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Zong P.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Zong P.,Key Laboratory of Stratigraphy and Paleontology | Becker R.T.,University of Munster | Ma X.,Peking University
Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments | Year: 2015

Seven ammonoid levels/assemblages are recognised in the Devonian (Famennian) and Carboniferous (Tournaisian) of the northwestern Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, northwestern China. Eleven genera and 20 species, including six new species (Becanites sp. nov., Protactoclymenia junggarensis sp. nov., Prot. magna sp. nov., Cyrtoclymenia? parallela sp. nov., Sporadoceras impressum sp. nov. and “Mimimitoceras” transiens sp. nov.) are described from the Hongguleleng and Heishantou formations in the Bulongguoer, Hebukehe, Emuha and Hashatu sections. The first assemblage is characterised by Platyclymenia subnautilina (Sandberger), Prionoceras frechi (Wedekind) and Sp. impressum sp. nov. It is assigned to the basal upper Famennian Pl. annulata Zone (UD IV-A) and indicates that the global, transgressive Annulata Event enabled the first spread of ammonoids to the region. The second assemblage is characterised by large-sized Cyrtoclymeniaceae (Protactoclymenia and Cyrtoclymenia?) and Sporadoceras aff. muensteri (Münster) and correlates with the orbiculare Zone (UD IV-C) of North Africa, which also contains very large clymeniids and goniatites. The third regional assemblage consists of rare Gonioclymenia sp. and a related, more evolute form. The fourth assemblage is a peculiar Cymaclymenia“Mimimitoceras” fauna, including C. striata (Münster) s.l., C. cf. involvens Lange, Sporadoceras sp., “Mimimitoceras” cf. geminum Korn, “M.” transiens sp. nov. and M. cf. rotersi Korn, most of which are discovered for the first time in the vast Junggar and adjacent areas. Based on conodont (associated Protognathodus fauna) and palynomorph data (LN Zone), this assemblage corresponds to the lower Hangenberg Event Interval (UD VI-E). Rare records from a fifth level suggest that cymaclymeniids survived regionally into the conodont Pr. kockeli Zone, as in other regions. The sixth level consists of a single Lower Tournaisian Acutimitoceras (Stockumites)?. The seventh level also has a low diversity and includes Weyerella angularia (Liang and Wang) and Becanites sp. nov. in the Emuha section. It falls in the Middle Tournaisian, as do Weyerella faunas that were previously reported from the region. The endemic species and the distinctive lack of otherwise widespread genera provide a strong regional signature of the overall ammonoid fauna. © 2014, Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Lu J.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Lu J.,Key Laboratory of Stratigraphy and Paleontology | Xu L.,Henan Geological Museum | Pu H.,Henan Geological Museum | And 4 more authors.
Historical Biology | Year: 2016

Four carcharodontosaurid teeth from the Cretaceous deposits of Ruyang County, Henan Province of central China are described in detail. The discovery of these large teeth indicates that some of the largest predatory dinosaurs coexisted with the gigantic plant-eating dinosaurs of this fauna, and these predators were likely the top consumers in the food chain. The teeth also further corroborate the biogeographic model by previous researchers that the carcharodontosaurids were broadly distributed rather than restricted to Gondwana, and this report expands the known non-Gondwanan record of the clade. Gigantic sauropod dinosaurs such as Ruyangosaurus and Huanghetitan ruyangensis were also found in the same area. © 2016, © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Lu J.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Lu J.,Key Laboratory of Stratigraphy and Paleontology | Yi L.,Ganzhou Museum | Brusatte S.L.,University of Edinburgh | And 3 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2014

The iconic tyrannosaurids were top predators in Asia and North America during the latest Cretaceous, and most species had deep skulls that allowed them to generate extreme bite forces. Two unusual specimens of Alioramus from Mongolia seem to indicate a divergent long-snouted body plan among some derived tyrannosaurids, but the rarity and juvenile nature of these fossils leaves many questions unanswered. Here, we describe a remarkable new species of long-snouted tyrannosaurid from the Maastrichtian of southeastern China, Qianzhousaurus sinensis. Phylogenetic analysis places Qianzhousaurus with both species of Alioramus in a novel longirostrine clade, which was geographically widespread across latest Cretaceous Asia and formed an important component of terrestrial ecosystems during this time. The new specimen is approximately twice the size as both Alioramus individuals, showing that the long-snouted morphology was not a transient juvenile condition of deep-snouted species, but a characteristic of a major tyrannosaurid subgroup. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Lu J.-C.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Lu J.-C.,Key Laboratory of Stratigraphy and Paleontology
Acta Geoscientica Sinica | Year: 2015

The feeding behavior of pterosaurs was varied in different groups. Judging by the tooth morphologies and fossilized stomach contents of pterosaurs, the feeding habits included fish-eating, insect-eating, filtering small aquatic organisms, eating shelled crabs and snails, and fruit-eating. Because of the need for survival, they occupied different ecological niches, which determined their different food sources. Herein described is an almost complete, well-preserved hyoid apparatus of Liaoxipterus brachyognathus in comparison with the hyoid apparatus of the modern lizard Chameleon. The long processus lingualis (processus entoglossus) is similar to that of the modern lizard Chameleon, which captures prey by tongue, implying that Liaoxipterus might share a similar lingual feeding behavior. This phenomenon, plus its special tooth morphology, further suggests that it was an insect-eating rather than fish-eating pterosaur. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.

Lu J.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Lu J.,Key Laboratory of Stratigraphy and Paleontology | Kundrat M.,Comenius University | Kundrat M.,University of P.J. Safarik | Shen C.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Although there are nine genera of ctenochasmatoids reported from the Jehol Biota, at present each is known from a specimen that has either a skull or a relatively complete postcranial skeleton. A nearly complete juvenile specimen of Gladocephaloideus from the Lower Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Sihedang, Lingyuan of Liaoning Province is the most complete ctenochasmatoid preserved to date with a skull and postcranial skeleton. Based on the holotype (IG-CAGS 08-07) and the nearly complete new specimen (JPM 2014- 004), the diagnosis of Gladocephaloideus is amended: approximately 50 teeth in total with sharp tips; small nasoantorbital opening, occupying approximately 13% of total skull length; ratio of prenarial rostrum length to skull length approximately 0.63; deep groove along the mid-line of the mandibular symphysis; length to width ratio of the longest cervical vertebra = 4.1; ratio of femur length to tibia length = 0.61; tibia as long as the wing-phalange 1. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Gladocephaloideus within the clade Ctenochasmatidae. Gladocephaloideus has a closer relationship to the Chinese Pterofiltrus rather than to other ctenochasmatid pterosaurs. Microstructure of limb bones implies that JPM 2014-004 represents an early juvenile of Gladocephaloideus jingangshanensis, and that the type specimen is not a fully grown specimen either. We assume that the holotype may equate to the late juvenile or sub-adult developmental stage of Gladocephaloideus. © 2016 Lü et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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