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Liu S.-J.,Hainan Institute of Meteorological science | Liu S.-J.,Key Laboratory of South China Sea Meteorological Disaster Prevention and Mitigation of Hainan Province | Zhou G.-S.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | Fang S.-B.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences
Chinese Journal of Ecology

The characteristics of rubber chilling injury were analyzed by annual integrative chilling injury indexes based on the “rubber chilling injury grade (QX/T 169-2012) ” of China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and the related meteorological data during 1961-2010 in major rubber producing areas in China. The results indicated that rubber radiation chilling injury and advection chilling injury showed obvious spatial differences. The high annual average accumulative temperatures of radiation type rubber chilling injury appeared in Yunnan and Fujian provinces, while the high annual average accumulative temperatures of advection type rubber chilling injury appeared in Guangxi, Fujian, Guangdong provinces and Pingbian of Yunnan Province. The occurrence frequencies of moderate, severe, severe rubber chilling injury showed a decreasing tendency, while light rubber chilling injury showed an increasing tendency during 1961-2010. The average occurrence frequencies of light, medium, heavy and severe rubber chilling injury were 3.50%, 28.24%, 14.93%, and 15.93%, respectively. In Jinghong and Mengna of Yunnan Province and Hainan Island, the occurrence frequencies of rubber chilling injury were far lower than those in the whole study area. The results provide scientific reference for decisionmaking in coping with the rubber chilling injury in China. © 2015, editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Ecology. All rights reserved. Source

Zhang G.,Hainan Institute of Meteorological science | Zhang G.,Key Laboratory of South China Sea Meteorological Disaster Prevention and Mitigation of Hainan Province | Yang L.,Hainan University
Wuhan Daxue Xuebao (Xinxi Kexue Ban)/Geomatics and Information Science of Wuhan University

The traditional geostatistical model requires regional precipitation fulfills assumption of multivariate normal distribution in order to estimate the probability density function (PDF) of any ungauged location. And the classical statistical model describes precipitation of any ungauged location using only one PDF. The study attempted to use copula-based geostatistical technology to model the uncertainty of monthly precipitation at any ungauged location and compare it with the above two methods. A case study showed that Copula-based geostatistical model could get the PDF of any ungauged location, which not only depended on the density of the observation network, but also on the magnitude of the measurements and the coverage of cross-validation confidence intervals was better than that of the ordinary Kriging and ordinary Kriging with Box-Cox transformation. ©, 2015, Wuhan University. All right reserved. Source

Liu S.,Hainan Institute of Meteorological science | Liu S.,Key Laboratory of South China Sea Meteorological Disaster Prevention and Mitigation of Hainan Province | Zhou G.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | Fang S.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica

The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) originated in Brazil and was a typical tropical plant with thermophilic and hygrophilous characteristics, sensitive to strong winds. As an untraditional planting area, South China frequently sees tropical cyclones and cold-weather damage to plants. Thus, the climatic conditions were the key factor affecting the planting of the rubber tree in China. The safe northern planting boundary of the rubber tree was guided by the desire to effectively avoid cold-weather damage and strong winds. Various studies (since 1980s) on the suitability of rubber tree planting in China have discussed the northern planting boundary of the rubber tree and provided a rationale for the planting, which promoted development of the rubber tree industry in China. Rubber production was concentrated in the suitable climatic conditions, and regional layout was becoming more suitable gradually. Chinese researchers have developed cold- and wind- resistant strains of the rubber tree and a good base of rubber production. Nowadays, Hainan, Yunnan, and Guangdong Provinces in South China are suitable for rubber tree cultivation, and the amount of rubber trees is increasing continuously. Nevertheless, climate change has seriously influenced temperature and precipitation on the global and regional scale and is expected to affect the rubber tree cultivation system. The existing research on Chinese rubber tree cultivation has been limited by the shortage of early climatic data and by the insufficient number of meteorological stations. Particularly, climatic factors that affect rubber tree cultivation have been mainly selected in accordance with practical experience, and researchers did not consider the comprehensive effects of all climatic factors on cultivation of the rubber tree. These factors influenced the boundary of rubber tree cultivation and are important for accurate assessment of suitability of rubber tree planting, for planning of rubber tree plantations, and for formulating response measures to climate change decision-making. Accordingly, the five main climatic factors, i.e., mean temperature of the coldest month, mean extremely low temperature, the number of monthly days with mean temperature ≥18 °C, mean annual temperature, and mean annual precipitation, were confirmed by the maximum entropy model based on the geographical distribution of rubber tree cultivation and the corresponding climatic data. The northern planting boundary of the rubber tree was selected at the 80% rate of climate guarantee, which is believed to correspond to a high and stable yield of rubber cultivation. This boundary covered the actual main production area of rubber tree plantations in China. The maximum entropy model that we used to confirm the northern planting boundary of rubber tree plantations in China has certain advantages over other methods according to comparison with the existing research results. The maximum entropy model can fully take into account the intrinsic interactions of various factors, to a certain extent, it can overcome the interference by the artificial division factor range and then more objectively predict the potential spatial distribution of Chinese rubber tree planting. This model can prevent blind planting of rubber trees with consequent waste of human labor, materials, and financial resources. Therefore, the maximum entropy model should help to rationally choose a geographic location for rubber production. Nevertheless, the northern planting boundary of the rubber tree was ascertained to offer the 80% rate of climate resource guarantee. Thus, the northern boundary has essentially been a rubber stable and a high-yield planting boundary. Our results should facilitate scientific decision-making regarding distribution of rubber tree planting as well as disaster prevention and mitigation in China. © 2016, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved. Source

Xie M.,Nanjing University | Xie M.,Key Laboratory of South China Sea Meteorological Disaster Prevention and Mitigation of Hainan Province | Xie M.,Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Climate Change | Zhu K.-G.,Nanjing University | And 7 more authors.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science

In this study, the temporal and spatial variations of anthropogenic heat flux over China as well as the relevant influence factors were investigated by using the province depended unregenerate energy consumption data from Chinese Statistical Yearbook and the gridding population data with a resolution of 2.5 min. The results show that the anthropogenic heat flux in China has been increased continually since 1985, especially in the period after 2000. The national average anthropogenic heat flux has been increased from 0.09 to 0.16 W/m2 during the period between 1985 and 2000 while to 0.38 W/m2 till 2013. The spatial distributions of anthropogenic heat flux are similar to those of population and economy activities. High levels of the fluxes are mostly found in Central (Wuhan), Northeast (Dalian, Shenyang, Changchun and Harbin), East and South China, with a maximum annual mean value of 113.5 W/m2 in Shanghai in 2010, while the lower ones appear in Northwest and Southwest China except for Chengdu and Chongqing. The annual growth of anthropogenic heat flux in Shanghai can reach to 0.6 W/m2. Our results might imply that the thermal pollution would get more serious with the rapid growth of the urbanization, which thereby would substantially result in regional climate change and air pollution. ©, 2015, Chinese Society for Environmental Sciences. All right reserved. Source

Fu C.-B.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Fu C.-B.,Key Laboratory of South China Sea Meteorological Disaster Prevention and Mitigation of Hainan Province | Chen Y.-L.,Key Laboratory of South China Sea Meteorological Disaster Prevention and Mitigation of Hainan Province | Dan L.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Tang J.-X.,Key Laboratory of South China Sea Meteorological Disaster Prevention and Mitigation of Hainan Province
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science

The temporal-spatial characteristics of the tropospheric column NO2 (TroNO2) and total column NO2 (TotNO2) over Hainan Island are analyzed using remote sensing data derived from OMI sensor, and also combining surface wind, SO2, HYSPLIT model to research the source of atmospheric pollutants over Hainan Island. The results show that: The value of NO2 in northern area is higher than that in southern area, and the value of NO2 in central mountainous area is lower than those other places. In addition, the seasonal variation of NO2 indicates that NO2 is higher in winter and lower in summer, which can be attributed to precipitation in summer and external transport of atmospheric pollutants in winter. Long-term changes of NO2 in Hainan Island appear opposite trends during winter and summer, which is declining in winter and has a weak increase in summer. The reasonable explanation is that local emissions of pollutants play an important role in summer, but external transport is the main resource of pollutants over Hainan Island. The TroNO2 in Haikou City has a good relationship with favorable delivered days in PRD, the correlation coefficient is 0.84 with 99% confidence level. Moreover, there are 3 transport paths in Dec. 2013 which can impact Haikou City from backward trajectory analysis, but all of them pass through the PRD, which can further prove that atmospheric pollutants of Hainan Island in winter are mainly delivery from PRD region. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved. Source

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