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Wang Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang Y.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture South | Liu R.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Liu R.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture South
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2017

The characteristics of twenty-one types of biochars as well as their capacities to remove multi-heavy metals (Cu2 +, Pb2 +, Cd2 +, and Zn2 +) and methylene blue were compared in order to screen biochars applied for pollutants removal. The adsorption mechanisms of heavy metals and methylene blue by biochars were analyzed. Results showed that the oxygen and hydrogen contents, molar O/C and H/C ratios of biochars decreased while the carbon and ash contents, the pH value increased with pyrolysis temperature increased from 350 °C to 550 °C. The removal efficiency of Pb2 + (1.90–30.42%) was higher than Cu2 + (0.34–12.83%) and other metals in 100 mg L− 1 multi-heavy metals solutions. Cotton straw biochar from slow pyrolysis showed the highest removal capacity for Pb2 + and Cu2 + in multi-heavy metals solutions, while wheat straw biochar from gasification showed the highest removal efficiency of methylene blue (96.28%). Dissolved phosphorus and magnesium participated in the precipitate forming with heavy metals and K played an important role in ion exchange with heavy metals. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Gao Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Gao Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Miao C.,Peking University | Mao L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010

Remediation of plant-microorganism-chelates synergy has been proposed as an effective remediation method for enhancing the removal efficiency of heavy metal. Manipulation of the antioxidative system increases plant tolerance, thereby potentially enhancing the uptake capacity to heavy metal. In this study, we investigated the possibility of improving the phytoextraction of Cd and the antioxidative defense of Solanum nigrum L. by application of a new isolated strain (Paecilomyces lilacinus NH1) (PLNH1) and citric acid (CA). The results showed that application of CA or PLNH1 significantly promoted S. nigrum's growth under Cd stress, but the synergistic effect of CA and PLNH1 on S. nigrum's growth was more obvious. The coexistence of CA and PLNH1 could enhance about 30% of Cd accumulation in different organs of S. nigrum compared to the treatment without the addition of CA and PLNH1, whereas single CA or PLNH1 added treatment only enhanced about 10-15% of Cd accumulation in different organs of S. nigrum. The antioxidative defense in S. nigrum under Cd stress was significantly improved as result of application of CA and PLNH1. The responses of antioxidative enzymes to Cd stress significantly decreased following application of CA and PLNH1, and the oxidative stress experienced by the plant due to Cd in the soil was significantly alleviated. © 2010.


Cai W.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture South | Liu R.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Fuel | Year: 2016

A commercial-scale biomass fast pyrolysis plant, based on downdraft circulating fluidized bed technology with biomass throughput of 1-3 T h-1, has been developed for bio-oil production and its performance has been investigated. The technological process consists of six parts: a feeding system, a heat carrier system, a reactor system, a cyclone system, a condensation system and a carbon separating system. The plant has four circulation systems: circulation of a heat carrier, quenching materials (bio-oil), cooling water and non-condensable gas. The bio-oil, raw material (rice husks), char and non-condensable gas samples were analyzed using GC-MS, FTIR, and SEM to characterize the physical properties and chemical composition. Results showed that the operation of the plant was stable. At 550 °C, the highest yield of bio-oil obtained was 48.1 wt% with char, and non-condensable gas yields of 26.0 wt% and 25.9 wt%, respectively. GC-MS results revealed that the composition of the bio-oil was complicated and the most abundant compound category was phenolics (14.92%). The char had complex pore structure by SEM analysis, which can be collected as a resources for further comprehensive utilization. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhou P.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Yang F.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Ren X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Huang B.,Rutgers University | And 2 more authors.
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2014

Aluminum (Al) toxicity in acid soils is a major constraint on crop production. The objective of this study of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was to determine whether Al-induced inhibition of root growth in alfalfa (M. sativa L.) is related to Al distribution in different root tissues, changes in endogenous level of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in root tips, and the expression of key genes in IAA metabolism and translocation. Roots of alfalfa were exposed to 100μM Al3+ in half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution. The inhibitory effects of Al on root elongation was more pronounced than on root and shoot biomass accumulation. Lumogallion, an Al specific stain, was used to monitor tissue locations of Al in the root. Lumogallion-Al was mainly detected in the root cap, epidermis, and stele of Al-treated roots. In the meristematic region of the root tip, Al accumulated mainly in the cell wall, intracellular membrane system and center of the nucleus. The similar distribution of Al ions in the root with that of auxin revealed that Al in roots may affect IAA levels. High performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that IAA levels increased in the base of the root and decreased in the root tips treated with 100μM Al3+ for 3d compared to that of the control (without Al). Reverse transcription and quantitative PCR showed that the expressions of three genes, auxin transporter-like protein, auxin efflux carrier component, and cationic peroxidase, were significantly higher in Al-stressed alfalfa roots than in the control while the expression of auxin conjugate hydrolase was significantly lower. These results suggested that Al-inhibition of root elongation could be associated with Al accumulation in apoplast and membrane system, and alteration of IAA transport in the root. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Kang H.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhuang H.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wu L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Liu Q.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 5 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2011

Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and N:P ratio in terrestrial plants and the patterns at a large geographical scale are an important issue in ecological stoichiometry. In particular, it is essential to know that for a single species, how the N:P stoichiometry varies with climatic factors in the context of global warming. Our analysis was based on a data set including 2583 observations at 441 sites on nutritional status of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) located in European counties (including Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Rep., Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Norway, Slovak Rep., Slovenia, United Kingdom). Our objectives are to demonstrate how leaf N and P concentration and N:P ratio in Norway spruce vary with altitude (ALT), latitude (LAT), longitude (LON), mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) across Europe. The results showed that for 1-year-old needles of Norway spruce, the N and P concentration were 13.28mgg-1, 1.41mgg-1 and the N:P ratio was 9.76. Leaf N displayed a convex curve pattern with increasing MAT and decreasing LAT from the boreal Europe to the Mediterranean area. The N concentration and N:P generally reached peak at about 7°C in MAT or 53° N in LAT. The N:P ratio varied non-linearly with LAT and MAP, but linearly with MAT. Leaf N concentration and N:P ratio decreased linearly with increasing ALT in temperate European area. Across Europe, that the patterns of leaf N and N:P ratio were mainly driven by climate-related geochemistry and plant physiology, but also greatly impacted by anthropogenic N deposition. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Wang Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang Y.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture South | Yin R.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Yin R.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture South | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis | Year: 2014

The characteristics and application of biochar from conventionally slow pyrolysis have been studied a lot, but biochar, as a byproduct in the bio-oil production process, produced by fast pyrolysis was rarely studied. This work assessed the characterization and utilization of biochars derived from rice husk (RH) and elm sawdust (ES) by fast pyrolysis. Incubation experiment of rice husk biochar (RHB) and acid soil in a controlled cabinet was carried out to test the effect of biochar on soil available elements. The volatile and fixed carbon was 2.2 and 1.7-fold respectively higher in elm sawdust biochar (ESB) than those in RHB, but the ash content was 4.2-fold higher in RHB than that in ESB. Although the C, H, N, and O contents were significantly varied in two biochars, the ratio H/C and O/C were nearly the same. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) results revealed that RHB had more functional groups than ESB. More surface area was found in RHB (78.15 m2 g-1) than ESB (0.22 m2 g-1) by BET test. Incorporation of the biochar improved the quality of acid soil properties. The levels of soil pH, K, Ca, Mg, Na and total C and N increased while the Al and Pb contents decreased. Total carbon and potassium increased by 72% and by 6.7-fold respectively over the control at 4% of rice husk biochar adding level. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


An Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | An Y.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture South | Zhou P.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Xiao Q.,Inner Mongolia Academy of Agricultural and Animal Husbandry science | Shi D.,Heze University
Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science | Year: 2014

Organic acids (OA) may affect plant resistance to aluminum (Al) toxicity in acidic soils. However, limited information is available on the effects of different organic acids on Al resistance in alfalfa. We investigated the effects of foliar application of organic acids (succinic acid, citric acid, malic acid, and oxalic acid) to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) under Al stress. Seedlings were grown in pH 4.5 nutrient solution containing Al at 0 or 100 μM, and were sprayed with water or 100 μM of oxalic acid, malic acid, citric acid, or succinic acid every 3 d during a 10 d experiment. Aluminum stress caused significant reduction in alfalfa growth (reflected by above-ground biomass, root weight and root length), root activity, mineral nutrient concentrations (Ca, K, Mg, Mn and Zn), and a significant increase in leaf membrane lipid peroxidation. Foliar application of the four organic acids, especially succinic acid, alleviated Al toxicity, as demonstrated by the increase in plant growth and root activity, as well as reduction in lipid peroxidation. Oxalic acid and malic acid treatments significantly increased oxalate exudation and decreased Al concentration in roots exposed to Al stress. Succinic acid treatment significantly increased accumulation of all four organic acids in roots, accumulation of Ca, K, Mg, Mn and Zn, and up-regulated the gene transcription of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in roots. Our results suggest that the promotion of oxalate exudation from roots through exogenous application of oxalate and malate could contribute to the improvement in Al resistance of alfalfa, and the positive effects of exogenous application of succinate on Al resistance may be associated with the increased endogenous accumulation of all four organic acids in roots, which may constitute an organic-acid detoxification system in alfalfa. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Xiao J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Xiao J.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture South | Guo L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang S.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010

Alcaligenes faecalis strain J08 and Brevundimonas sp. strain X08 were isolated from soils co-contaminated by cadmium (Cd) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Northeast China. The two strains of bacteria were identified by phenotypic tests and 16S rDNA. Different Cd treatments (0.01 mM, 0.1 mM, 0.5 mM) showed no significant influence (p > 0.05) on the biodegradation of phenanthrene by A. faecalis strain J08. Brevundimonas sp. strain X08 also presented no significant differences in the biodegradation of phenanthrene in Cd treatments (0.01 mM, 0.1 mM). The growth of Brevundimonas sp. strain X08 was prohibited significantly (p < 0.05) by Cd in the concentration of 0.5 mM, but the biodegradation of phenanthrene in this group was not impaired. The specific biodegradation rate of Brevundimonas sp. strain X08 in the 0.5 mM Cd group was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than rates in other Cd treatments (0 mM, 0.01 mM, 0.1 mM). © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Dai T.C.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Dai T.C.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture South | Wang Z.M.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang Z.M.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture South
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2015

Shoot branching, i.e., the timing and position of shoot growth, determines to a large extend the pattern of plant architecture, and is the result of the integration of a plant’s genetic background and environmental cues. Many genes that are involved in the formation and outgrowth of axillary buds have been cloned, but the exact mechanism is still unclear. Branching pattern is an important agronomic trait in many crops, including cotton. In the present study, we cloned four genes from cotton, and designated them as GhLOF1/2/3/4. Sequence analysis revealed that all four genes shared conserved protein domains with LATERAL ORGAN FUSION (LOF) from Arabidopsis and TRIFOLIATE (Tf) from tomato. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that GhLOF3 and GhLOF4 were close to Tf because of their similar expression patterns, whereas GhLOF1 and GhLOF2 were differentially expressed. © FUNPEC-RP.


Gao Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhou P.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhou P.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture South | Mao L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2010

A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the response of soil enzyme activities (namely dehydrogenase, phosphatase and urease) to different levels of trace element pollution in soil representative area. The improved ecological dose model and random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used to assess soil health. The 50% ecological dose (ED50) values modified by toxicant coefficient were calculated from the best-fit model, and determination values from the regression analysis for the three enzyme activities were studied after the incubation periods. The results showed that the elevated heavy metal concentration negatively affects the total population size of bacteria and actinomycetes and enzymatic activity; dehydrogenase (ED50 = 777) was the most sensitive soil enzyme, whereas urease activity (ED50 = 2,857) showed the lowest inhibition; combined pollution or elevated toxicant level would increase disappearing RAPD bands, and the number of denoting polymorphic bands was greater in combined polluted soils. All three mathematical modified models satisfactorily described the inhibition of soil enzyme activities caused by Cd and Pb, by giving the best fit. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

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