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Cai Q.,Yunnan University | Cai Q.,Yunnan Sugarcane Research Institute of Yunnan Academy of Agriculture science | Cai Q.,Key Laboratory of Southwestern Crop Gene Resources and Germplasm Innovation | Aitken K.S.,CSIRO | And 6 more authors.
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

Erianthus arundinaceus, a wild relative of sugarcane has a number of traits including tolerance to environmental stresses desired by sugarcane breeders. The value of genetic diversity studies in providing useful information for introgression breeding and germplasm conservation is well known. A previous study reported little genetic diversity in a number of Indonesian E. arundinaceus while Indian E. arundinaceus was more diverse. A small number of Chinese E. arundinaceus was observed as being relatively diverse. However, an assessment of the genetic diversity of E. arundinaceus from the major geographical areas in the world has not been reported before. In this study, 207 E. arundinaceus accessions from China, Indonesia, India, New Guinea, Philippines and Vietnam were sampled for genetic diversity analysis using AFLP markers. Three AFLP primer combinations generated 286 markers in total, with the percentage of polymorphism observed being 99.3%. A dendrogram and PCA diagram were constructed based on the matrix of similarity analyzed with UPGMA method by NTSYS software. The results showed that: (1) a high level of diversity found within the Chinese collection compared with the Indonesian collection and (2) there was a general division amongst clones from China based on those collected from eastern versus western parts of the country, and clones from Yunnan province (western China) were the most diverse. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Chen W.-M.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chen W.-M.,Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology | Chen W.-M.,Key Laboratory of Southwestern Crop Gene Resources and Germplasm Innovation | Zhang X.-L.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 13 more authors.
Current Microbiology

The large number of spores produced by edible mushrooms cause many problems, including causing lung disease, depleting natural genetic diversity, and reduced quality of fruiting bodies. Obtaining spore-deficient strains and understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms of such strains are important for breeding work. In this study, we crossed monokaryotic strains isolated from the edible fungi Agrocybe salicacola to obtain three spore-deficient strains with losses of the sterigmata on the surface of the lamella. A mating test revealed that recessive alleles distributed in some strains might control sterigmata development during the mitotic or meiotic phases. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the majority of the genes involved in DNA mismatch repair, base excision repair, and homologous recombination exhibited down-regulated expression patterns in the mutant fruiting bodies. Five genetic fragments, which were highly similar to the GTP-cyclohydrolase encoding gene, the DNA repair gene rad 8, and cell wall integrity and stress response component-encoding genes, were all expressed exclusively in the wild-type strains; these findings provide important information for the study of the spore development of edible fungi. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Xu F.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Xu F.,Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology | Xu F.,Key Laboratory of Southwestern Crop Gene Resources and Germplasm Innovation | A X.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 21 more authors.
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

Due to the rapid diffusion of improved crop varieties, fewer and fewer landraces are being grown by farmers. The on-farm conservation of crop landraces has been proposed as means of conserving potentially important crop germplasm as an alternative to its ex situ conservation in gene banks, but the effectiveness of this approach is unproven. Particular attention is currently focused on producers sited in remote regions. Here, we report the outcomes of a survey focusing on the conservation and utilization of landraces of corn, rice, wheat, barley, buckwheat, broomcorn sorghum, Job's tears (coix), oats and finger, foxtail, broomcorn and barnyard millets grown by 15 ethnic groups from Yunnan province (China). Many local varieties are still in existence through their utilization on-farm. The varietal richness per village sampled was estimated to be 3.5 (maximum of 17), with rice and maize being the most heterogeneous, and glutinous sorghum and barnyard millet the least. Varietal richness was significantly and positively correlated with the number of villages surveyed, the number of families and the head of population. The choice of crops and varieties maintained varied between the ethnic groups, with the more westerly and north westerly situated villages conserving the most landraces. The number of crop species used was negatively correlated with per capita annual income, while the correlation coefficient between varietal richness and per capita annual income was less pronounced. The major factors determining the level of on-farm conservation were remoteness, fragmentation of the arable area and cultural needs. The data provide baseline information for the elaboration of optimal strategies for in situ conservation and utilization of crop germplasm in China. © The Author(s) 2013. Source

Chen W.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chen W.,Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology | Chen W.,Key Laboratory of Southwestern Crop Gene Resources and Germplasm Innovation | Zhang X.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 17 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology

The rare introns with GC-AG border are found in some organisms including human, Caenorhabditis elegans and filamentous fungi with low detection rate of 0.6%-1.2%. In general, this type of introns seem to be related to the alternative splice, and their retention or removal regulate the function of the translated protein. It is necessary to obtain the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) encoding gene from Agrocybe salicacola strain M20 and to understand its splicing characterization. This study cloned the complete gpd gene containing GC-AG intron from single spore isolation M20 of Agrocybe salicacola YAASM0711 by using PCR with genomic sequencing data. The population investigation showed two types of GC-AG introns amplified by special primers, both found in each of the two species A. salicacola and A. aegerita, which indicated that they probably occurred before the species divergence. In addition, alternative splice was not detected in the mycelia of M20 or any development stage of YAASM0711. Gene expression showed the highest mRNA level of gpd existing in young fruiting body, and probably playing an important role during the rapid growth of fruiting body. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first report on the GC-AG introns in gpd gene. The splicing characterization of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase GC-AG introns in genus Agrocybe will provide help for further understanding of GC-AG intron in function and evolution. Source

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