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Li S.,Ocean University of China | Li S.,Key Laboratory of Submarine Geosciences and Prospecting Technique | Geldmacher J.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | Hauff F.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | And 6 more authors.
Marine Geology | Year: 2014

Numerous calcium carbonate veins were recovered from the igneous basement of the Early Cretaceous Shatsky Rise during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 324. The chemical (Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca) and isotopic (87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, δ18O, δ13C) compositions of these veins were determined to constrain the timing of vein formation. A dominant control by seawater chemistry on calcite composition is evident for most vein samples with variable contributions from the basaltic basement. Slightly elevated precipitation temperatures (as inferred from oxygen isotope ratios), indicative of hydrothermal vein formation, are only observed at Site U1350 in the central part of Shatsky Rise. The highest 87Sr/86Sr ratios (least basement influence) of vein samples at each drill site range from 0.70726 to 0.70755 and are believed to reflect the contemporaneous seawater composition during the time of calcite precipitation. In principle, age information can be deduced by correlating these ratios with the global seawater Sr isotope evolution. Since the Sr isotopic composition of seawater has fluctuated three times between the early and mid Cretaceous, no unambiguous precipitation ages can be constrained by this method and vein precipitation could have occurred at any time between ~80 and 140Ma. However, based on combined chemical and isotopic data and correlations of vein composition with formation depth and inferred temperature, we argue for a rather early precipitation of the veins shortly after basement formation at each respective drill site. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Li S.,Ocean University of China | Li S.,Key Laboratory of Submarine Geosciences and Prospecting Technique | Li S.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Yang Z.,Ocean University of China | And 15 more authors.
Jilin Daxue Xuebao (Diqiu Kexue Ban)/Journal of Jilin University (Earth Science Edition) | Year: 2016

Since the Neoproterozoic rifting of the supercontinent Rodina, Early Paleozoic entered an active period of plate tectonics. Because plate movement speed became faster, the plate configurations are variable and instabile, the interactions among blocks are complex and changeable. the evolution of orogenic belts are also extremely complex, resulting in that global Early Paleozoic paleo-continent reconstruction today are still ambiguous. In particular, there is a global quasi-simultaneous orogeny at the end of the Early Paleozoic (450-400 Ma), there are three types of global-scale orogenic belts, which are subduction-related acretionary, collisional and intracontinental. This paper focuses on Early Paleozoic collision-type orogenic belts in the globe. It is discussed and summarized for the new geochronological and metamorphic, deformation and magmatism and their temporal and spatial distribution of the typical collisional orogenic belts. Early Paleozoic global collision-type orogenic belts mainly include the Pan-African orogenic belts of the southern hemisphere and the Caledonian orogenic belts of the northern hemisphere, respectively. They are closely related with preliminary assemblies of the Southern Gondwana and the Northern Laurussia. The Early Paleozoic collisional orogeny is mainly characterized by the collisions between large-scale continental blocks. These Early Paleozoic collisional orogenic belts have an approximate collision age, roughly undergoing the same evolutionary process, which the main part of the continent-continent collision for the southern continents completed in 540 Ma, and the main part of the northern continents assembled in 420 Ma. In the global tectonic significance it may means the initial formation of a global supercontinent of 420-400 Ma. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.


Li S.,Ocean University of China | Li S.,Key Laboratory of Submarine Geosciences and Prospecting Technique | Li S.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Li X.,Ocean University of China | And 16 more authors.
Jilin Daxue Xuebao (Diqiu Kexue Ban)/Journal of Jilin University (Earth Science Edition) | Year: 2016

This paper takes South China Early Paleozoic Caledonian intracontinental orogenic belt as an example, analyzing the intracontinental orogenic deformation, magmatic and sedimentary characteristics, the distribution of angular unconformity, fold-thrust belts, and subduction polarity. It was found that E-W-striking Cambrian fold asymmetry and spatial distribution of angular unconformities propagated and became younging towards the north in the Daming Mountain and the Dayaoshan area, indicating that the younging and propagation of north-directed thrusting may resulted from the seuqantially southward collision of the Yunkai block and the Diangui-North Vietanam blocks. Under the global tectonic setting, the deformation may be related to far-field intracontinental effect caused by sequential collision of some blocks in the South China block to the northern margin of Gondwana. The Yuanbaoshan and Yuechengling area in the north Guangxi, and the Hunan-Jiangxi border area developed the Early Paleozoic NE-NNE-trending folds and thrusts of which asymmetry indicates westward propagation, probably resulting from the collision of the Cathaysia block to the Yangtze block along the Chenzhou-Linwu fault in the Late Ordovician and Early Silurian. In the global view, it may be related to the clockwise rotation and comprehensive collision of the South China block to Gondwana. In summary, the Caledonian tectonic movement as a whole was sequentially propagated from south to north, and from east to west, their deformation intensity is from strong to weak toward the north or the west, reflecting that South China intracontinental collisional orogenic event is a far-field effect of its collision to the Gondwana. During about 450-420 Ma the South China block has been a part of the northern margin of Gondwana. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.


Li S.,Ocean University of China | Li S.,Key Laboratory of Submarine Geosciences and Prospecting Technique | Li S.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Yang Z.,Ocean University of China | And 19 more authors.
Jilin Daxue Xuebao (Diqiu Kexue Ban)/Journal of Jilin University (Earth Science Edition) | Year: 2016

Paleoproterozoic and Phanerozoic plate tectonics and periodic evolutionary processes have obvious difference, reflecting in the geological records developed in two different plate tectonic regimes. The Early Paleozoic is a transition era of these two regimes, the Early Paleozoic tectonic processes and plate reconstructions are the key to understand tectonic mechanism and cycle of the Earth's plate tectonics. This paper summarizes and compares the global geological events of the Early Paleozoic collisional orogenic belts since the rifting of the Supercontinent Rodinia based on the analysis of the evolutions of the Early Paleozoic collisional orogenic belts, summing up seven Gondwana-, Larussia-, Paleo-Chinese blocks-related collisional or accretionary orogenic events: the Brasiliano Orogeny, East African Orogeny, the Kuunga Orogeny, the Caledonian-stage proto-Tethyan- and Paleo-Asian Ocean-related orogeny in East Asia, and classic Caledonian Orogeny, central Eurasian Caledonian suturing, Appalachian Orogeny. After synthesizing seven-stage orogneic events, based on the combination of paleomagnetism, paleontology and paleogeographic data, this paper reconstructs assembly processes of global plates from the Neoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic as follows. Supercontient Rodinia began to experience three stages of rifting since the Neoproterozoic ~950 Ma, developing the Panthalassa, Mozambique and the Paleo-Pacific oceans. The Iapetus ocean opened in 615-560 Ma. In about 560 Ma the dispersal of the Baltica from the West Gondwana resulted in the opening of the narrow Ran Ocean. The Brasiliano Orogeny, the East African orogeny and the Kuunga orogeny in the southern hemisphere completed the final assembly of the Gondwanaland in ~540 Ma. Some terranes in the western segment of the northern margin of the Gondwana locally drifted away to result inthe opening of the Rheic and the Tornquist oceans since ~500 Ma. In ~420 Ma the formation of the classic Caledonian orogenic belt and the Central Eurasian suture zone closed the Iapetus Ocean. Coevally the Svalbard and the United Kingdom may be located in southeast of the Greenland Shield, and some micro-continental blocks such as the North China block docked in the eastern segment of the northern margin of the Gondwanaland. Since 425 Ma the Siberia plate had a trend away from the assembled Larussia Continent, but the South and North American plates were closer and closer in Late Ordovician-Early Devonian, and it resulted in the collision between the North American plate and the terrances on the northern margin of peri-Gondwana. In about 400 Ma, the mixed biota in the South and North America and palaeogeographic reconstruction shows the South and North America were very closer, so we speculated that one supercontinent may existed and called the Supercontinent Carolina in this paper, because the Carolina orogenic belt is the potential final collisional zone. Based on this supercontinent, this paper proposes that the supercontinent cycle is 700 Myr. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.


Li S.,Ocean University of China | Li S.,Key Laboratory of Submarine Geosciences and Prospecting Technique | Zhao G.,University of Hong Kong | Santosh M.,Kochi University | And 6 more authors.
Precambrian Research | Year: 2012

The Paleoproterozoic Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt separates the Eastern Block of the North China Craton into two small sub-blocks: the northern Longgang and the southern Rangrim blocks. However, it still remains unknown or controversial about the subduction polarity, collisional deformation and kinematics between two sub-blocks. The southern segment of the belt consists of the Paleoproterozoic Fenzishan and Jingshan groups, and Paleoproterozoic high pressure mafic granulites and serpentinites blocks which are located in the Jiaodong Complex. All of which are separated from the Jiaodong Complex of Neoarchean TTG gneisses by STZ1 ductile shear zones. Structural analysis in this study indicates that most of the rocks in all the units of the southern segment of the Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt underwent three distinct episodes of folding (D 1 to D 3) and two stage of ductile thrust shearing (STZ 1 coeval to D 1 and D 2, STZ 2 between D 2 and D 3). The D 1 deformation formed penetrative axial planar foliations (S 1), bedding-parallel ductile shear zone, mineral stretching lineations (L 1), and rarely preserved small isoclinal D 1 folds in the Jingshan and Fenzishan groups. In the Jingshan Group, however, penetrative deformational transposition resulted in stacking of sedimentary compositional layers which are separated by bedding-parallel ductile shear zones (STZ 1) at a period of about 1956Ma to 1914Ma. The kinematic indicators of STZ 1 in the Jingshan Group with resultant prograde peak metamorphism up to granulite facies grade and the Fenzishan Group with peak metamorphism up to amphibolite facies grade indicate NW-directed compression. D 2 resulted in crustal thickening with retrograded medium pressure granulite facies grade at about 1914-1893Ma. The D 2 deformation produced NW-verging asymmetric and recumbent folds, interpreted to have resulted from basement-involved thicken-skin structures. The Jiaodong Complex was also involved into the development of WNW-verging asymmetric tight folds associated with D 2 in the Jingshan and the Fenzishan groups. Ongoing collision led to the development of transpressional ductile shearing (STZ 2), forming the transpressional Taipingzhuang dextral ductile shear zone between the Jingshan Group and the southern Archean Complex and the transpressional Tading-Xiadian sinistral ductile shear zone between the Jingshan Group and the northern Archean Complex. All three lithotectonic units were superposed during the late D 3 deformation with amphibolite facies metamorphism. The D 3 deformation developed WNW-trending open to tight upright folds at about 1893-1875Ma. The structural pattern resulting from superimposition of D 2 and D 3 is a composite synform in the Fenzishan and Jingshan groups. The structural events of D 1 and STZ 1, and D 2 and STZ 2 deformation were possibly responsible for fast syn-collisional exhumation of the high pressure mafic granulites. The structural patterns and deformational history of the Fenzishan and Jingshan groups suggest a southeastward-directed oblique subduction beneath the northwestern margin of the Rangrim Block, and that the final scissor-shaped closure of the rift led to collision between the two blocks to form the coherent basement of the Eastern Block of the North China Craton. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Wang P.,Key Laboratory of Submarine Geosciences and Prospecting Technique | Wang P.,Ocean University of China | Li S.,Key Laboratory of Submarine Geosciences and Prospecting Technique | Li S.,Ocean University of China | And 12 more authors.
Acta Petrologica Sinica | Year: 2012

The Middle-Lower Yangtze River area is one of famous copper, iron and polymetallic ore metallogenic belts in China. In this paper, the Middle-Lower Yangtze River area is divided into the five tectonic units: the North China Block, the Dabie Orogenic Belt, the Yangtze Block, the Cathaysia Block, the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Foreland Belt. Furthermore, the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Foreland Belt is subdividied into three subunits: the Baokang-Wuhan- Susong-Chaohu Fold-and-thrust Belt, the Daye-Huaining-Wuhu Mesozoic Depression, the Tongshan-Ruichang-Ningguo Fold-and-thrust Belt. In the Early Yanshanian, the Wuhan-Susong-Chaohu Fold-and-thrust Belt north of the Yangtze River underwent the SE-directed thrusting: while the Ruichang-Ningguo Fold-andthrust Belt south of the Yangtze River experienced the NW-directed thrusting. South of the Yueyang-Puji-Xianning-Yangxin, the fold styles from north to south varies from chevron anticlines to chevron synclines, and the imbricate thrust faults to the south are more developed. The Jiuling-Mufushan Basement and the basements of the Cretaceous red basins developed many high-angle thrust faults and chevron synclines. The Proterozoic metamorphic rocks are involved in this thrusting, showing a typical thick-skinned structure. In the north of the Yangtze River, the closed asymmetric folds are mostly developed in the Indosinian. The Early Yanshanian thrusting modified the pre-exsiting structures. The deep and shallow structures north of the Yangtze River are coupling. However, the deep and shallow structures south of the Yangtze River are decoupling. The architecture of the upper and lower crust looks like "fish-spur" over the Middle-Lower Yangtze River. These deep structures should be the residual effect of the Indosinian subduction of the Yangtze Block to the North China Block. In the Middle-Lower Yangtze River, the south-directed thrusting should be related to the slow extrusion of the UHP metamorphic rocks in the Dabie Orogenic Belt. However, the northwest-directed thrusting may be related with the Middle Jurassic subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate to the Asian Continent.


Yu S.,Ocean University of China | Yu S.,Key Laboratory of Submarine Geosciences and Prospecting Technique | Li S.,Ocean University of China | Li S.,Key Laboratory of Submarine Geosciences and Prospecting Technique | And 6 more authors.
Precambrian Research | Year: 2015

The North Qinling terrane (NQT) is considered to be a relic of the Grenvillian orogeny and is related to the formation of Rodinia because of the extensive magmatism and typical amphibolite-facies metamorphism that occurred in the NQT at ~1.0 Ga. It was also involved in the Qinling orogen in the early Paleozoic during the amalgamation of Gondwana, as indicated by a phase of ultra-high pressure metamorphism at ~500 Ma. We provide a synthesis of the tectono-magmatism, metamorphism, detrital zircon age spectra and the evolution of oceanic basins of the NQT and its adjacent areas to determine the evolutionary history of the NQT from Rodinia to Gondwana. We reconstruct the tectonic history of the NQT from the Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic and identify three key events in the geological history of the NQT. Firstly, the NQT initialized as an intra-oceanic arc probably during the Paleoproterozoic around the South China blocks. It accreted onto the supercontinent Rodinia at ~1.0 Ga, resulting in the closure of the Songshugou Ocean, where it likely formed a Grenvillian-aged orogen with the Cathaysia Block. Subsequently, it rifted from Rodinia by post-collision extension during Rodinia breakup at ~750 Ma, and finally, the NQT was accreted to the present day southern edge of the North China Block (NCB) during the late Silurian to Early Devonian, likely as part of the amalgamation of Gondwana. A number of distinct oceanic terranes were also identified. The Kuanping Ocean was a Precambrian ocean located in the southern NCB, its meta-mafic unit, the Kuanping ophiolite belt, is likely the remnant of the preliminary Panthalassa oceanic crust. The Erlangping ophiolite belt records two Wilson Cycles, with the Proto-Erlangping Ocean initially opening as a back-arc basin at ~1.0 Ga due to the subduction of the preliminary Panthalassic Ocean, and was then closed by the arc-arc collision between the NQT and the Proto-Erlangping arc at ~500 Ma. With the onset of subduction of the Shangdan Ocean, the Erlangping Ocean re-opened as a back-arc basin at ~475-460 Ma. The Kuanping and Erlangping oceans closed during ~440-400 Ma when the NQT collided with the NCB. Our model also suggests that the Shangdan Ocean was an oceanic region along the northern margin of Eastern Gondwana. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Li S.,Ocean University of China | Li S.,Key Laboratory of Submarine Geosciences and Prospecting Technique | Li S.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Yang Z.,Ocean University of China | And 15 more authors.
Jilin Daxue Xuebao (Diqiu Kexue Ban)/Journal of Jilin University (Earth Science Edition) | Year: 2016

Global Early Paleozoic accretionary orogenic belts extremely developed and mainly distributed in the north and south sides of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, north of Rheic Ocean, south of Iapetus Ocean and peri-Gondwana continent, the accretion related to the proto-Tethyan closing mainly developed within the territory of China, a large amount of micro-continental blocks in the Early Paleozoic may be an important component of the northern margin of the Gondwana subduction-accretionary zone. Accretionary orogenic belt is complex in composition, including the trench-arc-basin system, seamounts, oceanic crust and other relic geological records. Especially eclogite is common. Accretionary orogenic belts are remarkable and unique characteristics of Early Paleozoic Paleo-Asian Ocean and Tethyan tectonic domains. In late Early Paleozoic, the central Asian Orogenic belt was under the accretion of the micro-continental blocks and the trench-arc-basin system developed with the characteristics of the accretionary-weak collisional orogenic processes at the end of the Early Paleozoic. The west and east Kunlun Mountains, north margin of the Qaidam basin, south Altyn Tagh Mountain, north Altyn Tagh, north Qilian and north Qinling, some involved micro-continental blocks in the Proto-Tethyan Ocean as one single linear island arc have the same accretionary orogenic processes in the Early Paleozoic. They overall subducted southward under and accreted to the northern margin of Gondwana. Their curved shape of these accretionary belts was reworked into one orocline by multiple-stage deformation. After 400 Ma, the paleo-Tethyan Ocean to the south and the Mianlue Ocean to the north opened, resulting in the drifting and complex deformation reworking as a giant orocline in Central China. It has very important influence on the tectonic outline in China. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.


Liu L.,Key Laboratory of Submarine Geosciences and Prospecting Technique | Liu L.,Ocean University of China | Li S.,Key Laboratory of Submarine Geosciences and Prospecting Technique | Li S.,Ocean University of China | And 8 more authors.
Scientia Geologica Sinica | Year: 2010

The main Mesozoic deformation in the Guizhou Province is Yanshanian three-stage folding, two-stage thrusting and three-stage strike slipping. Three-stage folds of different strikes are divided based on their newest-involved strata in these folds and their superposition relationship. The earliest is nearly EW-striking folds, and the second is NE-striking folds, followed by the N-S-striking folds. The folds formed between Late Jurassic and Late Cretaceous. The thrust fault system consists of the top-to-northwest or top-to-west,NS-striking thrust faults coeval to the NS-striking folds. To the west of west margin of the Xuefeng basement,the thrust belt can be divided into three sections:the root zone,the middle zone and the frontal zone from the east to the west. It underwent two-stage thrusting in root zone. However, there is only one-stage thrusting in the other two zones. Three-stage, differently-oriented strike-slip faults extend spatially parallel to axes of three folds and temporally later than the equivalent folding, respectively. EW-striking strike-slip faults are dextral and transpressional. However,NE-striking strike-slip faults are almost sinistral and transextenional. According to their intersection and confinement among these faults, it is obvious that EW-striking strike-slip faults occurred at the earliest stage, followed by NS- and NE-striking ones in sequence. At last,a possible dynamic model about deformation in Guizhou is proposed.


Dai L.,Key Laboratory of Submarine Geosciences and Prospecting Technique | Dai L.,Ocean University of China | Li S.,Key Laboratory of Submarine Geosciences and Prospecting Technique | Li S.,Ocean University of China | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences | Year: 2014

The East China Sea Shelf Basin is an important oil- and gas-bearing basin in the West Pacific continental margin. This region was affected by subduction of the Pacific Plate and the Philippine Plate in Cenozoic and experienced multi-stage tectonic inversions. This paper presents results from a numerical simulation by finite element method to the Xihu Sag in the East China Sea Shelf Basin and neighboring areas in an attempt to evaluate the WNW-directed compression on the sag during Late Miocene. Based on comprehensive structural analysis of a large number of seismic profiles, we determine the structural geometry of the sag, including the basement of the basin, the sedimentary cover, and 29 major faults in the Xihu Sag. Simulation results show that under continuous WNW-directed compression, tectonic inversion occurred firstly in the Longjing and Yuquan tectonic zones in the sag. Based on quantitative analysis of vertical displacement field of the Xihu Sag and peripheral areas and its stress intensity evolution, we identify a compressional regime in the Longjing Anticline Zone with a gradually propagated uplifting from south to north; whereas the propagation of uplifting in the Yuquan Anticline Zone is from north to south. The inversion intensity decreases from north to south. The formation of the tectonic inversion zone in the Xihu Sag is not only correlated to the direction of compression and fault patterns in the basin, but also closely related to the spatial configuration of fault surfaces of the Xihu-Jilong Fault in the Xihu Sag. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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