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Gao M.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | Qiu T.-L.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | Qin Y.-C.,Pinggu Animal Health Inspection of Beijing | Wang X.-M.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | Wang X.-M.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture North
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2017

Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is considered a source of airborne human pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes. This study collected fecal samples and corresponding air samples from inside and outside atmospheric environments of layer and broiler feeding operations. We detected the types of 61 genes including five classes of antibiotics antibiotic resistance genes (23 genes of ampicillin, 23 genes of tetracycline, 5 genes of quinolones, 5 genes of sulfonamides and 2 genes of erythromycin), five conditional pathogenic bacteria (Enterococcus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Campylobacter and Clostridium perfringens) and class1 integron. Quantitative real time PCR was used to analyze concentrations of typical genes with relatively high detection rates. The results indicated that the detection rates of antibiotic resistance genes were 8, 7, 2, 3 and 2. At the same time, two kinds of pathogenic bacteria were detected. The detection rates of the target genes in the air were lower than those of the fecal sample. The total bacterial gene (16S rDNA) concentration in the air of layer and broiler was 106 copies·m-3, and that of the other typical genes was about 104copies·m-3. And the outdoor concentration was much lower than the indoor concentration. The proportions of antibiotic resistance genes and conditional pathogenic bacteria in the air were higher than those in the fecal samples and the outdoor proportions were lower than the indoor proportions. Preliminary results of this study indicated that feces was an important source of antibiotic resistance genes, conditional pathogenic bacteria and class1 integron. Aerosolization degrees of genes in feces were different. This study will provide the basic data for both source tracking of antibiotic resistance genes and pathogens from CAFOs and risk assessment of pollution of CAFOs in the surrounding air environment. © 2017, Science Press. All right reserved.


Chen C.,Beijing Research & Development Center for Grass and Environment | Wang Q.-H.,Beijing Research & Development Center for Grass and Environment | Wu J.-Y.,Beijing Research & Development Center for Grass and Environment | Wu J.-Y.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture North | And 5 more authors.
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2016

Using the published literature and records, this study investigated the historical introduction, geographical distribution, and biological characteristics of 404 alien plants in 32 provinces (including municipalities) in China. The results showed that three fifths of the alien plants was introduced for intentional purposes, and the introduction of alien plants increased with time from 139 BC to the current time, especially during historical events that played an important part in the process of introduction. The geographical distribution of alien plant species tended to decrease from the south and the east to the north and the west. Annual average precipitation (Y = 7.51X + 7.05, R2 = 0.67) and temperature (Y = 0.07X + 41.54, R2 = 0.67) had a linear relationship with alien plant introduction throughout China. Furthermore, population density and economic conditions also affected and promoted plant invasions in China. The life forms were well adapted to regional precipitation and temperature, but different life forms of alien plants were not consistent with the distribution tendency based on the quantity of alien plants. There was a higher percentage of annual and biennial plants in the northern provinces (e.g. 66.7 and 15.7% in Inner Mongolia), whereas there were more perennial and woody plant species in the southern provinces (e.g. 37.0 and 21.2% in Hainan). Family characteristics could not accurately predict plant invasions; however, predictions based on genera were acceptable. In addition, the origin of alien plants can also predict the distribution and potential risk of invasions. Thus, our study investigated the factors affecting plant invasions in order to provide information on the prevention and control of alien plants. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Wang D.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | Wang D.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture North | Li X.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | Li X.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture North | And 5 more authors.
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

In order to reveal the effect of packaging films on quality of fresh cut broccoli, three different properties of films were selected as materials. The effect of packaging films on headspace gas composition in the bag, respiratory rate and sensory quality of fresh cut broccolis were studied. The results showed that the samples in PE2 exhibited the best quality. The samples in PE1 had less quality than PE2. Although broccolis in PE3 had the lower O2 concentration and highest CO2 concentration, which retarded a great extent of respiration rate than others, but this condition induced anaerobe respiration, and then leading to the worst sensory quality. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Zhang C.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | Gao D.,Northeast Agricultural University | Ma Y.,Key Laboratory of Biology | Zhao X.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture North
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2013

The gelatin was added into pullulan films to improve their performances and lower their cost. The gelatin addition raised the tensile strength of the gelatin-pullulan composite films, and reduced the oxygen permeability. The cost of composite films was reduced comparing to that of the pullulan films. Moreover, the molecular interaction of the composite film was evaluated. The interactions of gelatin and pullulan in the composite films were detected, such as (1) formation of 2 glycosylated proteins; (2) improvement of β-sheet content; (3) formation of the interchain hydrogen bond and a semicrystalline region. Therefore, the molecular interaction was the main reason for the performance improvement of the composite films. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®.


Li Y.M.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forest Science | Li Y.M.,CAS Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research | Li Y.M.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture North | Zhou X.Y.,CAS Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research | Yang J.,CAS Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

We investigated soil physiochemical properties and heavy metal contamination characteristics in steel and chemical sites, aimed to provide theoretical basis for future site remediation. Results indicated that: soils in both sites showed sandy and alkaline trend. Soil total phosphorus, total potassium, and available nitrogen content in steel site, and total and available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in chemical site were lower than that in farmland soil. Soil lead and zinc contamination in steel site and soil arsenic contamination in chemical site should be given priority in remediation. In addition, cadmium and arsenic risk in steel site and mercury risk in chemical site should also be paid sufficient attention. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Wang Q.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | Wang Q.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture North | Ding T.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | Ding T.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture North | And 6 more authors.
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2016

The reduction in the quality of harvested green peppers due to physiological disorders resulting from chilling injury (CI) results in significant economic losses. In the current study, the ability of glycine betaine (GB, a stress-ameliorating compound) to reduce CI in sweet pepper was investigated. GB at 1mmolL-1 significantly reduced CI in sweet pepper fruit during a sixteen-day period of storage at 3°C followed by an additional 3 days at 20°C. CI index, membrane permeability, chlorophyll content, ascorbic acid (ASA), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed. The activities of a variety of antioxidant enzymes, including peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), and lipoxygenase (LOX) were determined along with transcript levels. Results indicated that amelioration of CI in sweet pepper by GB was associated with a reduction in cellular leakage, MDA content, and lipid peroxidation in sweet pepper. Both gene expression and enzyme activity of POD, CAT, APX, and GR in GB-treated fruit were higher than levels in control fruit. These data suggest that GB increases chilling tolerance in pepper fruit by inducing antioxidant gene expression and enzyme activity, thus alleviating the potential injury resulting from CI. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Bu C.,China Agricultural University | Bu C.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture North | Li J.,China Agricultural University | Wang X.-Q.,China Agricultural University | And 8 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2015

Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a worldwide polyphagous agricultural pest that has the title of resistance champion among arthropods. We reported previously the identification of the acaricidal compound β-sitosterol from Mentha piperita and Inula japonica. However, the acaricidal mechanism of β-sitosterol is unclear. Due to the limited genetic research carried out, we de novo assembled the transcriptome of T. cinnabarinus using Illumina sequencing and conducted a differential expression analysis of control and β-sitosterol-treated mites. In total, we obtained >5.4 G high-quality bases for each sample with unprecedented sequencing depth and assembled them into 22,941 unigenes. We identified 617 xenobiotic metabolism-related genes involved in detoxification, binding, and transporting of xenobiotics. A highly expanded xenobiotic metabolic system was found in mites. T. cinnabarinus detoxification genes - including carboxyl/cholinesterase and ABC transporter class C - were upregulated after β-sitosterol treatment. Defense-related proteins, such as Toll-like receptor, legumain, and serine proteases, were also activated. Furthermore, other important genes - such as the chloride channel protein, cytochrome b, carboxypeptidase, peritrophic membrane chitin binding protein, and calphostin - may also play important roles in mites' response to β-sitosterol. Our results demonstrate that high-throughput-omics tool facilitates identification of xenobiotic metabolism-related genes and illustration of the acaricidal mechanisms of β-sitosterol. © 2015 Chunya Bu et al.


Yuan X.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture North | Yang X.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture North | Chen C.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture North | Wu J.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture North
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2014

Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is the basic parameter for the vegetation evapotranspiration calculation, the regional water balance analysis, and the water resources management. The ET0 models have different adaptability for different regions because of the difference in meteorological conditions among regions. Measurement using lysimeter is the classical method for ET0 model evaluation in European and American areas, but is seldom used in China, and no research reported for North China. Assessment of four ET0 models, Penman-Monteith (FAO-56), Hargreaves-Samani, Priestley-Taylor, and Penman-van Bavel were conducted in Beijing using tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea L.) turf evapotranspiration measurement by auto-weighing lysimeter during the growing season (April - October) of 2012. Two lysimeters were established in cold-season grass tall fescue for standard ET0. The weather station (Dynamet, Dynamax Co. Ltd.) was set up in the experiment site to measure and record automatically the meteorological data of air temperature, air relative humidity, solar radiation and wind speed at 2 meter height above ground for the ET0 calculation by the models. The linear regression and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and the index of agreement (d) were used for assessing the prediction accuracy of the different models. The results indicated that the solar radiation showed a linear relationship (R2=0.95, p=2.72×10-7) with the monthly reference evapotranspiration, indicating that the solar radiation energy was the main force to drive water from the vegetation to the atmosphere in SPAC system. The accuracy of the models declined with the time scale. The models showed different deviations in ET0 calculation because of the different parameters input. The monthly ET0 was underestimated by Priestley-Taylor model but overestimated by Penman-Monteith?Hargreaves-Samani and Penman-van Bavel models. For the daily ET0, Hargreaves-Samani and Penman-van Bavel models had a slight overestimation with the rate of 1.0167 and 1.0526, respectively, but Penman-Monteith and Priestley-Taylor models had an underestimation with the rate of 0.8204 and 0.7593, respectively. For the timely ET0, Priestley-Taylor had the lowest value among the models, while other models resulted in different values under different weather conditions. The overall estimation for the ET0 at the monthly, daily, and hourly scales showed that the Penman-van Bavel equation was the most precise method for calculating reference evapotranspiration, with a RMSE of 0.63 mm/d and a d-index of 0.96 (monthly), a RMSE of 1.43 mm/d and a d-index of 0.89 (daily), a RMSE of 0.087 mm/h and a d-index of 0.87 (hourly). The calculating accuracy of Penman-Monteith model was a little lower than that of Penman-van Bavel with a d-index of 0.73-0.93.


Wang Q.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | Wang Q.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture North | Zuo J.-H.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | Zuo J.-H.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture North | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Integrative Agriculture | Year: 2015

The antifungal activity of chitosan on a common fungal phytopathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and the control effect on sclerotinia rot of carrot were investigated. Mycelial growth and fungal biomass were strongly inhibited by chitosan. Using propidium iodide stain combined with fluorescent microscopy, the plasma membrane of chitosan-treated S. sclerotiorum mycelia was observed to be markedly damaged. Concomitantly, protein leakage and lipid peroxidation was also found to be significantly higher in chitosan-treated mycelia compared to the control. Chitosan provided an effective control of sclerotinia rot of carrot, with induction of activity of defense-related enzymes including polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase. These data suggest that the effects of chitosan on sclerotinia rot of carrot may be associated with the direct damage to the plasma membrane and lipid peroxidation of S. sclerotiorum, and the elicitation of defense response in carrot. © 2015 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.


Zhang Y.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture North | Yuan X.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture North | Teng W.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture North | Chen C.,Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture North | And 2 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2015

So far no successful artificial hybridizations among ornamental grasses in the Pennisetum Rich. (Poaceae) genus that are widely applied in landscape design have been reported because of unclear genetic backgrounds and uncertain evolutionary and genetic relationships among one another, severely restricting the number of ornamental cultivars and their gardening utility. The present study aims to reveal genetic backgrounds and relationships for nine Pennisetum ornamental grasses via karyotype diversity analysis; discuss the morphological classification system proposed in previous studies on morphological, chromosomal and genomic levels; and verify the chromosomal evolution of Pennisetum genus using the combined karyotypic and genomic data. Our results indicated that (1) traditional morphological classification system of Pennisetum genus is reasonable, both from the morphological and cytological points of view; (2) hybridization among Pennisetum alopecuroides, P. alopecuroides 'Little Bunny', P. alopecuroides 'Moudry' and P. orientale may be easier to obtain a hit; (3) chromosomes with lower basic chromosome number are more asymmetry than those chromosomes with higher basic chromosome number, and taxa with different basic chromosome numbers may have experienced different way of speciation; and (4) chromosomal evolution in Pennisetum genus progressed from a symmetrical to an asymmetrical order in the course of evolution; and the structure of the genome of Pennisetum species involved in the reduction of chromosome number and an increase in their sizes and DNA contents. The present study guides the breeding programs and genome projects of Pennisetum ornamental grasses practically, and provides references for the evolutionary studies on Pennisetum genus theoretically. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

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