productivity compared with that under autotrophic conditions (148.74mgL-1d-1 versus 6.88mgL-1d-1). Moreover, higher saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (77.5%) of FXY-10 was obtained under heterotrophic culture conditions, suggesting its potential as a biodiesel feedstock. Gravity sedimentation was proposed as the harvesting biomass method based on the 97.9% microalgae recovery efficiency of heterotrophic cells after settling for 24h. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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