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Shu B.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Shu B.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Shu B.,Key Laboratory of Tropical Fruit Biology | Wang P.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Xia R.-X.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Phosphate (P) deficiency decreases the yield and quality of citrus fruits. The P concentration, P uptake, and the expression of three predicted acid phosphatase genes in trifoliate orange seedlings were measured among inorganic phosphate (Pi), organic phosphate (Po), and no phosphate (-P) treatments to assess the ability of Po to improve trifoliate orange P deficiency. The three genes were expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33 to characterise the trifoliate orange phytase gene. Our analysis showed that trifoliate orange could utilise phytin without microorganisms in P-deficient conditions by promoting phytase and acid phosphatase activity; however, Po had a smaller effect on the improvement of trifoliate orange P deficiency than Pi fertiliser. The expression of the three genes in roots and leaves with Pi treatment did not respond to -P solutions, but nearly all three genes were up-regulated in roots or leaves with Po and -P treatment after -P solutions were supplied. Further, the PtPAP3 recombinant protein (r-PtPAP3), which was expressed in P. pastoris, showed phytase activity that was as high as that of cereal phytases. The r-PtPAP3 Km values were 46.2μM for phytate and 1631μM for ρ-nitrophenylphosphate. Incubation with Mn2+ increased the specific activity of r-PtPAP3 for phytate by approximately 1.9-fold, and Fe2+ increased it by approximately 1.2-fold. In summary, the function and expression pattern of PtPAP3 allowed a detailed understanding of the significance of phytate metabolism of a woody perennial. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Shu B.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Shu B.,Key Laboratory of Tropical Fruit Biology | Shu B.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wang P.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Xia R.-X.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2014

We determined the phosphate (P) uptake, substrate P concentration, phytase activity, acid phosphatase activity and expression of three predicted secreted purple acid phosphatase genes (PAPs) from trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf) through Glomus versiforme and phytin treatments to evaluate phytate-phosphorus utilization promoted by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, G. versiforme). The results showed that under inorganic phosphate (Pi) deficiency, trifoliate orange seedlings utilized phytin and G. versiforme colonization promoted trifoliate orange phytin utilization by increasing phytase activity and acid phosphatase activity in the roots and the substrate. Although the expression of the three secreted PtPAPs in the seedlings was significantly upregulated in the roots and the leaves after 2 months of -P solution application, the genes exhibited different expression patterns. In general, PtPAP1 was regulated more strongly in the roots than in the leaves, which was upregulated by G. versiforme colonization but downregulated by phytin treatment in the roots. PtPAP2 was activated by Pi deficiency in the leaves but was almost constitutive expressed in the roots. PtPAP3, which might encode a phytase, was also regulated more strongly in the roots than in the leaves and reduced by phytin treatment, but unaffected by G. versiforme colonization. The expression patterns of the PtPAP genes in response to the AMF and organic phosphate (Po) treatments suggested that the three PtPAPs had different functions in the Po utilization of trifoliate orange. Although the phytase activity and acid phosphatase activity in the roots and the substrate were not consistent with PtPAPs expression, AMF promoted the activities of the two enzymes in the substrate, which was at least partly ascribed to the regulation of PtPAPs expression. © 2014 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków. Source


Zeng H.,South China Agricultural University | Zeng H.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zeng H.,Key Laboratory of Tropical Fruit Biology | Yang W.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

N-(2-Chloro-4-pyridyl)-N′-phenylurea (CPPU) is a highly active cytokinin-like plant growth regulator that promotes chlorophyll biosynthesis, cell division, and cell expansion. It also increases fruit set and accelerates fruit enlargement. However, there has been no report about the effect of CPPU on fruit development and its physiological mechanism in macadamia. In this study, we investigated the effect of CPPU treatment at early fruit development via foliar spray or raceme soaking at 20 mg·L-1 on fruit set and related physiology in macadamia. Changes in carbohydrate contents and endogenous hormones in leaves, bearing shoots and fruit were also examined. Results showed that CPPU significantly reduced young fruit drop and delayed the wave of fruit drop by 1-2 weeks. The treatment significantly decreased the contents of total soluble sugars and starch in the leaves, but increased them in the bearing shoots and total soluble sugars in the husk (pericarp) and seeds. These findings suggested that CPPU promoted carbohydrate mobilization from the leaves to the fruit. In addition, CPPU increased the contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellin acid (GA3), and zeatin riboside (ZR) and decreased the abscisic acid (ABA) in the husk. Therefore, CPPU treatment reduced the early fruit drop by increasing carbohydrate availability and by modifying the balance among endogenous hormones. © 2016 Zeng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source


Shi S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Shi S.,Key Laboratory of Tropical Fruit Biology | Chen D.,State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro Bioresources | Fu J.,State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro Bioresources | And 12 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2015

In this study, the fruit quality traits of the 'Fengliduo'×'Dawuyuan' F1 progenies were assessed over three consecutive years and evaluated using variance analysis, correlation analysis and principal component analysis. The analyses indicated that 24 fruit quality traits showed extreme differences but also interdependence, with coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 5.52% to 61.99% and Shannon-Weiner diversity index (H') ranging from 0.40 to 1.90. These fruit quality traits were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) of 8 aggregate indicators derived from the 24 single indicators. The results of these aggregate indicators analysis were highly consistent with the actual observations. Our analyses identified two hybrid individuals with superior traits that will be of value for further study. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.. Source


Dong C.,Key Laboratory of Tropical Fruit Biology | Dong C.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Hu H.,Key Laboratory of Tropical Fruit Biology | Hu H.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 10 more authors.
Plant Science | Year: 2016

The E2 is at the center of a cascade of Ub1 transfers, and it links activation of the Ub1 by E1 to its eventual E3-catalyzed attachment to substrate. Although the genome-wide analysis of this family has been performed in some species, little is known about analysis of E2 genes in banana. In this study, 74 E2 genes of banana were identified and phylogenetically clustered into thirteen subgroups. The predicted banana E2 genes were distributed across all 11 chromosomes at different densities. Additionally, the E2 domain, gene structure and motif compositions were analyzed. The expression of all of the banana E2 genes was analyzed in the root, stem, leaf, flower organs, five stages of fruit development and under abiotic stresses. All of the banana E2 genes, with the exception of few genes in each group, were expressed in at least one of the organs and fruit developments, which indicated that the E2 genes might involve in various aspects of the physiological and developmental processes of the banana. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis identified that 45 E2s under drought and 33 E2s under salt were induced. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first genome-wide analysis of the banana E2 gene family, and the results should provide valuable information for understanding the classification, cloning and putative functions of this family. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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