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Chen C.-H.,Peking University | Jiang Z.,Peking University | Yan J.-H.,Peking University | Yang L.,Peking University | And 5 more authors.
CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Programmed Cell Death 5 (PDCD5) is a protein that accelerates apoptosis in different types of cells in response to various stimuli and is down-regulated in many cancer tissues. We hypothesized in this study that down-regulating PDCD5 can protect the brain from ischemic damage by inhibiting PDCD5-induced apoptotic pathway. Methods: One hundred and sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups: Sham surgery (n = 25), MCAO (n = 45), MCAO+rhPDCD5 (RhPDCD5) (n = 30), MCAO+control siRNA (n = 30), and MCAO+PDCD5 siRNA (n = 30). At 24 h following MCAO, immunohistochemistry and Western blot were performed. Results: PDCD5 siRNA reduced the infarct volume, improved neurological deficits, improved cerebral blood flow (CBF), and reduced Evans blue extravasation. Meanwhile, over-expression of PDCD5 protein with recombinant human PDCD5 (rhPDCD5) had an opposite effect. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot demonstrated PDCD5 siRNA decreased the expressions of key proapoptotic proteins such as p53, Bax/Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3 in the penumbra areas, whereas rhPDCD5 increased cell apoptosis. Double fluorescence labeling showed the positive immunoreactive materials of PDCD5 were partly colocalized with MAP2, GFAP, CD34, p53, and caspase-3 in the penumbra areas in brain. Conclusions: PDCD5-induced apoptosis and over-expression of PDCD5 are harmful to the ischemic neurons in vivo. Meanwhile, the inhibition of PDCD5 may be protective via reducing the apoptotic-related protein such as p53, Bax, and caspase-3. This observation may have potential for the treatment of ischemic cerebral stroke. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Li C.,Peking University | Li C.,Key Laboratory of Microcirculation | Li Q.,Peking University | Li Q.,Key Laboratory of Microcirculation | And 21 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology | Year: 2014

Intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) is a clinical problem occurred for diverse causes with high mortality. Prophylaxis and treatment of intestinal I/R remains a challenge for clinicians. The purpose of the present study was to explore the role of Notoginsenoside R1 (R1), a major component form of Panax notoginseng, in management of intestinal I/R injury. Intestinal I/R was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 90 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min or 3 days. R1 (10 mg·kg-1·h-1) was administered either 20 min before ischemia or 20 min after reperfusion. Intestinal microcirculation was evaluated by intravital microscopy over 60 min reperfusion. Sixty minutes or 3 days after reperfusion, rats were killed for histological examination of the jejunum tissue and immunohistochemical localization of myeloperoxidase and CD68. ATP, ADP, and AMP content in jejunum tissue was assessed by ELISA. Activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and expression of ATP5D and tight junction proteins were determined by Western blotting. The results demonstrated that R1 is capable of attenuating intestinal I/R-induced microvascular hyperpermeability, inflammatory cytokine production, NF-κB activation, and loss of tight junction proteins, as well as improving energy metabolism during I/R. The results of the present study suggest R1 as an option in protecting against intestinal I/R injury. © 2014 the American Physiological Society. Source

Zhang Y.,Peking University | Zhang Y.,Key Laboratory of Microcirculation | Zhang Y.,Key Laboratory of Stasis and Phlegm of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Sun K.,Peking University | And 41 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology | Year: 2014

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the common pathogens that causes mesentery hyperpermeability- and intestinal edema-related diseases. This study evaluated whether ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), an ingredient of a Chinese medicine Panax ginseng, has beneficial effects on mesentery microvascular hyperpermeability induced by LPS and the underlying mechanisms. Male Wistar rats were continuously infused with LPS (5 mg•kg-1•h-1) via the left jugular vein for 90 min. In some rats, Rb1 (5 mg•kg-1•h-1) was administrated through the left jugular vein 30 min after LPS infusion. The dynamics of fluorescein isothiocynate-labeled albumin leakage from mesentery venules was assessed by intravital microscopy. Intestinal tissue edema was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The number of caveolae in endothelial cells of microvessels was examined by electron microscopy. Confocal microscopy and Western blotting were applied to detect caveolin-1 (Cav-1) expression and phosphorylation, junction-related proteins, and concerning signaling proteins in intestinal tissues and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. LPS infusion evoked an increased albumin leakage from mesentery venules that was significantly ameliorated by Rb1 posttreatment. Mortality and intestinal edema around microvessels were also reduced by Rb1. Rb1 decreased caveolae number in endothelial cells of microvessels. Cav-1 expression and phosphorylation, VE-Cadherin phosphorylation, ZO-1 degradation, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, and Src kinase phosphorylation were inhibited by Rb1. Rb1 ameliorated microvascular hyperpermeability after the onset of endotoxemia and improved intestinal edema through inhibiting caveolae formation and junction disruption, which was correlated to suppression of NF-κB and Src activation. © 2014 the American Physiological Society. Source

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