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Zong P.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Zong P.,Key Laboratory of Stratigraphy and Paleontology | Becker R.T.,University of Munster | Ma X.,Peking University
Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments | Year: 2015

Seven ammonoid levels/assemblages are recognised in the Devonian (Famennian) and Carboniferous (Tournaisian) of the northwestern Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, northwestern China. Eleven genera and 20 species, including six new species (Becanites sp. nov., Protactoclymenia junggarensis sp. nov., Prot. magna sp. nov., Cyrtoclymenia? parallela sp. nov., Sporadoceras impressum sp. nov. and “Mimimitoceras” transiens sp. nov.) are described from the Hongguleleng and Heishantou formations in the Bulongguoer, Hebukehe, Emuha and Hashatu sections. The first assemblage is characterised by Platyclymenia subnautilina (Sandberger), Prionoceras frechi (Wedekind) and Sp. impressum sp. nov. It is assigned to the basal upper Famennian Pl. annulata Zone (UD IV-A) and indicates that the global, transgressive Annulata Event enabled the first spread of ammonoids to the region. The second assemblage is characterised by large-sized Cyrtoclymeniaceae (Protactoclymenia and Cyrtoclymenia?) and Sporadoceras aff. muensteri (Münster) and correlates with the orbiculare Zone (UD IV-C) of North Africa, which also contains very large clymeniids and goniatites. The third regional assemblage consists of rare Gonioclymenia sp. and a related, more evolute form. The fourth assemblage is a peculiar Cymaclymenia“Mimimitoceras” fauna, including C. striata (Münster) s.l., C. cf. involvens Lange, Sporadoceras sp., “Mimimitoceras” cf. geminum Korn, “M.” transiens sp. nov. and M. cf. rotersi Korn, most of which are discovered for the first time in the vast Junggar and adjacent areas. Based on conodont (associated Protognathodus fauna) and palynomorph data (LN Zone), this assemblage corresponds to the lower Hangenberg Event Interval (UD VI-E). Rare records from a fifth level suggest that cymaclymeniids survived regionally into the conodont Pr. kockeli Zone, as in other regions. The sixth level consists of a single Lower Tournaisian Acutimitoceras (Stockumites)?. The seventh level also has a low diversity and includes Weyerella angularia (Liang and Wang) and Becanites sp. nov. in the Emuha section. It falls in the Middle Tournaisian, as do Weyerella faunas that were previously reported from the region. The endemic species and the distinctive lack of otherwise widespread genera provide a strong regional signature of the overall ammonoid fauna. © 2014, Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Li S.-P.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Li S.-P.,Key Laboratory of Stratigraphy and Paleontology | Li J.-F.,CAS Institute of Botany | Ferguson D.K.,University of Vienna | And 6 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

Palynomorphs extracted from the sediments in Queque Cave of the late Early Pleistocene in Chongzuo, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region were investigated to reconstruct the paleoenvironment in the study area. While the sediments are pollen-poor, they are sufficiently productive to carry out a paleoenvironmental analysis. The source vegetation reflected by the palynomorphs from the unfossiliferous layer was temperate to warm temperate deciduous and evergreen broadleaved forest while it was warm temperate to subtropical deciduous and evergreen broadleaved forest from the mammalian horizons. Climatic parameters obtained using the Coexistence Approach indicate that the unfossiliferous layer (MAT=11.3-15.4°C, MAP=601.1-1076.1mm) was cooler and drier than that from the mammal-bearing layers (MAT=12.6-18.6°C, MAP=784.7-1523.1mm). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Lu J.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Lu J.,Key Laboratory of Stratigraphy and Paleontology | Yi L.,Ganzhou Museum | Brusatte S.L.,University of Edinburgh | And 3 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2014

The iconic tyrannosaurids were top predators in Asia and North America during the latest Cretaceous, and most species had deep skulls that allowed them to generate extreme bite forces. Two unusual specimens of Alioramus from Mongolia seem to indicate a divergent long-snouted body plan among some derived tyrannosaurids, but the rarity and juvenile nature of these fossils leaves many questions unanswered. Here, we describe a remarkable new species of long-snouted tyrannosaurid from the Maastrichtian of southeastern China, Qianzhousaurus sinensis. Phylogenetic analysis places Qianzhousaurus with both species of Alioramus in a novel longirostrine clade, which was geographically widespread across latest Cretaceous Asia and formed an important component of terrestrial ecosystems during this time. The new specimen is approximately twice the size as both Alioramus individuals, showing that the long-snouted morphology was not a transient juvenile condition of deep-snouted species, but a characteristic of a major tyrannosaurid subgroup. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Lu J.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Lu J.,Key Laboratory of Stratigraphy and Paleontology | Kundrat M.,Comenius University | Kundrat M.,University of P.J. Šafarik | Shen C.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Although there are nine genera of ctenochasmatoids reported from the Jehol Biota, at present each is known from a specimen that has either a skull or a relatively complete postcranial skeleton. A nearly complete juvenile specimen of Gladocephaloideus from the Lower Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Sihedang, Lingyuan of Liaoning Province is the most complete ctenochasmatoid preserved to date with a skull and postcranial skeleton. Based on the holotype (IG-CAGS 08-07) and the nearly complete new specimen (JPM 2014- 004), the diagnosis of Gladocephaloideus is amended: approximately 50 teeth in total with sharp tips; small nasoantorbital opening, occupying approximately 13% of total skull length; ratio of prenarial rostrum length to skull length approximately 0.63; deep groove along the mid-line of the mandibular symphysis; length to width ratio of the longest cervical vertebra = 4.1; ratio of femur length to tibia length = 0.61; tibia as long as the wing-phalange 1. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Gladocephaloideus within the clade Ctenochasmatidae. Gladocephaloideus has a closer relationship to the Chinese Pterofiltrus rather than to other ctenochasmatid pterosaurs. Microstructure of limb bones implies that JPM 2014-004 represents an early juvenile of Gladocephaloideus jingangshanensis, and that the type specimen is not a fully grown specimen either. We assume that the holotype may equate to the late juvenile or sub-adult developmental stage of Gladocephaloideus. © 2016 Lü et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Huang H.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Huang H.,Key Laboratory of Stratigraphy and Paleontology | Jin X.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Jin X.,Key Laboratory of Stratigraphy and Paleontology | Shi Y.,Nanjing University
Journal of Paleontology | Year: 2015

A newly discovered Verbeekina assemblage from the Xiaoxinzhai Section in the Baoshan Block in western Yunnan, China, provides additional data for better understanding fusulinid biostratigraphy and the thermal condition of middle Permian (Guadalupian) seawater of this block. This assemblage comprises 11 species of six genera, including Verbeekina, Pseudodoliolina, Sumatrina, Yangchienia, Xiaoxinzhaiella, and ?Rugosochusenella. The age of this assemblage is considered to be Midian (approximately Capitanian), based on combined evidence of stratigraphic position and specific composition. Furthermore, this assemblage bears two unusual attributes: overwhelming dominance of Verbeekina and relatively low total diversity, compared with coeval fusulinids from South China, which represents a paleo-tropical setting during the middle Permian. These features indicate that the Baoshan Block was probably located in a subtropical setting with warm water during the Midian time; however, its water temperature was still not as optimal as the tropical area (e.g., South China) for the diversification of fusulinids. © 2015, The Paleontological Society.

Lu J.-C.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Lu J.-C.,Key Laboratory of Stratigraphy and Paleontology
Acta Geoscientica Sinica | Year: 2015

The feeding behavior of pterosaurs was varied in different groups. Judging by the tooth morphologies and fossilized stomach contents of pterosaurs, the feeding habits included fish-eating, insect-eating, filtering small aquatic organisms, eating shelled crabs and snails, and fruit-eating. Because of the need for survival, they occupied different ecological niches, which determined their different food sources. Herein described is an almost complete, well-preserved hyoid apparatus of Liaoxipterus brachyognathus in comparison with the hyoid apparatus of the modern lizard Chameleon. The long processus lingualis (processus entoglossus) is similar to that of the modern lizard Chameleon, which captures prey by tongue, implying that Liaoxipterus might share a similar lingual feeding behavior. This phenomenon, plus its special tooth morphology, further suggests that it was an insect-eating rather than fish-eating pterosaur. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.

Huang H.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Huang H.,Key Laboratory of Stratigraphy and Paleontology | Shi Y.-K.,Nanjing University | Jin X.-C.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Jin X.-C.,Key Laboratory of Stratigraphy and Paleontology
Palaeoworld | Year: 2016

Permian fusulinids of the Bawei Section from southern Baoshan Block in western Yunnan, China, adds more data concerning biostratigraphy and paleogeography of this block. These fusulinids comprise 31 species of 11 genera and could be, ascendingly, grouped into two assemblages: Yangchienia-Nankinella assemblage and Chusenella-Rugosofusulina assemblage. The age of both assemblages is determined as late Murgabian-Midian (middle Permian). Regarding taxonomic composition, they are characterized by the dominance of staffellids and rather paucity of neoschwagerinids and verbeekinids, in sharp contrast with coeval fusulinids with prosperous neoschwagerinids and verbeekinids in Nansan-Hewai area, also located in the southern Baoshan Block. Such contemporaneous but disparate taxonomic composition is interpreted as "synchronous but heterogeneous fusulinid biofacies" due to varying depositional environments. The host rocks of fusulinids in the Bawei area suggest a littoral, restricted shallow marine with low to moderate water circulation, whereas the fusulinid-bearing carbonates in the Nansan-Hewai areas indicate a high-energy open platform. This phenomenon cautions that taxonomic variation might only reflect local sedimentary controls, rather than large-scale paleolatitudes, especially when limited fusulinid data among terranes are utilized for paleogeographic reconstruction. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS.

Wu G.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Wu G.,Key Laboratory of Stratigraphy and Paleontology | Ji Z.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Ji Z.,Key Laboratory of Stratigraphy and Paleontology | And 5 more authors.
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2014

The Wenbudangsang section is a newly discovered continuous succession of marine carbonates that straddles the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB), extending from the late Permian to the earliest Triassic (Induan). The section is located in the Wenbudangsang area of Geji County, northern Tibet, and tectonically sits within the northern Gangdise Stratigraphic division. Conodonts are abundant throughout this section, except being comparatively rare and less diverse in the Permian strata below the distinctive PTB Clay Bed.The conodonts are mainly represented by Hindeodus-Isarcicella Pa elements, Neogondolella Pa elements, and ramiform elements, with few Neospathodus Pa elements present at the top of the section. Two conodont zonal successions have thus been determined based on Hindeodus-Isarcicella and Neogondolella species. The Hindeodus-Isarcicella succession includes the uppermost Permian Hindeodus julfensis Zone, Hindeodus praeparvus Zone, and the lowermost Triassic Hindeodus parvus Zone, Isarcicella staeschei Zone, Isarcicella isarcica Zone, and Hindeodus postparvus Zone. The Neogondolella succession consists of the upper Permian Neogondolella changxingensis-Neogondolella deflecta-Neogondolella postwangi Zone, Neogondolella yini-Neogondolella zhangi Zone, Neogondolella meishanensis Zone, the Neogondolella taylorae Zone that crosses the PTB, and the lowermost Triassic Neogondolella krystyni Zone and Neogondolella prediscreta n. sp. Zone. The top of the section is defined by the Neospathodus kummeli Zone and Neospathodus cristagalli Zone. Two new species, Hindeodus microdentatus n. sp. and N. prediscreta n. sp., are established and described in this paper.The PTB conodont successions recognised in the new Wenbudangsang section have been closely correlated herein with other well-known PTB sections: the GSSP Meishan section of South China, sections in Abadeh in Iran, and sections at Spiti in India. Importantly, the conodont faunas from Wenbudangsang now provide an opportunity to effectively correlate the PTB hindeodid and gondolellid zonal schemes given the high abundance of both assemblages, which is unique to this section. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Lu J.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Lu J.,Key Laboratory of Stratigraphy and Paleontology | Xu L.,Henan Geological Museum | Pu H.,Henan Geological Museum | And 4 more authors.
Historical Biology | Year: 2016

Four carcharodontosaurid teeth from the Cretaceous deposits of Ruyang County, Henan Province of central China are described in detail. The discovery of these large teeth indicates that some of the largest predatory dinosaurs coexisted with the gigantic plant-eating dinosaurs of this fauna, and these predators were likely the top consumers in the food chain. The teeth also further corroborate the biogeographic model by previous researchers that the carcharodontosaurids were broadly distributed rather than restricted to Gondwana, and this report expands the known non-Gondwanan record of the clade. Gigantic sauropod dinosaurs such as Ruyangosaurus and Huanghetitan ruyangensis were also found in the same area. © 2016, © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Huang H.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Huang H.,Nanjing University | Shi Y.,Key Laboratory of Stratigraphy and Paleontology | Jin X.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences | Year: 2015

Newly obtained fossil materials together with published data enable a review on the Permian fusulinids of the Gondwana-derived Baoshan Block in western Yunnan, China. The Baoshan Block yields rather impoverish Sakmarian-Yakhtashian fusulinids with just Eoparafusulina and Pseudofusulina in its northern and southern parts. These fusulinids biogeographically demonstrate the feature of peri-Gondwana province and signify a temperate-water condition. Further comparison suggests the Baoshan Block was located distant from the tropical region and even with higher latitude than Central Iran and Central Pamir during the Sakmarian-Yakhtashian. In contrast, Murgabian-Midian fusulinids are more diversified. In the southern Baoshan Block, the Schwagerina assemblage, the Eopolydiexodina assemblage, the Sumatrina assemblage and the Verbeekina assemblage could be recognized in the Xiaoxinzhai area, and the Yangchienia-. Nankinella assemblage and the Chusenella-. Rugosofusulina assemblage in the Bawei area, in ascending order. Contemporaneously, the Neofusulinella assemblage occurs in the northern and the Eopolydiexodina assemblage in the southwestern Baoshan Block respectively. These Murgabian-Midian fusulinids show affinity of western Tethyan province and suggest a warm-water environment. Interestingly, the Midian Verbeekina assemblage is characterized by relatively low diversity and rather abundance of just one genus. Such compositional feature most likely signifies warm but still not optimal sea-surface water for the diversification of fusulinids. Also taking into account of the presence of Verbeekinids and Neoschwagerinids and the moderate total diversity, the Middle Permian fusulinids indicate that the Baoshan Block, during the Murgabian-Midian, was probably located between equatorial region with warm water to the north and the majority of Sibumasu areas lacking Verbeekinids and Neoschwagerinids with temperate water to the south. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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